France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The Great Highway is a road in San Francisco that forms the citys western edge along the Pacific coast. It runs for approximately 3.5 miles next to Ocean Beach and its southern end is at Skyline Boulevard near Lake Merced, it extends to Point Lobos Avenue and the Cliff House at its northern end. The Great Highway forms the border of Golden Gate Park. For approximately half its length, from Sloat Boulevard to Lincoln Way, atop the berm is a gravel jogging path and a cement walking / bicycling path. The parallel street, named Great Highway, is immediately adjacent below and to the east of the expressway, the only access to the upper-level highway is at each end. There are crosswalks with traffic lights along this section to allow pedestrians to reach the beach, 49-Mile Scenic Drive Ocean Beach Public Policy
Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in Northern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.9 million people as of 2015, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. The official language, along with Latvian, is one of two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, the King of Lithuania, and the first unified Lithuanian state, with the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772–95, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuanias territory.
As World War I neared its end, Lithuanias Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, in the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and by Nazi Germany. As World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, a full member of the Eurozone, Schengen Agreement and NATO. It is a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, the United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a very high human development country. Lithuania has been among the fastest growing economies in the European Union and is ranked 21st in the world in the Ease of Doing Business Index, the first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population, the first written mention of Lithuania is found in a medieval German manuscript, the Annals of Quedlinburg, in an entry dated 9 March 1009.
Initially inhabited by fragmented Baltic tribes, in the 1230s the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, after his assassination in 1263, pagan Lithuania was a target of the Christian crusades of the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. Despite the devastating century-long struggle with the Orders, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded rapidly, by the end of the 14th century, Lithuania was one of the largest countries in Europe and included present-day Belarus and parts of Poland and Russia. The geopolitical situation between the west and the east determined the multicultural and multi-confessional character of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the ruling elite practised religious tolerance and Chancery Slavonic language was used as an auxiliary language to the Latin for official documents. In 1385, the Grand Duke Jogaila accepted Polands offer to become its king, Jogaila embarked on gradual Christianization of Lithuania and established a personal union between Poland and Lithuania. It implied that Lithuania, the fiercely independent land, was one of the last pagan areas of Europe to adopt Christianity, after two civil wars, Vytautas the Great became the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1392.
During his reign, Lithuania reached the peak of its expansion, centralization of the state began
Prize money has a distinct meaning in warfare, especially naval warfare, where it was a monetary reward paid out under prize law to the crew of a ship for capturing or sinking an enemy vessel. The claims for the bounty are usually heard in a Prize Court, in the 16th and 17th centuries, captured ships were legally Crown property. This practice was formalised via the Cruisers and Convoys Act of 1708, an Admiralty Prize Court was established to evaluate claims and condemn prizes, and the scheme of division of the money was specified. This system, with changes, lasted throughout the colonial, Revolutionary. If the prize were an enemy merchantman, the money came from the sale of both ship and cargo. If it were a warship, and repairable, usually the Crown bought it at a price, additionally. Prizes were keenly sought, for the value of a ship was often such that a crew could make a years pay for a few hours fighting. Hence boarding and hand-to-hand fighting remained common long after naval cannons developed the ability to sink the enemy from afar, all ships in sight of a capture shared in the prize money, as their presence was thought to encourage the enemy to surrender without fighting until sunk.
The distribution of money to the crews of the ships involved persisted until 1918. The following scheme for distribution of money was used for much of the Napoleonic wars. Two eighths of the money went to the captain or commander. One eighth of the went to the admiral or commander-in-chief who signed the ships written orders. One eighth was divided among the lieutenants, sailing master, and captain of marines, one eighth was divided among the wardroom warrant officers, standing warrant officers, lieutenant of marines, and the masters mates. One eighth was divided among the junior warrant and petty officers, their mates, sergeants of marines, captains clerk, surgeons mates, the final two eighths were divided among the crew, with able and specialist seamen receiving larger shares than ordinary seamen and boys. Perhaps the greatest amount of money awarded was for the capture of the Spanish frigate Hermione on 31 May 1762 by the British frigate Active. The two captains, Herbert Sawyer and Philemon Pownoll, received about £65,000 apiece, while each seaman, in January 1807, the frigate Caroline took the Spanish ship San Rafael as a prize, netting Captain Peter Rainier £52,000.
