History of San Francisco
The history of the city of San Francisco and its development as a center of maritime trade, were shaped by its location at the entrance to a large natural harbor. San Francisco is the name of both the city and the county, which share the same boundaries. Starting overnight as the base for the rush of 1849, the city quickly became the largest and most important population, naval. It was devastated by an earthquake and fire in 1906 but was quickly rebuilt. The San Francisco Federal Reserve Branch opened in 1914, and San Francisco is ranked sixth on the Global Financial Centres Index and has grown wealthier by its proximity to Silicon Valley. The earliest evidence of habitation in what is now the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Native Americans who settled in this region found the bay to be a resource for hunting and gathering, leading to the establishment of small villages. Collectively, these early Native Americans are now known as the Ohlone, and their trade patterns included places as far away as Baja California, the Mojave Desert and Yosemite.
The earliest Europeans to reach the site of San Francisco were a Spanish exploratory party in 1769, led overland from Mexico by Don Gaspar de Portolà, the Spanish recognized the location, with its large natural harbor, to be of great strategic significance. A subsequent expedition, led by Juan Bautista de Anza, selected sites for military, the Presidio of San Francisco was established for the military, while Mission San Francisco de Asís began the cultural and religious conversion of some 10,000 Ohlone who lived in the area. The mission became known as Mission Dolores, because of its nearness to a named after Our Lady of Sorrows. The original plaza of the Spanish settlement remains as Portsmouth Square, todays city took its name from the mission, and Yerba Buena became the name of a San Francisco neighborhood now known as South of Market. The Moscone Center and Yerba Buena Gardens are in the Yerba Buena area, in addition, the name Yerba Buena was applied to the former Goat Island in the middle of San Francisco Bay, adjacent to Treasure Island.
San Francisco became part of the United States with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, European visitors to the San Francisco Bay Area were preceded at least 8,000 years earlier by Native Americans. According to one anthropologist, the name for San Francisco was awaste, meaning. When the Spanish arrived, they found the area inhabited by the Yelamu tribe, the Ohlone speakers are distinct from Pomo speakers north of the San Francisco Bay, and are part of the Miwok group of languages. Their traditional territory stretched from Big Sur to the San Francisco Bay, miwok-speaking Indians lived in Yosemite, and Ohlone-speakers intermarried with Chumash and Pomo speakers as well. The Spanish conquest of the San Francisco Bay area came than to Southern California, a Spanish exploration party, led by Portolà and arriving on November 2,1769, was the first documented European sighting of San Francisco Bay
Yerba Buena Island
Yerba Buena Island sits in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and Oakland, California. The Yerba Buena Tunnel runs through its center and connects the western and eastern spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and it has had several other names over the decades, Sea Bird Island, Wood Island, and Goat Island. The island is named after the town of Yerba Buena, which was named for the plant of the name that was abundant in the area. The plants English and Spanish common name, Yerba buena, is a form of the Spanish hierba buena. The island is part of District 6 of the City and County of San Francisco. According to the United States Census Bureau, Yerba Buena Island, today the military reservation southeast of the Yerba Buena Tunnel belongs to the United States Coast Guard District Eleven. The US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco – Vessel Traffic Service tower is located on Signal Road Bldg,278 atop the peak of the island. The US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco Headquarters is co-located with US Coast Guard Station San Francisco on Healy Avenue @ Fresnel Way at water-level on the southeast coast of the island, the USCG Station has a navigational buoy repair facility on Fresnel Way.
The USCG Senior Officers residences are in Quarters A, B, C,8 and 9 off of Hillcrest Road on the hill atop the USCG base, the IOC houses the VTS, WatchKeeper and the US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco Command Center together in one building. Officially, the island was Yerba Buena Island until 1895, when on a decision by the United States Board on Geographic Names, during the gold rush, a large number of goats were pastured on the island, and the name Goat Island came into popular use. It was changed back to Yerba Buena Island on June 3,1931, in 1891, the United States Army Engineers built a Torpedo Station / Shed / Storehouse / Assembly building at the end of Army Road by North Gate Road. The torpedoes were actually floating mines that could be placed in the bay via cable for defense against intruding enemy vessels, the Torpedo Station was abandoned in the 1930s but still stands today listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Just before the turn of the 20th century, the first U. S.
