London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
She died of an accidental drug overdose in 1970, aged 27, after releasing three albums. A fourth album, was released a more than three months after her death, reaching number 1 on the charts. Joplin rose to fame in 1967 during an appearance at Monterey Pop Festival, as the singer of the little-known San Francisco psychedelic rock band Big Brother. After releasing two albums with the band, she left Big Brother to continue as a solo artist with her own backing groups, first the Kozmic Blues Band and she appeared at the Woodstock festival and the Festival Express train tour. Five singles by Joplin went into the Billboard Top 100, including Me and Bobby McGee, which reached number 1 in March 1971. Her most popular include, Piece of My Heart, Cry Baby, Down on Me, Ball n Chain, Summertime and Mercedes Benz. Joplin, who was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995, was known for her performing ability. Audiences and critics alike referred to her presence as electric. Rolling Stone ranked Joplin number 46 on its 2004 list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time and she remains one of the top-selling musicians in the United States, with Recording Industry Association of America certifications of 15.5 million albums sold in the USA.
Janis Lyn Joplin was born in Port Arthur, Texas, on January 19,1943, to Dorothy Bonita East, a registrar at a college, and her husband, Seth Ward Joplin. She had two siblings and Laura. The family attended the Church of Christ, the Joplins felt that Janis needed more attention than their other children. Primarily a painter while still in school, she first began singing blues and she attended Thomas Jefferson High School, where she was a classmate of Super Bowl winning American football coach Jimmy Johnson. She stated while in school, that she was mostly shunned. Joplin was quoted as saying, I was a misfit, I read, I painted, I thought. As a teen, she became overweight, and her skin broke out so badly she was left deep scars that required dermabrasion. Other kids at school would routinely taunt her and call her names like pig, nigger lover. The campus newspaper, The Daily Texan, ran a profile of her in the issue dated July 27,1962, while at UT she performed with a folk trio called the Waller Creek Boys and frequently socialized with the staff of the campus humor magazine The Texas Ranger
John William Jack Casady is an American bass guitarist, best known as a member of Jefferson Airplane and Hot Tuna. Jefferson Airplane became the first successful exponent of the San Francisco Sound and their singles, including Somebody to Love and White Rabbit, had a more polished style and successfully charted in 1967 and 1968. Casady, along with the members of Jefferson Airplane, was inducted into the Rock. Casady was born in Washington D. C. the son of Mary Virginia and his father was of half Irish Protestant and half Polish Jewish ancestry. His mother was a relative of aviator Harriet Quimby, some of her family had been in the U. S. since the 1600s. Casady became the player for Jefferson Airplane when lead guitarist Jorma Kaukonen. He replaced original Jefferson Airplane bassist Bob Harvey in October 1965, Casady stepped beyond the conventional rhythmic and chord-supporting role of rock & roll, in order to explore other possible melodic ideas offered by the rhythm and chord progressions. His impact is evident on Airplane debut album Jefferson Airplane Takes Off on tracks such as Let Me In.
The Takes Off LP quotes Marty Balin as saying He carries it, hes been with James Brown and other groups and he knows. The Fred Neil track The Other Side of This Life remains the quintessential example of his style. On Airplane albums, such as Bark, Long John Silver, several of these tracks are remarkable for their groundbreaking infusions of jazz and raga bass lines into the rock format. The Fly Jefferson Airplane DVD includes one such performance videotaped at The Family Dog, Casadys appetite for playing led him to do extensive moonlighting during his Airplane tenure. Not only did he perform live on stage with Jimi Hendrix during 1968, he played bass on the Jimi Hendrix song Voodoo Chile. He occasionally played other key San Francisco bands Grateful Dead, Country Joe and the Fish and James. Furthermore, he was a member of two short-lived splinter groups and the Heartbeats and Jack Casady and the Degenerates, featuring friend from teen years Danny Gatton, neither of these groups ever recorded, though live tapes are in circulation.
