Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Public broadcasting includes radio and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. In much of the world, funding comes from the government, the great majority are operated as private not-for-profit corporations. Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally operated, depending on the country, in some countries, public broadcasting is run by a single organization. Other countries have multiple public broadcasting organizations operating regionally or in different languages, public broadcasting was once the dominant or only form of broadcasting in many countries. Commercial broadcasting now exists in most of countries, the number of countries with only public broadcasting declined substantially during the latter part of the 20th century. The primary mission of public broadcasting that of service, speaking to. The British model has been accepted as a universal definition. In the context of a national identity, the role of public broadcasting may be unclear. Likewise, the nature of good programming may raise the question of individual or public taste.
Within public broadcasting there are two different views regarding commercial activity, one is that public broadcasting is incompatible with commercial objectives. The other is that public broadcasting can and should compete in the marketplace with commercial broadcasters and this dichotomy is highlighted by the public service aspects of traditional commercial broadcasters. Public broadcasters in each jurisdiction may or may not be synonymous with government controlled broadcasters, in some countries like the UK public broadcasters are not sanctioned by government departments and have independent means of funding, and thus enjoy editorial independence. Public broadcasters may receive their funding from a television licence fee, individual contributions. One of the principles of broadcasting is to provide coverage of interests for which there are missing or small markets. Public broadcasting attempts to supply topics of social benefit that are not provided by commercial broadcasters. Typically, such underprovision is argued to exist when the benefits to viewers are relatively high in comparison to the benefits to advertisers from contacting viewers and this frequently is the case in undeveloped countries that normally have low benefits to advertising.
Additionally, public broadcasting may facilitate the implementation of a cultural policy, examples include, The Canadian government is committed to official bilingualism. As a result, the broadcaster, the CBC employs translators
KQED, virtual channel 9, is a PBS member television station located in San Francisco, United States. The station is owned by Northern California Public Broadcasting, through subsidiary KQED, Inc. alongside fellow PBS station KQEH, KQED maintains studios located on Mariposa Street in San Franciscos Mission District, and its transmitter is located atop Sutro Tower. KQEDs signal is relayed on satellite station KQET in Watsonville, which serves the Monterey/Salinas/Santa Cruz market, the stations call letters, Q. E. D. are taken from the Latin phrase, quod erat demonstrandum, commonly used in mathematics. One of KQEDs early local programs was World Press, a weekly roundup of international news stories analyzed by a panel of political analysts. Panel members, who were political science analysts specializing in each specific global area and it was developed by San Francisco Supervisor Roger Boas, who brought his long-term interest in government, politics and business to the show. The program summed up the reaction to such events as the Kennedy assassinations.
What started as a public access program with no financial support became the longest continuously running discussion program televised on approximately 185 stations. In its early days following the stations sign-on, KQED broadcast only twice a week for one each day. Despite the very limited schedule, the station was losing money. While the station came a little short, it did show that the general public cared to keep KQED on the air. KQED was best known in the late 60s and throughout the 1970s, as one of the few public stations in the country to have its own nightly news show. For many years, the show was anchored by Belva Davis, Newsroom grew out of a 1968 newspaper strike in San Francisco. Journalists from the newspapers began reporting their stories on KQED. The staff produced feature news stories for the MacNeil/Lehrer Newshour. In 1970, KQED inherited KNEW-TV from Metromedia, but found they could not operate it without losing money, various PBS and locally produced programs from KQED would air erratically and at different times of the day on KQEC.
The alleged dishonesty was in reference to KQEDs claim of financial woes for keeping KQEC off the air for most of 1972 through 1977, after being revoked from KQEDs hands, the reassigned license was granted to the Minority Television Project, one of the challengers of the KQED/KQEC filing. The KQEC call letters were changed to KMTP-TV under the new license, the decision to pursue the videotaping of executions was controversial amongst those on both sides of the capital punishment debate. KQED was co-producer of the adaptation of Armistead Maupins novel, Tales of the City
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
San Francisco Review of Books
San Francisco Review of Books was a book review periodical published from the mid-1970s to 1997 in the Bay Area. Founding editor-publisher Ronald Nowicki launched his publication April 1975, a time when the San Francisco Chronicle depended on the services for its reviews. SFRB began as a magazine and adopted a tabloid format, in addition to his editors column, Nowicki wrote occasional reviews. Susie Bright was a columnist from 1992 to 1994, despite the limited funding, SFRB was published regularly under Nowickis editorship until the late 1980s. When it was sold in 1989, Nowicki was retained as editor for one year until a successor was installed and his articles have appeared in The New York Times, North American Review and other publications. Nowicki has been active in the Polish communities in San Francisco and London, SFRB can be found in several major libraries, including the New York Public Library, the San Francisco Public Library, and the Library of the University of California at Berkeley
James Andrew Beard was an American cookbook author, syndicated columnist and television personality. Beard was a champion of American cuisine who taught and mentored generations of professional chefs and his legacy lives on in twenty books, other writings and his foundations annual James Beard awards in a number of culinary genres. James Andrew Beard was born in Portland, Oregon, in 1903 to Elizabeth and his mother operated the Gladstone Hotel, and his father worked at the citys customs house. The family vacationed on the Pacific coast in Gearhart, Beards earliest memory of food was at the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition, when he was two years old. In his memoir he recalled, I was taken to the two or three times. The thing that remained in my mind above all others—I think it marked my life—was watching Triscuits, at two years old that memory was made. It intrigued the hell out of me, according to Beard he was raised by Thema and Let, who instilled in him a passion for Chinese culture. Beard lived in France during the 1920s, where he experienced French cuisine at its bistros, after this exposure and the widespread influence of French food culture, he became a Francophile.
Beard briefly attended Reed College in Portland, although he was expelled for homosexuality in 1922, the college granted Beard an honorary degree in 1976. In 1923 he joined a troupe and studied voice and theater abroad until 1927. After training as a singer and actor, Beard moved to New York City in 1937, unlucky in the theater, he and friend Bill Rhodes capitalized on the cocktail party craze by opening Hors dOeuvre, Inc. a catering company. This led to lecturing, teaching and the publication of Beards first cookbook in 1940, Hors DOeuvre and Canapés, according to Julia Child, this book put him on the culinary map. World War II rationing ended Beards catering business, in 1946 he appeared on an early NBC television cooking show, I Love to Eat, beginning his ascent as an American food authority. According to Child, Through the years he became not only the leading culinary figure in the country. In 1952, when Helen Evans Brown published her Helen Browns West Coast Cook Book, the two, along with her husband Phillip, developed a friendship which was both professional and personal.
Beard and Brown became like siblings and encouraging each other, according to the James Beard Foundation website, In 1955, he established The James Beard Cooking School. He continued to teach cooking to men and women for the thirty years, both at his own schools, and around the country at womens clubs, other cooking schools. He was a traveler, bringing his message of good food, honestly prepared with fresh, American ingredients
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published. Magazines are generally published on a schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally financed by advertising, by a price, by prepaid subscriptions. At its root, the magazine refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles and this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at three, with the standard sizing being 8 3/8 ×10 7/8 inches. However, in the sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume. Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy, academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are generally professional magazines.
That a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense, magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations. The subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a basis or by subscription. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics and this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed and this is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers, often for free and determined by some form of survey. This allows a level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertisers target audience.
This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, for the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International. The earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, the Gentlemans Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentlemans Magazine under the pen name Sylvanus Urban, was the first to use the term magazine, founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine