World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
The Piccirilli Brothers were an Italian family of renowned marble carvers and sculptors who carved a large number of the most significant marble sculptures in the United States, including Daniel Chester French’s colossal Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D. C. In 1888, Giuseppe Piccirilli, a well-known stone carver and a veteran of Garibaldi's Unification war, brought his family to New York City from Massa in the province of Massa Carrara, in Tuscany, Italy; the entire family and six sons—Ferruccio, Furio, Masaniello and Getulio —were trained as marble cutters and carvers. Although the Piccirilli Brothers were known as architectural modelers and the carvers of other sculptors’ works and Furio would further distinguish themselves as sculptors in their own right; the family lived in a brownstone on 142nd Street in the Mott Haven section of the Bronx and set up a workshop next to their home that would occupy an entire city block. At that time most prominent sculptors would create their original work in clay.
From that clay model a caster would generate a plaster model. The model would be sent to the Piccirilli Brothers who would carve it from stone marble, although limestone and granite were used; the brothers became the carvers of choice for a large number of American sculptors of the time including Daniel Chester French and Paul Wayland Bartlett. Besides their work as carvers the Piccirilli Brothers created architectural detailing and embellishments for a large number of public and private buildings. One of the great losses in American art history occurred when the Piccirilli Brothers studio closed its doors and no move was made to secure their records, so the accounts of much of what they had accomplished was lost. USS Maine National Monument, H. Van Buren Magonigle, Atillio Piccirilli, sculptor 1913. Firemen's Memorial, H. Van Buren Magonigle, Atillio Piccirilli, sculptor figures of Courage and Duty 1913: Riverside Park at 100th Street, New York City Much of the stonework on the California Building and the attached buildings at the Panama-California Exposition.
Manitoba Legislative Building, 1919, Simon and Boddington, figures of Sieur de La Vérendrye and Lord Selkirk, plus many architectural figures and details, Manitoba Riverside Church, Riverside Drive, NYC 1931 Washington Square Arch, Stanford White, New York City. Spandrel figures, Frederick MacMonnies, sculptor. George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, Accompanied by Fame and Valor, Hermon Atkins MacNeil, sculptor. George Washington as President, Accompanied by Wisdom and Justice, Alexander Stirling Calder. New York Stock Exchange, George B. Post, New York City. Pedimental sculpture: Integrity Protecting the Works of Man, John Quincy Adams Ward and Paul Bartlett, sculptors U. S. Custom House, Cass Gilbert, New York City; the Four Continents, Daniel Chester French, sculptor 12 cornice statues, Charles Grafly, Frederick Ruckstull, Augustus Lukeman, other sculptors Civic Virtue Fountain, Frederick MacMonnies, Thomas Hastings, architect. Created for New York City Hall Park, moved in 1941 to Queens Borough Hall, moved to Green-Wood Cemetery in 2012.
Pennsylvania State Capitol sculpture groups, George Grey Barnard, Joseph Miller Huston, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Brooklyn Museum, McKim and White, Brooklyn, New York City. Pedimental sculpture: Science and Art, Daniel Chester French and Adolph Alexander Weinman, sculptors 30 cornice figures, Augustus Lukeman, Karl Bitter, Charles Keck, Janet Scudder, Herbert Adams, Carl Heber and others, Pedimental sculpture: Apotheosis of Democracy, House of Representatives Wing, United States Capitol, Paul Bartlett, Thomas U. Walter, Washington, D. C. New York Public Library, Carrère and Hastings, New York City. Pedimental sculptures: The Arts and History, George Grey Barnard, sculptor 6 cornice figures, each 11-foot-tall, Paul Wayland Bartlett, sculptor 2 lions, flanking the entrance, Edward Clark Potter, sculptor. Death and the Sculptor, Daniel Chester French, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Carved from French's 1893 plaster model. Abraham Lincoln, Daniel Chester French, Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D. C. DuPont Circle Fountain, Daniel Chester French, Henry Bacon, Washington, D.