Naval Training Station on the Pacific Coast was established on the north east side of the island by 1st Street and North Gate Road. Quarters One, known as the Admiral Nimitz House near the intersection of Whiting Way and its Classic Revival style, fashionable for private residences in the Bay Area at the time, was unusual for naval base housing. The training station closed after World War I, although the training station closed the Navy maintained presence with the stationary receiving ship USS Boston, renamed USS Despatch, anchored in harbor through World War II. During World War II, Yerba Buena Island fell under the jurisdiction of Treasure Island Naval Station, built on the shoals of Yerba Buena Island, the 403-acre Treasure Island was a Works Progress Administration project in the 1930s. Quarters One became the residence of the Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet. Several other buildings used by the Naval Station during World War II remain on the island, buildings 83,205 and 230 were support facilities to the senior officers quarters
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Alameda County, California
Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area, occupying much of the East Bay region. The county was formed on March 25,1853, from a portion of Contra Costa County. The Spanish word alameda means a place where trees grow. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early explorers of a road lined with trees, the county seat at the time it was formed was located at Alvarado, now part of Union City. In 1856 it was moved to San Leandro, where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault, the county seat was re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, which has been the county seat since 1873, much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed as a trolley car suburb of San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton, the fair runs for three weekends from June to July. Attractions include horse racing, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 821 square miles, of which 739 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water. The San Francisco Bay borders the county on the west, the crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary, and reach into the center of the county. A coastal plain several miles wide lines the bay, and is Oaklands most populous region, Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge A2014 analysis found Alameda County to be the 4th most racially diverse county in the United States, the 2010 United States Census reported that Alameda County had a population of 1,510,271. The population density was 2,047.6 people per square mile, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339,889 persons,16.
4% Mexican,0. 8% Puerto Rican,0. 2% Cuban,5. 1% Other Hispanic. 26. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.31. In the county, the population was out with 24. 6% under the age of 18,9. 6% from 18 to 24,33. 9% from 25 to 44,21. 7% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males, the median income for a household in the county was $55,946, and the median income for a family was $65,857. Males had an income of $47,425 versus $36,921 for females
Pleasanton is an affluent city in Alameda County, incorporated in 1894. It is a suburb in the San Francisco Bay Area located about 25 miles east of Oakland, the population was 70,285 at the 2010 census. In 2005 and 2007, Pleasanton was ranked the wealthiest middle-sized city in the United States by the Census Bureau, Pleasanton is home to the headquarters of Safeway, Inc. and Blackhawk Network. Although Oakland is the Alameda County seat, a few county offices, the main county jail is in the neighboring city of Dublin. The Alameda County Fairgrounds are located in Pleasanton where the county fair is held during the last week of June, Pleasanton Ridge Regional Park is located on the west side of town. Pleasanton was named the third wealthiest city in terms of earnings in the United States by NerdWallet in 2013, before the establishment of Pleasanton, in the 1850s, an earlier settlement, called Alisal was there. It is still standing and serves as the centerpiece of the Alviso Adobe Community Park, Main Street shootouts were not uncommon.
Banditos such as Claudio Feliz and Joaquin Murrieta would ambush prospectors on their way back from the gold rush fields, in the 1860s Procopio, Narciso Bojorques and others took refuge there. Pleasanton is located on the lands of the Rancho Valle de San José and its name came from John W. Kottinger, an Alameda County justice of the peace, who named it after his friend, Union army cavalry Major General Alfred Pleasonton. A typographical error by a U. S. Postal Service employee apparently led to the current spelling, the reputation it had gained from its days as Alisal passed and in 1917, Pleasanton became the backdrop for the film Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, which starred Mary Pickford. The town was home to Phoebe Apperson Hearst, who lived in a 50-room mansion on a 2,000 acres estate. Pleasanton is located at 37°40′21″N 121°52′57″W and is adjacent to Hayward and Dublin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 24.3 square miles. On the east side of town on Stanley Blvd, near the Livermore border is Shadow Cliffs Regional Park, a lake that permits swimming and boating.
