A fireboat is a specialized watercraft with pumps and nozzles designed for fighting shoreline and shipboard fires. The first fireboats, dating to the late 18th century, were tugboats, older designs derived from tugboats and modern fireboats more closely resembling seafaring ships can both be found in service today. Some departments would give their multi-purpose craft the title of fireboat and they are frequently used for fighting fires on docks and shore side warehouses as they can directly attack fires in the supporting underpinnings of these structures. They have an unlimited supply of water available, pumping directly from below the hull. Some modern fireboats are capable of pumping tens of thousands of gallons of water per minute. An example is Fire Boat #2 of the Los Angeles Fire Department, fireboats are most usually seen by the public when welcoming a fleet or historical ships with a display of their water moving capabilities, throwing large arcs of water in every direction. Occasionally fireboats are used to carry firefighters, Emergency Medical Technicians, some may be used as icebreakers, like the Chicago Fire Departments Victor L.
Schlaeger which can break 8 to 12 inch ice. They may carry divers or surface water rescue workers, passengers from ships in danger can be transferred to various kind of rescue boats. Also hydrocopters, rigid-hulled inflatable boats and even hovercrafts and helicopters are used in fire, cities with fireboats are usually located on a large body of water with port facilities. Smaller fire departments lacking resources will use rigid-hulled inflatable boat or borrow boats from local rescue agencies, the first recorded fire-float was built in 1765 for the Sun Fire Insurance Company in London. This was a pump in a small boat, rowed by its crew to the scene of the fire. A similar craft was built in Bristol by James Hillhouse for the Imperial Fire Insurance Office in the 1780s. All fire fighting in Bristol was carried out either by private companies or the Docks Company until the formation of the Bristol Fire Brigade as a branch of the police in 1876. In New York City, a boat with a hand-pump was used to fight marine fires as early as 1809.
By the middle of the century, self-propelled steam-fire-floats were beginning to be introduced. The FDNY leased the salvage tug John Fuller as the citys first powered fireboat in 1866, prior to the John Fuller, as early as the late 1700s, the FDNY used hand-pumpers mounted to barges and large rowboats. The first purpose built steam driven boats were introduced by Boston Fire Department, the first European fireboat to appear in Bristol was the Fire Queen, built by Shand Mason & Co. London, in 1884 for service in the city docks, the 53 ft. long craft was equipped with a three-cylinder steam pump supplying two large hose reels, one of these was replaced with a monitor, or water cannon, in 1900
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Chinatown, San Francisco
The Chinatown centered on Grant Avenue and Stockton Street in San Francisco, California, is the oldest Chinatown in North America and the largest Chinese community outside Asia. It is the oldest of the four notable Chinatowns in the city, since its establishment in 1848, it has been highly important and influential in the history and culture of ethnic Chinese immigrants in North America. Chinatown is an enclave that continues to retain its own customs, places of worship, social clubs, there are two hospitals, numerous parks and squares, a post office, and other infrastructure. Chinatown has been defined by the neighborhoods of North Beach, and Telegraph Hill areas as bound by Bush Street, Taylor Street, Bay Street. Officially, Chinatown is located in downtown San Francisco, covers 24 square blocks, within Chinatown there are two major thoroughfares. It is dominated by buildings that are three to four stories high, with shops on the ground floor and residential apartments upstairs. A major focal point in Chinatown is Portsmouth Square, since it is one of the few open spaces in Chinatown and sits above a large underground parking lot, Portsmouth Square bustles with activity such as Tai Chi and old men playing Chinese chess.
A replica of the Goddess of Democracy used in the Tiananmen Square protest was built in 1999 by Thomas Marsh and it is made of bronze and weighs approximately 600 lb. According to the San Francisco Planning Department, Chinatown is the most densely populated area west of Manhattan. In the 1970s, the density in Chinatown was seven times the San Francisco average. The estimated total population in the 2000 Census was at 100,574 residents, during the time from 2009 to 2013, the median household income was $20,000 - compared to $76,000 citywide - with 29% of residents below the national poverty threshold. The median age was 50 years, the oldest of any neighborhood, as of 2015, two thirds of the residents lived in one of Chinatowns 105 single room occupancy hotels,96 of which had private owners and nine were owned by nonprofits. Most residents are speakers of Mandarin or Cantonese, in 2015. Many of those Chinese immigrants who gain some wealth while living in Chinatown leave it for the Richmond District, working-class Hong Kong Chinese immigrants began arriving in large numbers in the 1960s.