Later, Casady was to appear on David Crosbys If I Could Only Remember My Name, Roky Ericksons album Dont Slander Me and he produced Jorma Kaukonens first solo album, the critically acclaimed Quah, in 1975. Casady and Kaukonen formed Hot Tuna in 1969, and they perform to the present day. The group has morphed over the years from an acoustic blues unit to an electric band to a rampaging metal act
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 514,414 as of 2013. It lies within the United Kingdoms second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.55 million, Manchester is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council and it was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated during the 20th century. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a township but began to expand at an astonishing rate around the turn of the 19th century. Manchesters unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and its fortunes declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation.
The city centre was devastated in a bombing in 1996, but it led to extensive investment, in 2014, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK and it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the worlds first inter-city passenger railway station and in the city scientists first split the atom, the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, both meanings are preserved in languages derived from Common Brittonic, mam meaning breast in Irish and mother in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford.
Central Manchester has been settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell, much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North. Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral, the premises of the college house Chethams School of Music. The library, which opened in 1653 and is open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282, around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the regions textile industry
Music of Detroit
Detroit, Michigan is a major center in the United States for the creation and performance of music, and is the birthplace of the musical subgenres known as “The Motown Sound and Techno. The Metro Detroit area has a musical history spanning the past century. The major genres represented in Detroit music include Classical, Jazz, Gospel, R&B, Rock and roll, Punk, Electronica, the success of Detroit-based Hip-hop artists quadrupled that figure in the first decade of the 2000s. The Detroit areas diverse population includes residents of European, Middle Eastern, Latino and African descent, the African-American population in particular contributed greatly to the musical legacy of Detroit in almost all genres. During the 1940s, many of the same jazz acts performed nearby at Orchestra Hall, eventually urban renewal projects during the late 1950s and early 60s demolished Black Bottom and replaced it with a freeway and the neighborhood centered on Lafayette Park. As Black Bottom was disappearing, the nascent Motown label was beginning to build an empire on West Grand Boulevard.
The genesis of Blues music in Detroit occurred as a result of the first wave of the Great Migration of African-Americans from the Deep South, as Detroit had no established recording scene at the time, all of these players eventually migrated to Chicago to record for various labels. Spand reminisced about his time in Detroit while playing on the 1929 Blind Blake single “Hastings Street”, most of these performers visited Detroit on tour as part of the Theatre Owners Booking Association circuit, playing primarily at the Koppin Theatre on the southern edge of Paradise Valley. The Koppin was the venue for Detroit’s black musical community throughout the 1920s. It ceased operation in 1931, a casualty of the Great Depression and these artists brought with them a style of blues music rooted in the Mississippi Delta region. Though not strictly a Delta blues musician, Hooker was born in the epicenter of the tradition, in Clarksdale and migrated to Detroit in 1943. Teaming up with Hooker in the late 40s was the guitarist and harmonica player Eddie “Guitar” Burns, another sideman of Hooker was Eddie Kirkland, who played second guitar for him in Detroit and on tour from 1949 to 1962, and went on to a long solo career.