For more on the Prize Court during World War I, see Maxwell Hendry Maxwell-Anderson, the Command of the Ocean, A Naval History of Britain 1649-1815. Nelsons Navy - Prize Money The Gunroom, a site on the Aubrey-Maturin novels with many historical links
An ultramarathon, called ultra distance or ultra running, is any footrace longer than the traditional marathon length of 42.195 kilometres. There are two types of events, those that cover a specified distance, and events that take place during time. The most common distances are 50 kilometres,100 kilometres,50 miles, the 100 kilometers is recognized as an official world record event by the International Association of Athletics Federations, the world governing body of track and field. Other distances/times include double marathons, 24-hour races, and multiday races of 1,000 miles or even longer, the format of these events and the courses vary, ranging from single or multiple loops, to point-to-point road or trail races, to cross-country rogaines. Many ultramarathons, especially trail challenges, have severe course obstacles, such as inclement weather, elevation change, many of these races are run on dirt roads or mountain paths, though some are run on paved roads as well. Usually, there are aid stations every 20 to 35 kilometres apart, timed events range from 6,12, and 24 hours to 3,6, and 10 days.
Timed events are run on a track or a short road course. Many countries around the world have their own ultrarunning organizations, often the national federation of that country. World records for distances and ages are tracked by the IAU, racewalking events are usually 50 km, although 100 km and 100 mile Centurion races are organized. Furthermore, the non-competitive International Marching League event Nijmegen Four Days March has a distance of 4 ×50 km over three days for men aged 19–49. There are four IAU World Championships, the IAU100 km World Championships, IAU50 km World Championships, IAU24 Hour World Championship, the IAU24 Hour World Championship is held annually. Originally begun as an event in 2001, it was rebooted as a road event in 2003. It incorporates the IAU24 Hour European Championship, for reliable and updated information, see the IAU annual report of current world records on its newest Worlds Best Performances page in statistics.5 kilometres in 72 days,10 hours and 23 minutes.
Several ultra distance events are held in Africa, South Africa hosts a number of notable ultra marathon events. On paved surface, the worlds oldest and largest ultramarathon, the 87 kilometres Comrades Marathon, approximately 12,000 runners complete the Comrades each year, out of approximately 17000 who start, with 23,961 competing in 2000. The 56-kilometre Two Oceans Marathon in Cape Town in the southern autumn attracts approximately 11,000 runners, the Washie 100 road race is the oldest one hundred miler road race in Africa. Off road, The Salomon Sky Run is a grueling 100 kilometres self supported, unmarked trail race held in a scenic part of the country. The Marathon des Sables is a 6-day stage race which covers 250 kilometres through the Sahara desert in Morocco, the Sahara Race in Egypt, part of the 4 Deserts series, is held annually with about 150 competitors from 40 countries competing
Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide, one-point-seven-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, and it has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommers travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed and it opened in 1937 and was, until 1964, the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco. Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacifics automobile ferries became very profitable, the trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes.
Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County, San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. San Franciscos City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, which would have been $2.12 billion in 2009 and he asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less. One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strausss initial drawings were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy, Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California.
The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources, the Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. The navy feared that a collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs, in May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction. Another ally was the automobile industry, which supported the development of roads. The bridges name was first used when the project was discussed in 1917 by M. M
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
Golden Gate Park
Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, United States, is a large urban park consisting of 1,017 acres of public grounds. It is administered by the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department, configured as a rectangle, it is similar in shape but 20 percent larger than Central Park in New York, to which it is often compared. It is over three miles long east to west, and about half a mile north to south, in the 1860s, San Franciscans began to feel the need for a spacious public park similar to Central Park, which was taking shape in New York City. Golden Gate Park was carved out of unpromising sand and shore dunes that were known as the Outside Lands, conceived ostensibly for recreation, the underlying purpose of the park was housing development and the westward expansion of the city. The tireless field engineer William Hammond Hall prepared a survey and topographic map of the site in 1870. He was named Californias first state engineer and developed a flood control system for the Sacramento Valley.