Despite their status and professional qualifications in Hong Kong, many took low-paying employment in restaurants, an increase in Cantonese-speaking immigrants from Hong Kong and Mainland China has gradually led to the replacement in Chinatown of the Hoisanese/Taishanese dialect by the standard Cantonese dialect. These outer neighborhoods have been settled largely by Chinese from Southeast Asia, there are many suburban Chinese communities in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially in Silicon Valley, such as Cupertino and Milpitas, where Taiwanese Americans are dominant. Despite these developments, many continue to commute in from these neighborhoods and cities to shop in Chinatown, causing gridlock on roads and delays in public transit. To address this problem, the public transit agency, Muni, is planning to extend the citys subway network to the neighborhood via the new Central Subway
Tenderloin, San Francisco
The northern boundary with Lower Nob Hill historically has been set at Geary Street. The terms Tenderloin Heights and The Tendernob refer to the area around the boundary between the Upper Tenderloin and Lower Nob Hill. The eastern extent, near Union Square, overlaps with the Theater District, part of the western extent of the Tenderloin and Hyde Streets between Turk and OFarrell, was officially named Little Saigon by the City of San Francisco. The Tenderloin took its name from a neighborhood in New York with similar characteristics. There are several explanations of how that neighborhood was named, some said it was a reference to the neighborhood as the soft underbelly of the city, with allusions to vice and corruption, especially graft. Another popular explanation, probably folklore, attributes the name to a New York City police captain, Alexander S. Another version of story says that the officers who worked in the Tenderloin received a hazard pay bonus for working in such a violent area. Yet another story, likely apocryphal, is that the name is a reference to the loins of prostitutes, the Tenderloin borders the Mission/Market Street corridor, which follows the Spaniards El Camino Real, which in turn traced an ancient north/south Indian trail.
The Tenderloin is sheltered by Nob Hill, and far enough from the bay to be on solid ground, there is evidence that a community resided here several thousand years ago. In the 1960s, the area was excavated to develop the BART/MUNI subway station at Civic Center, during the excavation, the remains of a woman dated to be 5,000 years old were found. The Tenderloin has been a residential community since shortly after the California Gold Rush in 1849. The area had an active nightlife in the late 19th century with many theaters, notorious madam Tessie Wall opened her first brothel on OFarrell Street in 1898. Almost all of the buildings in the neighborhood were destroyed by the 1906 earthquake, the area was immediately rebuilt with some hotels opening by 1907 and apartment buildings shortly thereafter, including the historic Cadillac Hotel. Also around this time, due to Red Light Abatement Act and other began to be pushed out from the Barbary Coast district to the more southern. With housing consisting almost entirely of single-room-occupancy hotel rooms and one bedroom apartments, after World War II, with the decline in central cities throughout the United States, the Tenderloin lost population, creating a large amount of vacant housing units by the mid-1970s.
The low-cost vacant housing, and the proximity to Chinatown through the Stockton Street Tunnel, made the area appealing to refugees, studio apartments became home for families of four and five people and became what a local police officer called vertical villages. The Tenderloin quickly increased from having just a few children to having over 3,500, a number of neighborhood Southeast Asian restaurants, bánh mì coffee shops, ethnic grocery stores, video shops, and other stores opened at this time, which still exist. The Tenderloin has a history as a center of alternate sexualities
San Francisco International Airport
San Francisco International Airport is an international airport 13 miles south of downtown San Francisco, United States, near Millbrae and San Bruno in unincorporated San Mateo County. It has flights to points throughout North America and is a gateway to Europe. SFO is the largest airport in Northern California and the second busiest in California, in 2014, it was the seventh busiest in the United States and the twenty-first busiest airport in the world by passenger count. It is the fifth largest hub for United Airlines and functions as United Airliness primary transpacific gateway and it serves as Virgin Americas principal base of operations. It is the sole hub of United Airlines, and houses the Louis A. Turpen Aviation Museum. SFO is owned and policed by the City and County of San Francisco, between 1999 and 2004 the San Francisco Airport Commission operated city-owned SFO Enterprises, Inc. to oversee its business purchases and operations of ventures. San Francisco held a ceremony for Mills Field Municipal Airport on May 7,1927 on 150 acres of cow pasture.