Also of note were singer Johnnie Mae Matthews and singer/guitarist Bobo Jenkins, some small labels, including Staff, Holiday and Prize Records, only existed for a brief time, while other labels experienced greater success. The most prominent of the Detroit-based labels from this era was Fortune Records, and its subsidiary labels Hi-Q, Strate 8 and Blue Star, Fortune released hundreds of recordings in many genres, including tracks by Hooker, Jenkins, Dr. Ross and Maceo Merriweather. Another important Detroit label from the period was Sensation Records, started by John Kaplan, in 1948, Besman recorded Hooker’s seminal “Boogie Chillen” and ran the artistic side of the label until its demise in 1952. The entertainment districts of Hastings Street and Paradise Valley were razed in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the victims of urban renewal programs. This loss of venues, along with the rise of Motown in Detroit. Many Detroit-based musicians pursued their careers on tour elsewhere in the world, among them were The Butler Twins and Curtis, who emigrated to Detroit from Alabama in 1961, joining a long list of blues forebears who came to work in the automotive industry
Big Brother and the Holding Company
They are best known as the band that featured Janis Joplin as their lead singer. The album is included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. After playing together at Albins home, Andrew suggested they form a band, the pair approached guitarist James Gurley, the resulting threesome playing open jam sessions hosted by entrepreneur Chet Helms in 1965. Helms found them a drummer, Chuck Jones, and Big Brother and the Holding Company was formed at their first gig, in the audience was painter and jazz drummer David Getz, who soon displaced Jones. Big Brother went on to become the band at the Avalon Ballroom. Feeling a need for a strong vocalist, Helms contacted Janis Joplin in Austin and she traveled to San Francisco and debuted with Big Brother at the Avalon on June 10,1966. Joplin sang for the first time with Big Brother in 1966, years later, guitarist Sam Andrew described the bands first impressions of her, We were the established rock and roll band. We were like, all right, out of three or four bands in this city, we are one of them, were in the newspapers all the time.
We are doing this woman a favor to let her come. She came in and she was dressed like a little Texan and she didnt look like a hippie, she looked like my mother, who is from Texas. She sang real well but it wasnt like, Oh were bowled over and it was probably more like, our sound was really loud. It was probably bowling her over, I am sure we didnt turn down enough for her. She wrote letters home about how all of us were. In other words, we werent flattened by her and she wasnt flattened by us and it was probably a pretty equal meeting. She was an intelligent, Janis was, and she always rose to the occasion. It wasnt like this moment of revelation like you would like it to be, like in a movie or something. It wasnt like, Oh my God, now we have gone to heaven, I mean she was good but she had to learn how to do that. It took her about a year to learn how to sing with an electric band
It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by blues and blues and country music. Rock music drew strongly on a number of genres such as electric blues and folk. Musically, rock has centered on the guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form, like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of subgenres, including new wave, post-punk. From the 1990s alternative rock began to rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures and this trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers.
The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group, Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock, because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm, as a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality, according to Simon Frith rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll.
Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the concept of art as artistic expression, original. The foundations of music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country. In 1951, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis
Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004.
The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool.
The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish Sea
Jefferson Airplane was a rock band based in San Francisco, who pioneered psychedelic rock. Formed in 1965, the group defined the San Francisco Sound and was the first from the Bay Area to achieve commercial success. They were headliners at the three most famous American rock festivals of the 1960s—Monterey and Altamont —and the first Isle of Wight Festival in England and their 1967 break-out album Surrealistic Pillow ranks on the short list of most significant recordings of the Summer of Love. Two songs from album, Somebody to Love and White Rabbit, are among Rolling Stones 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. The classic lineup of Jefferson Airplane, from October 1966 to February 1970, was Marty Balin, Paul Kantner, Grace Slick, Jorma Kaukonen, Jack Casady, the group broke up in 1972 and split into two bands, Hot Tuna and Jefferson Starship. Jefferson Airplane was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and was presented with the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2016, in 1962, 20-year-old Marty Balin recorded two singles for Challenge Records, neither of which were successful.
Balin joined a group called The Town Criers from 1963 to 1964. After the Beatles-led British invasion of 1964, Balin was inspired by the success of the Byrds and Simon & Garfunkel in merging folk with rock to form a group in 1965 that would follow that lead. With a group of investors, Balin purchased a former pizza parlor on Fillmore Street, which he converted to a club, the Matrix. Balin met folk musician Paul Kantner at another club, the Drinking Gourd. Kantner, a native San Franciscan, had started out performing on the Bay Area folk circuit in the early 1960s, alongside fellow folkies Jerry Garcia, David Crosby, Kantner has cited folk groups like the Kingston Trio and the Weavers as strong early influences. He briefly moved to Los Angeles, California, in 1964 to work in a duo with future Airplane/Starship member David Freiberg. Balin and Kantner recruited other musicians to form the band at the Matrix. After hearing female vocalist Signe Toly Anderson at the Drinking Gourd, Anderson sang with the band for a year and performed on their first album before departing in October 1966 after the birth of her first child.