The park drew its name from nearby Golden Gate Strait, the plan and planting were developed by Hall and his assistant, John McLaren, who had apprenticed in Scotland, home of many of the 19th-century’s best professional gardeners. John McLaren, when asked by the Park Commission if he could make Golden Gate Park one of the beauty spots of the world, replied saying With your aid gentleman, and God be willing, that I shall do. He promised that hed go out into the country and walk along a stream until he found a farm, and that hed come back to the garden and recreate what nature had done. In 1876, the plan was almost replaced by one for a racetrack, favored by the Big Four millionaires, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, Collis P. Huntington and it was Gus Mooney who claimed land adjacent to the park on Ocean Beach. Many of Mooneys friends staked claims and built shanties on the beach to sell refreshments to the patrons of the park, Hall resigned, and the remaining park commissioners followed. In 1882 Governor George C.
Perkins appointed Frank M. Pixley founder, Pixley was adamant that the Mooneys shanties be eliminated, and he found support with the San Francisco Police for park security. Pixley favored Stanfords company by granting a lease on the route that closed the park on three sides to competition. The original plan, was back on track by 1886, Hall selected McLaren as his successor in 1887. The first stage of the development centered on planting trees in order to stabilize the dunes that covered three-quarters of the park’s area. By 1875, about 60,000 trees, mostly Eucalyptus globulus, Monterey pine, by 1879, that figure more than doubled to 155,000 trees over 1,000 acres. Later, McLaren scoured the world for trees, by correspondence and he lived in McLaren Lodge in Golden Gate Park until he died in 1943, aged 96. In 1903, a pair of Dutch-style windmills were built at the western end of the park
Yoko Shibui is a long-distance runner from Japan, who is competing in the 5000 and 10,000 metres as well as the marathon race. She holds the Japanese record over 10,000 m with her best time of 30,48.89 minutes. Shibui is one of only a handful of women to have completed the marathon under two hours and twenty minutes – her personal best of 2,19.41 ranks her within the top ten fastest ever. She made a debut in the marathon in 2001, when she triumphed at the Osaka Ladies Marathon in 2,23,11 hours. She finished fourth at the 2001 World Championships in Edmonton, at the next global championships, the 2003 World Championships in Paris, she finished fourteenth in the 10,000 metres. One year Shibui won the Berlin Marathon, clocking a personal best of 2,19,41, in 2008 she finished seventeenth in the 10,000 metres at the Olympic Games. Shibui won both the Osaka Ladies Marathon and the San Francisco Marathon in 2009, at the 2011 Tokyo Marathon she was in a leading position with only two kilometres to go but slowed to relinquish her lead, ending up in fourth place.
She tried to gain a place on the 2012 Olympic marathon team, but her fourth-place finish at the 2012 Nagoya Womens Marathon was not enough for selection
Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road. These events are classified as long-distance according to athletics terminology. They may involve large numbers of runners or wheelchair entrants, the three most common IAAF recognized distances for road running events are 10K runs, half marathons and marathons. Despite this, there are far more 5K road race events, due to their popularity for charity races and similar, less competitive reasons to hold an event. Road running may offer those involved a range of challenges and interests such as dealing with hills, sharp bends, varied surfaces, inclement weather, aerobic fitness, or the ability of the body to use oxygen, is the biggest factor contributing to success. The impact of running on roads puts more stress on the feet, knees and it can compensate by providing a consistent, level surface. It may put less strain on the Achilles tendon, before engaging in road running, one should choose a shoe that best suits ones foot type and running style.
Road running is one of forms of road racing, which include road bicycle racing. Race courses are held on the streets of major cities and towns. Other common distances include 5 kilometres,8 kilometres,12 kilometres, some major events have unique distances. Most road race courses are certified to be accurate to within 0. 1%, certified courses are often intentionally lengthened by one metre per km to ensure that they are not short of the stated distance. A Jones Counter attached to a bicycle is used to course length. Remeasurement to verify the length is undertaken when a record is set on a course. Running that covers a distance farther than a marathon is called ultrarunning, such events can be measured in distance or by time. Beyond the ultramarathon lie the multiday and stage races, Road running is unique among athletic events because in many cases first time amateurs are welcome to participate in the same event as members of running clubs and even current world-class champions. Sometimes race times are recorded manually by race organizers, most road races feature electronic timing using transponders, Road races are often community-wide events that highlight or raise money for an issue or project.