The land was leased from Ogden L. Mills who had leased it from his grandfather Darius O. Mills, San Francisco International Airport was named Mills Field Municipal Airport until 1931, when it became San Francisco Municipal Airport. Municipal was replaced by International in 1955, United Airlines served SFO and Oakland Municipal Airport beginning in the 1930s. The March 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows 18 airline departures on weekdays— seventeen United flights, the aerial view c.1940 looks west along the runway that is now 28R, the seaplane harbor at right is still recognizable north of the airport. Earlier aerial looking NW1943 vertical aerial The August 1952 chart shows runway 1L7000 feet long, 1R7750 feet, 28L6500 feet and 28R8870 feet. Competition with United led Pacific Seaboard to move all of its operations to the eastern U. S. and rename itself Chicago and it became a large domestic and international air carrier. Chicago & Southern was acquired by and merged into Delta Air Lines in 1953 thus providing Delta with its first international routes, United Airlines Douglas DC-6 propliners flying to and from Hawaii used the Pan American World Airways terminal beginning in 1947.
The first nonstops to the U. S. east coast were flown by United with Douglas DC-7 propliners in 1954, in 1954 the airports Central Passenger Terminal opened on August 27 of that year. Included in the static display of aircraft on that day was a Convair B-36 Peacemaker bomber. The Central Passenger Terminal was heavily rebuilt as the terminal in 1984. As for international flights, Pan American had 21 departures a week, Japan Airlines had five, the jet age arrived at SFO in March 1959 when TWA introduced Boeing 707-131 jetliners with nonstop service to New York Idlewild Airport. United constructed a large facility at San Francisco for its new Douglas DC-8 jets
The word is often associated with road going emergency ambulances which form part of an emergency medical service, administering emergency care to those with acute medical problems. The term ambulance does, extend to a range of vehicles other than those with flashing warning lights. The term ambulance comes from the Latin word ambulare as meaning to walk or move about which is a reference to medical care where patients were moved by lifting or wheeling. The word originally meant a hospital, which follows an army in its movements. Ambulances were first used for transport in 1487 by the Spanish forces during the siege of Málaga by the Catholic Monarchs against the Emirate of Granada. During the American Civil War vehicles for conveying the wounded off the field of battle were called ambulance wagons, there are other types of ambulance, with the most common being the patient transport ambulance. These vehicles are not usually equipped with equipment, and are usually crewed by staff with fewer qualifications than the crew of emergency ambulances.
Their purpose is simply to transport patients to, from or between places of treatment, in most countries, these are not equipped with flashing lights or sirens. In some jurisdictions there is a form of the ambulance used, that only carries one member of ambulance crew to the scene to provide care. In these cases a patient who requires transportation to hospital will require an ambulance to attend in addition to the first responder. The history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport incurable patients by force, Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish, and civilian variants were put into operation during the 1830s. Advances in technology throughout the 19th and 20th centuries led to the modern self-powered ambulances, Ambulances can be grouped into types depending on whether or not they transport patients, and under what conditions. In some cases, ambulances may fulfil more than one function, Emergency ambulance – The most common type of ambulance, which provide care to patients with an acute illness or injury.