C. Tomb of the Unknowns, Thomas Hudson Jones, Lorimer Rich, Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia Yule Marble Baker, Manitoba’s Third Legislative Building: Symbols in Stone: The At and Politics of a Public Building, Hyperion Press Limited, Manitoba 1986 Balfour, Rockefeller Center – Architecture As Theater, McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY, NY 1978 Bogart, Michele H. Public Sculpture and the Civic Ideal in New York City: 1890–1930, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1989 Contemporary American Sculpture Issued for the Exhibition held by the National Sculpture Society in Cooperation with the Trustees of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, MCMXXIX, National Sculpture Society, NY 1929 Gardner, Albert Ten Eyck, American Sculpture: A catalogue of the Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1965 Kvaran, Einar Einarsson and Walt Lockley, Guide to Architectural Sculpture in America, unpublished manuscript Lombardo, Josef Vincent, Atilio Piccirilli: Life of an American Sculptor, Pit
A beer bottle is a bottle designed as a container for beer. Such designs vary in size and shape, but the glass is brown or green to reduce spoilage from light ultraviolet; the most established alternatives to glass containers for beer in retail sales are beverage cans and aluminum bottles. Bottling lines are production lines; the process is as follows: 1) Filling a bottle in a filling machine involves drawing beer from a holding tank 2) Capping the bottle, labeling it and 3) Packing the bottles into cases or cartons. Many smaller breweries send their bulk beer to large facilities for contract bottling—though some will bottle by hand; the first step in bottling beer is depalletising, where the empty bottles are removed from the original packaging delivered from the manufacturer, so that individual bottles may be handled. The bottles may be rinsed with filtered water or air, may have carbon dioxide injected into them in attempt to reduce the level of oxygen within the bottle; the bottle enters a "filler" which fills the bottle with beer and may inject a small amount of inert gas on top of the beer to disperse oxygen, as O2 can ruin the quality of the product by oxidation.
Next the bottle enters a labelling machine. The product is packed into boxes and warehoused, ready for sale. Depending on the magnitude of the bottling endeavour, there are many different types of bottling machinery available. Liquid level machines fill bottles so they appear to be filled to the same line on every bottle, while volumetric filling machines fill each bottle with the same amount of liquid. Overflow pressure fillers are the most popular machines with beverage makers, while gravity filling machines are most cost effective. In terms of automation, inline filling machines are most popular, but rotary machines are much faster albeit much more expensive. A short glass bottle used for beer is called a stubby, or a steinie. Shorter and flatter than standard bottles, stubbies pack into a smaller space for transporting; the steinie was introduced in the 1930s by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company and derived their name from their similarity to the shape of a beer stein, emphasized in marketing.
The bottles are sometimes made with thick glass so that the bottle can be cleaned and reused before being recycled. The capacity of a stubby is somewhere between 330 and 375 ml; the Canadian stubby bottle was traditionally 341 ml while the U. S. longneck was 355 ml. Some of the expected advantages of stubby bottles are: ease of handling. After the relaxation of Prohibition in the U. S. in 1936, many breweries began marketing beer in steel cans. The glass industry responded by devising short bottles with little necks, nicknamed stubbies, types with short necks were called steinies. Capacities varied, with 12oz being the most common size used for soft drinks; the steinie dominated in the U. S. by 1950, the neck became longer, such as seen with the familiar Budweiser bottle. Stubbies were popular in Canada until the 1980s. Today, standard SP Lager from Papua New Guinea is one of the few beers still sold in 12oz neckless stubbies; the U. S. steinie shape now dominates for small beer bottles the world over, in sizes from half-pint to the European 500ml.