In the USA, Susan G. Komens Race for the Cure is held nationwide to raise breast cancer awareness and this race is run in Germany and Puerto Rico. Similarly, Race for Life holds races throughout the UK to raise money for Cancer Research UK, first person race reports frequently appear on the Dead Runners Society electronic mailing list
The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon hosted by several cities in greater Boston in eastern Massachusetts, United States. It is always held on Patriots Day, the third Monday of April and it is one of six World Marathon Majors, and is one of four major events held in the United States through the years of both World Wars. Since 1897, the Boston Athletic Association has managed this event and professional runners from all over the world compete in the Boston Marathon each year, braving the hilly Massachusetts terrain and varying weather to take part in the race. The event attracts 500,000 spectators each year, making it New Englands most widely viewed sporting event. Though starting with 18 participants in 1897, the event now attracts an average of about 30,000 registered participants each year, with 30,251 people entering in 2015. The Centennial Boston Marathon in 1996 established a record as the worlds largest marathon with 38,708 entrants,36,748 starters, the Boston Marathon was first run in April 1897, inspired by the revival of the marathon for the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens.
It is the oldest continuously running marathon, and the second longest continuously running footrace in North America, on April 19,1897, ten years after the establishment of the B. A. A. The association held the 24.5 miles marathon to conclude its athletic competition, the inaugural winner was John J. JJ McDermott, who ran the 24.5 mile course in 2,55,10, leading a field of 15. The event was scheduled for the recently established holiday of Patriots Day, the race, which became known as the Boston Marathon, has been held every year since then, even during the World War years, making it the worlds oldest annual marathon. The Boston Marathon was originally an event, but its fame. For most of its history, the Boston Marathon was an event. However, corporate-sponsored cash prizes began to be awarded in the 1980s, the first cash prize for winning the marathon was awarded in 1986. Walter A. Brown was the President of the Boston Athletic Association from 1941 to 1964, in 1951, during the height of the Korean War, Brown denied Koreans entry into the Boston Marathon.
He stated, While American soldiers are fighting and dying in Korea, as long as the war continues there, we positively will not accept Korean entries for our race on April 19. Women were not allowed to enter the Boston Marathon officially until 1972, roberta Bobbi Gibb is recognized by the race organizers as the first woman to run the entire Boston Marathon. In 1967, Kathrine Switzer, who had registered as K. V. Switzer, was the first woman to run and she finished despite a famous incident in which race official Jock Semple tried to rip off her numbers and eject her from the race. Retroactively recognized as champions the unofficial leaders of 1966 through 1971. In 2015, about 46 percent of the entrants were female, in 1980, unknown amateur runner Rosie Ruiz crossed the line first in the womens race
A half marathon is a road running event of 21.0975 kilometres – half the distance of a marathon. Participation in half marathons has grown steadily since 2003, partly due to the fact that it is a challenging distance, in 2008, Running USA reported that the half marathon is the fastest growing type of race. A2010 article by Universal Sports mentioned the popularity of the distance. It is common for a marathon event to be held concurrently with a marathon, using almost the same course with a late start. The half marathon is known as a 21K,21. 1K or 13.1 miles, although these values are rounded. In many races finisher medals are awarded but they may differ from concurrent full marathons by color, wording, in other events both races are put on the same medal although their ribbons may vary. A half marathon world record is recognised by the International Association of Athletics Federations. This table lists the best half marathon performances per year since 1970, in 2014, the largest half marathon in the world was the Göteborgsvarvet, known as the Gothenburg half marathon, in Sweden with 64,288 announced runners and 47,491 finishers.
The largest half marathon ever held was Broloppet between Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden with 79,719 finishers, held in connection with the Öresund Bridge inauguration in 2000. List of half marathon races IAAF World Half Marathon Championships Mini marathon Quarter marathon Half marathon world record progression IAAF list of records in XML