These can be road-going vans, helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft or even converted vehicles such as golf carts. Patient transport ambulance – A vehicle, which has the job of transporting patients to and these can be vans, buses or other vehicles. Response units may be backed up by an ambulance which can transport the patient, or may deal with the problem on scene. These can be a variety of vehicles, from standard cars, to modified vans, pedal cycles. These units can function as a vehicle for officers or supervisors, Fire & Rescue services in North America often staff EMTs or Paramedics to their apparatuses to provide medical care without the need to wait for an ambulance
A fire engine is a vehicle designed primarily for firefighting operations. In addition, many fire departments/fire services often employ their vehicles for other uses including emergency medical services. The terms fire engine and fire truck are used interchangeably. The primary purposes of an engine include transporting firefighters to an incident scene, providing water with which to fight a fire. Many fire vehicles are based on standard vehicle models and they are normally fitted with audible and visual warnings, as well as communication equipment such as two-way radios and mobile computer technology. The standard fire engine is an apparatus designed primarily for firefighting operations, the tools carried on the fire engine will vary greatly based on many factors including the size of the department and what sort of terrain the department must handle. For example, departments located near bodies of water or rivers are likely to have some sort of water rescue equipment. Standard tools found on all fire engines include ladders, hydraulic rescue tools, fire hose, fire extinguishers, self-contained breathing apparatus.
The exact layout of what is carried on an engine is decided by the needs of the department, some fire engines have a fixed deluge gun, known as a master stream, which directs a heavy stream of water to wherever the operator points it. An additional feature of engines are their preconnected hose lines, commonly referred to as preconnects, the preconnects are attached to the engines onboard water supply and allow firefighters to quickly mount an aggressive attack on the fire as soon as they arrive on scene. The name is derived from the fact that the ladder is mounted on a turntable on the back of a truck chassis. To increase its length, the ladder is telescopic, modern telescopic ladders are either hydraulic or pneumatic. These mechanical features allow the use of ladders which are longer and they may have pre-attached hoses or other equipment. A ladder can be mounted behind the cab and this is sometimes called mid-ship and the arrangement allows a lower travel height for the truck, and can be more stable in certain conditions.
In some cases, there may be a monitor at the top of the ladder for ease of use, other appliances may simply have a track-way which will hold a manually-run hose reel securely, and prevent it from falling to the ground. In the United States, a truck, known as a tractor-drawn aerial, tiller ladder. Unlike a commercial semi, the trailer and tractor are permanently combined and it has two drivers, with separate steering wheels for front and rear wheels. One of the features of the tiller-truck is its enhanced maneuverability
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5,12 a. m. on April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. Severe shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed, the events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a disaster in Californias history. The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The strike-slip fault is characterized by mainly lateral motion in a dextral sense, the 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward for a total of 296 miles. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, the maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet.
The 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the moment magnitude scale is 7.8. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earths crust took place both before and after the earthquakes impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles from the city, near Mussel Rock. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada, a strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds, there were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement.
In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, at the time,375 deaths were reported, partly because hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded. The total number of deaths is uncertain today, and is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at minimum. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area, nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa and San Jose, in Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina
A cistern is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Cisterns are often built to catch and store rainwater, cisterns are distinguished from wells by their waterproof linings. Modern cisterns range in capacity from a few litres to thousands of cubic metres, in the Middle Ages, cisterns were often constructed in hill castles in Europe, especially where wells could not be dug deeply enough. There were two types, the cistern and the filter cistern. Such a filter cistern was built at the Riegersburg in Austrian Styria, rain water passed through a sand filter and collected in the cistern. The filter cleaned the water and enriched it with minerals. Cisterns are commonly prevalent in areas where water is scarce, either because it is rare or has been depleted due to heavy use, early on, the water was used for many purposes including cooking and washing. Present day cisterns are often used only for irrigation due to concerns over water quality, cisterns today can be outfitted with filters or other water purification methods when the water is intended for consumption.
It is not uncommon for a cistern to be open in some manner in order to rain or to include more elaborate rainwater harvesting systems. It is important in cases to have a system that does not leave the water open to algae or to mosquitoes. Some cisterns sit on the top of houses or on the higher than the house. They are often supplied not by rainwater harvesting, but by wells with electric pumps, modern cisterns are manufactured of plastic. To keep a clean water supply, the cistern must be kept clean and it is important to inspect them regularly, keep them well enclosed, and to occasionally empty and clean them with a proper dilution of chlorine and to rinse them well. Well water must be inspected for contaminants coming from the ground source, city water has up to 1ppm chlorine added to the water to keep it clean, and in many areas can be ordered to be delivered directly to the cistern by truck. If there is any question about the supply at any point. Water of non-acceptable quality for the aforementioned uses may still be used for irrigation, if it is free of particulates but not low enough in bacteria, boiling may be an effective method to prepare the water for drinking.