The word stubbie is now only in common use in Australia. Stubbies are used extensively in Europe, were used exclusively in Canada from 1962 to 1986 as part of a standardization effort intended to reduce breakage, the cost of sorting bottles when they were returned by customers. Due to their nostalgic value, stubbies were reintroduced by a number of Canadian craft brewers in the early 2000s. In the U. S. stubbies have fallen out of favour, with only a few brands still using them such as the Session Lager by the Full Sail Brewing Company, Switchback Brewing Co in Burlington, VT, Red Stripe, a Jamaican brand import. Coors Brewing Company uses the stubby form for nostalgic packaging of Coors Banquet. Belgian beer is packaged in 330 ml bottles in four or six packs, or in 750 ml bottles similar to those used for Champagne; some beers lambics and fruit lambics are bottled in 375 ml servings. Through the latter part of the 20th century, most British brewers used a standard design of bottle, known as the London Brewers' Standard.
This was in brown glass, with a conical medium neck in the pint and with a rounded shoulder in the half-pint and nip sizes. Pints, defined as 568 ml, half-pints, or 284 ml were the most common, but some brewers bottled in nip and quart sizes, it was for example barley wines that were bottled in nips, Midlands breweries such as Shipstone of Nottingham that bottled in quarts. This standardisation simplified the automation of bottling and made it easier for customers to recycle bottles as they were interchangeable, they carried a deposit charge, which in the 1980s rose to seven pence for a pint and five pence for a half-pint. Some brewers however used individual bottle designs: among these were Samuel Smith, which used an embossed clear bottle, Scottish and Newcastle, which used a clear bottle for their Newcastle Brown Ale. Other brewers such as T
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was an American architect celebrated for his work in Gothic Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival design. He designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press. In life, Goodhue freed his architectural style with works like El Fureidis in Montecito, one of the three estates designed by Goodhue. Goodhue was born in Pomfret, Connecticut to Charles Wells Goodhue and his second wife, Helen Grosvenor Goodhue. Due to financial constraints he was educated at home by his mother until, at age 11 years, he was sent to Russell's Collegiate and Commercial Institute. Finances prevented him from attending university, but he received an honorary degree from Trinity College in Connecticut in 1911. In lieu of formal training, in 1884 he moved to Manhattan, New York City, to apprentice at the architectural firm of Renwick and Russell. Goodhue's apprenticeship ended in 1891. After completing his apprenticeship, Goodhue moved to Boston Massachusetts, where he was befriended by a group of young, artistic intellectuals involved in the founding of the Society of Arts and Crafts - Boston in 1897.
This circle included Charles Eliot Norton of Harvard University and Ernest Fenollosa of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. It was through this group that Goodhue met Ralph Adams Cram, who would be his business partner for 25 years. Cram and Goodhue were members of several societies, including the "Pewter Mugs" and the "Visionists". In 1892–1893 they published a quarterly art magazine called The Knight Errant; the multitalented Goodhue was a student of book design and type design. In 1896, he created the Cheltenham typeface for use by Cheltenham Press; this typeface came to be used as the headline type for The New York Times. In 1891, Cram and Goodhue formed the architectural firm of Cram and Goodhue, renamed Cram and Ferguson in 1898; the firm was a leader in Neo-Gothic architecture, with significant commissions from ecclesiastical and institutional clients. The Gothic Revival Saint Thomas Church was designed by them and built in 1914 on Manhattan's Fifth Avenue in New York City. In 1915, Goodhue accepted membership to what is known now as the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
In 1917, Goodhue was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, became a full Academician in 1923. When Goodhue left to begin his own practice in 1914, Cram had created his dreamed of Gothic Revival commission at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City, continued to work in the Gothic style mode for the rest of his career. Goodhue, in departed into a series of radically different stylistic experiments over his independent career, his first was the Byzantine Revival style for St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church on New York City's Park Avenue, built on a new platform just above the Grand Central Terminal railyards. In California, in 1915, Bertram Goodhue re-interpreted masterful Spanish Baroque and Spanish Colonial architecture complete with the latter's traditional Churrigueresque detailing into what became known as the Spanish Colonial Revival Style of architecture; this was for the significant commission of the El Prado Quadrangle's layout and buildings at the major 1915 Panama-California Exposition, located in San Diego's Balboa Park.