On the west side is the Pleasanton Ridge with two parks, Pleasanton Ridge and Augustin Bernal Park, much of Pleasanton is drained by the Arroyo Valle and Arroyo Mocho watercourses. Pleasanton lies along the route of the historic First Transcontinental Railroad, the highest recorded temperature was 115 °F in 1950. The lowest recorded temperature was 17 °F in 1990, because of the preservation of Pleasantons historic downtown area, many examples of architectural styles dating back to the mid-19th century exist. Buildings in Gothic Revival, Italianate, Commercial Italianate, Colonial Revival, one of the icons of downtown Pleasanton is the Kolln Hardware building, located at 600 Main Street
San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses the cities and metropolitan areas of San Jose, San Francisco. The Bay Areas nine counties are Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma. The combined statistical area of the region is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the Bay Area has the second-most Fortune 500 Companies in the United States, and is known for its natural beauty, liberal politics and diversity. The eastern side of the bay, consisting of Alameda and Contra Costa counties, is known locally as the East Bay, the inner East Bay is more densely populated, with generally older buildings, and a more ethnically diverse population. The word Lamorinda was coined by combining the names of the cities it includes, Moraga, walnut Creek is situated east of Lamorinda and north of the San Ramon Valley and, together with Concord and Pleasant Hill comprises Central Contra Costa County.
The cities of Antioch, Brentwood and the areas surrounding them comprise East Contra Costa County. The Tri-Valley consists of the Amador, the Livermore, and the San Ramon Valleys and Pleasanton comprise the Amador Valley, Livermore lies in the Livermore Valley, and the San Ramon Valley consists of Alamo, Danville and its namesake, San Ramon. The outer East Bay is connected to the inner East Bay by BART, Interstate 580 to the south, and State Routes State Route 4 to the north, the outer East Bays infrastructure was mostly built up after World War II. This area remains largely white demographically, although the Hispanic and Filipino populations have grown significantly over the past 2–3 decades, the region north of the Golden Gate Bridge is known locally as the North Bay. This area encompasses Marin County, Sonoma County, Napa County, the city of Fairfield, being part of Solano County, is often considered the easternmost city of the North Bay. With few exceptions, this region is affluent, Marin County is ranked as the wealthiest in the state.
The North Bay is relatively rural compared to the remainder of the Bay Area, with areas of undeveloped open space, farmland. Santa Rosa in Sonoma County is the North Bays largest city, with a population of 167,815 and a Metropolitan Statistical Area population of 466,891, making it the fifth-largest city in the Bay Area. The North Bay is the section of the Bay Area that is not currently served by a commuter rail service. The area from San Francisco to the Silicon Valley, geographically part of the San Francisco Peninsula, is known locally as The Peninsula, many of these families are of foreign background and have significantly contributed to the diversity of the area. Whereas the term peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local terms, San Francisco is surrounded by water on three sides, the north and west. The city squeezes roughly 870,000 people in under 47 square miles, on any given day, there can be as many as 1 million people in the city because of the commuting population and tourism
Sunol Water Temple
The Sunol Water Temple is located at 505 Paloma Way in Sunol, California. Designed by Willis Polk, the 59 foot high classical pavilion is made up of twelve concrete Corinthian columns, the roof covering the cistern has paintings depicting Native American maidens carrying water vessels. The temple is open to the public Monday to Friday,9 a. m. to 3 p. m. Since the mid-19th century a private company, the Spring Valley Water Company, other sources claim that as one born into wealth and classically educated, Bourn was partially motivated by a sense of civic responsibility. Polks design, modeled after the ancient Temple of Vesta in Tivoli, prior to the construction of the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, half of San Franciscos water supply passed through the Sunol temple. The SVWC, including the temple, was purchased by San Francisco in 1930 for $40 million, for decades the Water Temple received many visitors and was a popular location for picnickers. By the 1980s the water temple had badly deteriorated, and was damaged in 1989s Loma Prieta earthquake.
The site was closed to the public because of safety concerns, a community effort led to the temples restoration from 1997 to 2001, at a cost of $1.2 million, including seismic and accessibility upgrades. Following its restoration the temple opened again to the public, today any water that flows through the temple is not part of the potable water supply. Fields adjacent to the temple belong to the city of San Francisco which has authorized the digging of a quarry on the site. Local residents concerned about the future brought a lawsuit to attempt block the quarry project. In June 2006, a new facility named the Sunol Agricultural Park was opened on an adjacent to the temple. The park provides space for businesses and nonprofit groups to grow produce and is a project of a non-profit called Sustainable Agriculture Education. The park serves a platform for service and educational programs related to sustainable agriculture, I will make the wilderness a pool of water and the dry lands springs of water.