Many greenhouses rely on a cistern to help meet their water needs, other countries, such as Japan and Spain, offer financial incentives or tax credit for installing cisterns. Cisterns may be used to water for firefighting in areas where there is an inadequate water supply
A firefighting apparatus describes any vehicle that has been customized for use during firefighting operations. These vehicles are highly customized depending on their needs and the duty they will be performing and these duties can include firefighting, vehicle extrication, dangerous goods investigations, urban search and rescue, medical emergency, swift water rescue and plane crashes. While fire engine red remains the most common color for firefighting apparatus, for example, the Chicago Fire Department has a long-standing tradition of painting their apparatus black over red. Neighboring departments will often use different colors to distinguish their apparatus. For example, the Santa Barbara Fire Department uses the fire engine red while the neighboring Santa Barbara County Fire Department elects to use blue over white. A study by the American Psychological Association published in February 2014 indicated that lime-yellow is a significantly safer color for emergency vehicles because of its increased visibility, the study showed that lime-yellow fire apparatus were half as likely to be involved in accidents as red vehicles.
See Fire Department Rehab Water tender - known as a tanker, the fire pump was reinvented in Europe during the 16th century, reportedly used in Augsburg in 1518 and Nuremberg in 1657. A book of 1655 inventions mentions a steam pump used to raise a column of water 40 feet. Colonial laws in America required each house to have a bucket of water on the front stoop during fires at night and these buckets were intended for use by the initial bucket brigade that would supply the water at fires. Philadelphia obtained a hand-pumped fire engine in 1719, years after Lynns 1654 model appeared there, made by Joseph Jencks, by 1730, Richard Newsham, in London, had made successful fire engines, the first used in New York City were of his make. The amount of manpower and skill necessary for firefighting prompted the institution of a fire company by Benjamin Franklin in 1737. Thomas Lote built the first fire engine made in America in 1743 and these earliest engines are called hand tubs because they are manually powered and the water was supplied by bucket brigade dumped into a tub where the pump had a permanent intake pipe.
An important advancement around 1822 was the invention of an engine which could draft water from a water source doing away with the bucket brigade, philadelphia fire engine manufacturers Sellers and Pennock model the Hydraulion is said to be the first suction engine produced in 1822. Some models had the hard, suction hose fixed to the intake, the earliest engines were small and were carried by four men or mounted on skids and dragged to a fire. The earliest four-wheel carriage mounted engines were pulled to the fire by hand, as the engines grew larger they became horse-drawn and self-propelled by steam engines. John Ericsson is credited with building the first American steam-powered fire engine, john Braithwaite built the first steam fire-engine in Britain. Until the mid-19th century, most fire engines were maneuvered by men, the first self-propelled steam-driven fire engine was built in New York in 1841. It was the target of sabotage by firefighters and its use was discontinued and that same year, the Knox Automobile Company of Springfield, Massachusetts began selling what some have described as the worlds first modern fire engine
Alcatraz Island is located in San Francisco Bay,1.25 miles offshore from San Francisco, United States. The small island was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a fortification, a military prison. In 1972, Alcatraz became part of a recreation area. Today, the facilities are managed by the National Park Service as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Visitors can reach the island by ferry ride from Pier 33, near Fishermans Wharf, hornblower Cruises and Events, operating under the name Alcatraz Cruises, is the official ferry provider to and from the island. According to a 1971 documentary on the history of Alcatraz, the island measures 1,675 feet by 590 feet and is 135 feet at highest point during mean tide, the total area of the island is reported to be 22 acres. Over the years, the Spanish version Alcatraz became popular and is now widely used, in August 1827, French Captain Auguste Bernard Duhaut-Cilly wrote. Covered with a number of these birds. A gun fired over the feathered legions caused them to fly up in a great cloud, the California brown pelican is not known to nest on the island today.