He was the lead architect, taking over from Irving Gill, with Carleton Winslow Sr. and Lloyd Wright assisting. The Panama-California Exposition's style was seen by many and published, becoming influential in California and the Southern and Southwestern United States, it led to California's assimilation of Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture as its dominant historical regional style, which continues to this day. The singular style for the rebuilding of Santa Barbara after its 1925 destruction by a major earthquake was drawn from the local Mission Revival and Goodhue's Panama-California Exposition Spanish Colonial Revival style trends. Examples of influential private Californian commissions, both extant registered landmarks now, are his 1906 J. Waldron Gillespie Estate El Fureidis and 1915 Dater - Wright Ludington Estate Dias Felices — Val Verde in Montecito. Goodhue and Gillespie had done a six-month research and acquisitions tour together through Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula before collaborating on the classic Persian gardens layout and Roman and Spanish Colonial Revival residence at El Fureidis.
Goodhue's Spanish Colonial Revival style work went on to dominate the Hawaiian architecture of public buildings and estate residences during the 1920s building boom in the Territory of Hawaii. Goodhue's architectural creations became freed of architectural detail and more Romanesque in form, although he remained dedicated to the integration of sculpture, mosaic work, color in his surface architectural details. Towards the end of his career, he arrived at a personal style, a synthesis of simplified form and a generalized archaic quality, those innovations paved the way for others to transition to modern architectural idioms; this style is seen in his last major projects: the 1926 Mediterranean revival and Egyptian revival Los Angeles Public Library. Goodhue died in 1924 in New York City, he was interred within a wall vault in the north transept of his Church of the Intercession, at his request in the building he considered his finest. Architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie created a Gothic styled tomb for him there, featuring Go
Balboa Park (San Diego)
Balboa Park is a 1,200-acre urban cultural park in San Diego, United States. In addition to open space areas, natural vegetation zones, green belts and walking paths, it contains museums, several theaters, the world-famous San Diego Zoo. There are many recreational facilities and several gift shops and restaurants within the boundaries of the park. Placed in reserve in 1835, the park's site is one of the oldest in the United States dedicated to public recreational use. Balboa Park is managed and maintained by the Parks and Recreation Department of the City of San Diego. Balboa Park hosted the 1915–16 Panama–California Exposition and 1935–36 California Pacific International Exposition, both of which left architectural landmarks; the park and its historic Exposition buildings were declared a National Historic Landmark and National Historic Landmark District in 1977, placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Balboa Park contains museums, gardens and venues; the park is rectangular, bounded by Sixth Avenue to the west, Upas Street to the north, 28th Street to the east, Russ Boulevard to the south.
The rectangle has been modified by the addition of the Marston Hills natural area in the northwest corner of the park, while the southwest corner of the rectangle is occupied by a portion of the Cortez Hill neighborhood of Downtown San Diego and San Diego High School, both of which are separated from the park by Interstate 5. Encroaching on the northern perimeter of the park is Roosevelt Middle School. Two north-south canyons—Cabrillo Canyon and Florida Canyon—traverse the park and separate it into three mesas; the Sixth Avenue Mesa is a narrow strip bordering Sixth Avenue on the western edge of the park, which provides areas of passive recreation, grassy spaces, tree groves. The Central Mesa is home to much of the park's cultural facilities, includes scout camps, the San Diego Zoo, the Prado, Inspiration Point. East Mesa is home to many of the active recreation facilities in the park; the park is crossed by several freeways, which take up a total of 111 acres once designated for parkland. In 1948, California State Route 163 was built under the Cabrillo Bridge.