The streams whereof shall make glad the city, MCMX Pulgas Water Temple, a similar structure on the San Francisco Peninsula, opened in 1934 to commemorate the completion of the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct
San Francisco International Airport
San Francisco International Airport is an international airport 13 miles south of downtown San Francisco, United States, near Millbrae and San Bruno in unincorporated San Mateo County. It has flights to points throughout North America and is a gateway to Europe. SFO is the largest airport in Northern California and the second busiest in California, in 2014, it was the seventh busiest in the United States and the twenty-first busiest airport in the world by passenger count. It is the fifth largest hub for United Airlines and functions as United Airliness primary transpacific gateway and it serves as Virgin Americas principal base of operations. It is the sole hub of United Airlines, and houses the Louis A. Turpen Aviation Museum. SFO is owned and policed by the City and County of San Francisco, between 1999 and 2004 the San Francisco Airport Commission operated city-owned SFO Enterprises, Inc. to oversee its business purchases and operations of ventures. San Francisco held a ceremony for Mills Field Municipal Airport on May 7,1927 on 150 acres of cow pasture.
The land was leased from Ogden L. Mills who had leased it from his grandfather Darius O. Mills, San Francisco International Airport was named Mills Field Municipal Airport until 1931, when it became San Francisco Municipal Airport. Municipal was replaced by International in 1955, United Airlines served SFO and Oakland Municipal Airport beginning in the 1930s. The March 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows 18 airline departures on weekdays— seventeen United flights, the aerial view c.1940 looks west along the runway that is now 28R, the seaplane harbor at right is still recognizable north of the airport. Earlier aerial looking NW1943 vertical aerial The August 1952 chart shows runway 1L7000 feet long, 1R7750 feet, 28L6500 feet and 28R8870 feet. Competition with United led Pacific Seaboard to move all of its operations to the eastern U. S. and rename itself Chicago and it became a large domestic and international air carrier. Chicago & Southern was acquired by and merged into Delta Air Lines in 1953 thus providing Delta with its first international routes, United Airlines Douglas DC-6 propliners flying to and from Hawaii used the Pan American World Airways terminal beginning in 1947.
The first nonstops to the U. S. east coast were flown by United with Douglas DC-7 propliners in 1954, in 1954 the airports Central Passenger Terminal opened on August 27 of that year. Included in the static display of aircraft on that day was a Convair B-36 Peacemaker bomber. The Central Passenger Terminal was heavily rebuilt as the terminal in 1984. As for international flights, Pan American had 21 departures a week, Japan Airlines had five, the jet age arrived at SFO in March 1959 when TWA introduced Boeing 707-131 jetliners with nonstop service to New York Idlewild Airport. United constructed a large facility at San Francisco for its new Douglas DC-8 jets
O'Shaughnessy Dam (California)
OShaughnessy Dam is a 430-foot high concrete arch-gravity dam in Tuolumne County, California, in the United States. It impounds the Tuolumne River, forming the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir at the end of Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park. The dam and reservoir are the source for the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, the dam is named for engineer Michael OShaughnessy, who oversaw its construction. An act of Congress was required to circumvent federal protection of the Tuolumne River, Construction of the dam started in 1919 and was finished in 1923, with the first water delivered in 1934 after numerous delays. From 1935–38 the dam was raised to increase its capacity for water supply, the dam and appurtenant hydroelectric systems are collectively known as the Hetch Hetchy Project. Deriving from a wild and pristine area of the Sierra Nevada. Hetch Hetchy represented the first great environmental controversy in the US, preservationist groups such as the Sierra Club lobby for the restoration of the valley, while others argue that leaving the dam in place would be the better economic and environmental decision.