The Spanish built several buildings on the island and other minor structures. Julian Workman is the name of William Workman, co-owner of Rancho La Puente. Later in 1846, acting in his capacity as Military Governor of California, frémont, champion of Manifest Destiny and leader of the Bear Flag Republic, bought the island for $5,000 in the name of the United States government from Francis Temple. Frémont and his heirs sued for compensation during protracted but unsuccessful legal battles that extended into the 1890s. S, Army began studying the suitability of Alcatraz Island for the positioning of coastal batteries to protect the approaches to San Francisco Bay. In 1853, under the direction of Zealous B, the United States Army Corps of Engineers began fortifying the island, work which continued until 1858, eventuating in Fortress Alcatraz. The islands first garrison at Camp Alcatraz, numbering about 200 soldiers and 11 cannons, at this time it served as the San Francisco Arsenal for storage of firearms to prevent them falling into the hands of Confederate sympathizers.
Alcatraz, built as a fortified military site on the West Coast, formed a triangle of defense along with Fort Point and Lime Point. The island was the site of the first operational lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States, Alcatraz never fired its guns offensively, though during the war it was used to imprison Confederate sympathizers and privateers on the west coast. Because of its isolation from the outside by the cold, hazardous currents of the waters of San Francisco Bay, following the war in 1866, the army determined that the fortifications and guns were being rapidly rendered obsolete by advances in military technology
Yerba Buena Island
Yerba Buena Island sits in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and Oakland, California. The Yerba Buena Tunnel runs through its center and connects the western and eastern spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and it has had several other names over the decades, Sea Bird Island, Wood Island, and Goat Island. The island is named after the town of Yerba Buena, which was named for the plant of the name that was abundant in the area. The plants English and Spanish common name, Yerba buena, is a form of the Spanish hierba buena. The island is part of District 6 of the City and County of San Francisco. According to the United States Census Bureau, Yerba Buena Island, today the military reservation southeast of the Yerba Buena Tunnel belongs to the United States Coast Guard District Eleven. The US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco – Vessel Traffic Service tower is located on Signal Road Bldg,278 atop the peak of the island. The US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco Headquarters is co-located with US Coast Guard Station San Francisco on Healy Avenue @ Fresnel Way at water-level on the southeast coast of the island, the USCG Station has a navigational buoy repair facility on Fresnel Way.
The USCG Senior Officers residences are in Quarters A, B, C,8 and 9 off of Hillcrest Road on the hill atop the USCG base, the IOC houses the VTS, WatchKeeper and the US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco Command Center together in one building. Officially, the island was Yerba Buena Island until 1895, when on a decision by the United States Board on Geographic Names, during the gold rush, a large number of goats were pastured on the island, and the name Goat Island came into popular use. It was changed back to Yerba Buena Island on June 3,1931, in 1891, the United States Army Engineers built a Torpedo Station / Shed / Storehouse / Assembly building at the end of Army Road by North Gate Road. The torpedoes were actually floating mines that could be placed in the bay via cable for defense against intruding enemy vessels, the Torpedo Station was abandoned in the 1930s but still stands today listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Just before the turn of the 20th century, the first U. S.
Naval Training Station on the Pacific Coast was established on the north east side of the island by 1st Street and North Gate Road. Quarters One, known as the Admiral Nimitz House near the intersection of Whiting Way and its Classic Revival style, fashionable for private residences in the Bay Area at the time, was unusual for naval base housing. The training station closed after World War I, although the training station closed the Navy maintained presence with the stationary receiving ship USS Boston, renamed USS Despatch, anchored in harbor through World War II. During World War II, Yerba Buena Island fell under the jurisdiction of Treasure Island Naval Station, built on the shoals of Yerba Buena Island, the 403-acre Treasure Island was a Works Progress Administration project in the 1930s. Quarters One became the residence of the Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet. Several other buildings used by the Naval Station during World War II remain on the island, buildings 83,205 and 230 were support facilities to the senior officers quarters