This stretch of road named the Cabrillo Freeway, has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways. A portion of Interstate 5 was built in the park in the 1950s. Surrounding the park are many of San Diego's older neighborhoods, including Downtown, Bankers Hill, North Park, Golden Hill. Balboa Park is a primary attraction in the region, its many mature, sometimes rare and groves comprise an urban forest. Many of the original trees were planted by the renowned American landscape architect, botanist and gardener Kate Sessions. An early proponent of drought tolerant and California native plants in garden design, Sessions established a nursery to propagate and grow for the park and the public; the park's gardens include Alcazar Garden, Botanical Building, Desert Cactus Garden, Casa del Rey Moro Garden, Inez Grant Parker Memorial Rose Garden, Japanese Friendship Garden, Bird Park, George W. Marston House and Gardens, Palm Canyon, Zoro Garden; the main entrance to the park is through the California Quadrangle.
That entry is a two-lane road providing vehicle access to the park. A plan to divert vehicle traffic around to the south of the California Quadrangle, so as to restore it as a pedestrian-only promenade, was dropped after legal challenges, but was reapproved after the legal challenges failed and is scheduled for completion in 2019. El Prado, a long, wide promenade and boulevard, runs through the park's center. Most of the buildings lining this street are in the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style, a richly ornamented mixture of European Spanish architecture and the Spanish Colonial architecture of New Spain-Mexico. Along this boulevard are many of the park's museums and cultural attractions, including the San Diego Museum of Man, the San Diego Museum of Art, the Museum of Photographic Arts, the San Diego Art Institute, the San Diego Model Railroad Museum, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the San Diego History Center, the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center, the Timken Museum of Art. Other features along El Prado include the Reflection Pond, the latticed Botanical Building, the Bea Evenson Fountain.
Next to the promenade are the San Diego Automotive Museum. Theatrical and musical venues include the Spreckels Organ Pavilion, featuring one of the world's largest outdoor pipe organs; the Casa Del Prado Theater is the home of San Diego Junior Theatre, the country's oldest children's theatre program. The House of Pacific Relations International Cottages collected on El Prado offer free entertainment shows; the Botanical Building, designed by Carleton Winslow, was the largest wood lath structure in the world when it was built in 1915 for the Panama-California Exposition. It contains large specimen palms and other plants and sits next to a long reflecting pool on the El Prado side. Located in the eastern third of the park is the Morley Field Sports Complex, which includes the Balboa Park Golf Complex, which contains a public 18-hole golf course and 9-hole executive course. Among the institutions and facilities within the park's borders but not administere
Guatemala the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; the territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved by 1841. From the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company and the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms.
A U. S.-backed military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military. Since a United Nations-negotiated peace accord, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections, though it continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, drug trade, instability; as of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot; the name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees" or more for the Cuate/Cuatli tree Eysenhardtia. This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory.
The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC. There is archaeological proof. Pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, Sipacate and Escuintla on the central Pacific coast. Archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, the Postclassic period; until the Preclassic was regarded as a formative period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts, few permanent buildings. However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; the Classic period of Mesoamerican civilization corresponds to the height of the Maya civilization, is represented by countless sites throughout Guatemala, although the largest concentration is in Petén.
This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states, contact with other Mesoamerican cultures. This lasted until 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed; the Maya abandoned many of the cities of the central lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the drought theory is gaining currency, supported by evidence such as lakebeds, ancient pollen, others. A series of prolonged droughts, among other reasons such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya, who relied on regular rainfall; the Post-Classic period is represented by regional kingdoms, such as the Itza, Kowoj and Kejache in Petén, the Mam, Ki'che', Chajoma, Tz'utujil, Poqomchi', Q'eqchi' and Ch'orti' in the highlands. Their cities preserved many aspects of Maya culture; the Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region.
Advances such as writing and the calendar did not originate with the Maya. Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Northern El Salvador to as far north as central Mexico, more than 1,000 km from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to be the result of trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest. After they arrived in the New World, the Spanish started several expeditions to Guatemala, beginning in 1519. Before long, Spanish contact resulted in an epidemic. Hernán Cortés, who had led the Spanish conquest of Mexico, granted a permit to Captains Gonzalo de Alvarado and his brother, Pedro de Alvarado, to conquer this land. Alvarado at first allied himself with the Kaqchikel nation to fight against their traditional rivals the K'iche' nation