In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was rapidly outgrowing its limited water supply, the city looked east to the Sierra Nevada, where snowmelt fed the headwaters for many of Californias largest rivers. In 1900, a United States Geological Survey report described the Tuolumne River as the best source of water for San Francisco. Although Phelan managed to secure rights for the Tuolumne River in 1901. But when the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and subsequent fire razed the city, at the time, Hetch Hetchy was an isolated, seldom visited subalpine valley, visited intermittently by gold seekers and sheepherders. Even though the valley was not well known to the public, organizations such as the Sierra Club treasured it for its spectacular beauty. Led by naturalist and mountaineer John Muir, the Sierra Club adamantly opposed the city of San Francisco as it sought permission from the government to build a dam in the valley. In 1908 Secretary of the Interior James R. S, though highly controversial, the bill passed the Senate by a vote of 43 for and 25 against.
The consensus was that since Hetch Hetchy lay on public land, the Sierra Club and other groups were outraged by the federal governments permission for development at Hetch Hetchy. However, on December 24,1914, with construction on the dam barely underway, Muir died, Muir had said – As well dam for water tanks the peoples cathedrals and churches, for no holier temple has been consecrated by the heart of man. S. Army Corps of Engineers reported in 1913 as a better and cheaper source than Hetch Hetchy, by this point, San Francisco had become obsessed with developing Hetch Hetchy, and dismissed or discarded other rivers and valleys that would have served them better. As if it was created for their purpose, work on the Hetch Hetchy project began in early 1914 shortly after the passage of the Raker Act
Alameda Creek, originally Arroyo de la Alameda, is a large perennial stream in the San Francisco Bay Area. The creek runs for 45 miles from a lake northeast of Packard Ridge to the shore of San Francisco Bay by way of Niles Canyon. Five Spanish expeditions led by de Portolà, Fages, de Anza, el Camino Viejo between Pleasanton and Mission Pass crossed it near Sunol. Mission San José, in Fremont, was dedicated in 1797, the Mission thrived for 49 years until the Mexican Governments Secularization Order liquidated mission lands in 1834. Alameda Creek was the boundary of the lands and the 17, 000-acre Rancho Arroyo de la Alameda granted to Jose de Jesus Vallejo. The mill and the importance of the canyon as a passage through the hills led to growth of Niles in the 1850s, a favorable climate, excellent soils, and a fast-growing population helped agriculture to boom. Early roads led to landings where small ships would load grain, completion of the Central Pacific Railroad through Niles Canyon in 1869 was essential to completion of First Transcontinental Railroad that terminated in Alameda, California that same year.
The Western Pacific was routed through Niles Canyon, connecting Sacramento and San Jose, the creek bed had once been used as a gravel quarry. After the pumping was declared to be an illegal waste the Alameda County Water District acquired the quarry in 1975, in May 2015, vandals damaged an inflatable dam across the creek in Fremont, releasing 50 million gallons of drinking water into San Francisco Bay. Alameda Creek is the largest watershed within the southern San Francisco Bay draining 700 square miles, two-thirds of the watershed is in Alameda County including the reach through the Sunol Valley, the rest is in Santa Clara County. The tributaries of Alameda creek include Arroyo de la Laguna, Arroyo Valle, San Antonio Creek and Calaveras Creek, the watershed includes three man-made reservoirs, Lake Del Valle, San Antonio Reservoir and Calaveras Reservoir. Alameda Creek now runs through the man-made Alameda Creek flood channel near the Bay, ward Creek is tributary to old Alameda Creek. Alameda Creek historically supported steelhead, coho salmon and chinook salmon, by the early 1970s the Army Corps of Engineers channeled and rip-rapped the lower 12 miles of the creek.
The last steelhead and coho salmon runs were seen in the creek in 1964. In 2009, the Alameda County Water District removed a rubber dam that blocked trout passage in the lower creek, at the same time, PG&E is working to modify a cement barrier farther upstream in Sunol to help steelhead swim farther into the watershed, water officials said. When those projects are completed, steelhead will be able to migrate upstream to spawning habitats in the Sunol Valley for the first time in a half-century, many of these fishes still occupy the creek, although the number of introduced exotic fishes continues to increase. Exotic fish species such as the largemouth and Smallmouth basses respectively, were introduced to Alameda Creek by Livingston Stone in 1874, there is historical evidence of beaver in the Alameda Creek watershed. In 1828 fur trapper Michel La Framboise travelled to the missions of San José, San Francisco Solano, La Framboise stated that the Bay of San Francisco abounds in beaver, and that he made his best hunt in the vicinity of the missions
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common