Kantner next recruited an old friend, blues guitarist Jorma Kaukonen, Kaukonen had moved to California in the early 1960s and met Kantner while at Santa Clara University in 1962. Kaukonen came up with the name, based on the name of a friends dog. A2007 press release quoted Kaukonen as saying, I had this friend in Berkeley who came up with names for people. His name for me was Blind Thomas Jefferson Airplane, when the guys were looking for band names and nobody could come up with something, I remember saying, You want a silly band name
Sly and the Family Stone
Sly and the Family Stone was an American band from San Francisco. Active from 1966 to 1983, the band was pivotal in the development of funk, rock, the band was the first major American rock group to have an integrated, multi-gender lineup. Formed in 1966, the groups music synthesized a variety of musical genres to help pioneer the emerging psychedelic soul sound. In the 1970s, the band transitioned into a darker and less commercial sound on releases such as Theres a Riot Goin On and Fresh. The work of Sly and the Family Stone greatly influenced the sound of subsequent American funk, soul, R&B, and hip hop music. In 2010, they were ranked 43rd in Rolling Stone list of The 100 Greatest Artists of All-Time, the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993. Sly Stone was a member of a deeply religious middle-class household from Dallas, Texas, K. C. and Alpha Stewart held the family together under the doctrines of the Church of God in Christ and encouraged musical expression in the household.
While attending high school and Freddie joined student bands, One of Sylvesters high school musical groups was a doo-wop act called The Viscaynes, in which he and a Filipino teenager were the only non-white members. The Viscaynes released a few singles, and Sylvester recorded several solo singles under the name Danny Stewart. By 1964, Sylvester had become Sly Stone and a jockey for San Francisco R&B radio station KSOL. During the same period, he worked as a producer for Autumn Records, producing for San Francisco-area bands such as The Beau Brummels. One of the Sylvester Stewart-produced Autumn singles, Bobby Freemans Cmon, Stewart recorded unsuccessful solo singles while at Autumn. In 1966, Sly Stone formed a band called Sly & the Stoners, around the same time, Freddie founded a band called Freddie & the Stone Souls, which included Gregg Errico on drums, and Ronnie Crawford on saxophone. At the suggestion of Stones friend, saxophonist Jerry Martini and Freddie combined their bands, creating Sly and the Family Stone in November 1966.
At first the group was called Sly Brothers and Sisters but after their first gig at the Winchester Cathedral in Redwood City they changed the name to Sly & the Family Stone. Since both Sly and Freddie were guitarists, Sly appointed Freddie the official guitarist for the Family Stone, Sly recruited Larry Graham to play bass guitar. Vanetta Stewart wanted to join the band as well and she and her friends, Mary McCreary and Elva Mouton, had a gospel group called The Heavenly Tones. Sly recruited the teenagers directly out of school to become Little Sister, Sly
Counterculture of the 1960s
Many key movements related to these issues were born or advanced within the counterculture of the 1960s. This embracing of creativity is particularly notable in the works of British Invasion bands such as the Beatles, in addition to the trendsetting Beatles, many other creative artists and thinkers, within and across many disciplines, helped define the counterculture movement. Several factors distinguished the counterculture of the 1960s from the movements of previous eras. Post-war affluence allowed many of the generation to move beyond a focus on the provision of the material necessities of life that had preoccupied their Depression-era parents. The counterculture era essentially commenced in earnest with the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November 1963, poor outcomes from some of these activities set the stage for disillusionment with, and distrust of, post-war governments. In the US, President Dwight D, the Partial Test Ban Treaty divided the establishment within the US along political and military lines.
In the UK, the Profumo Affair involved establishment leaders being caught in deception, leading to disillusionment and serving as a catalyst for liberal activism. The Cuban Missile Crisis, which brought the world to the brink of war in October 1962, was largely fomented by duplicitous speech. The assassination of US President John F. Kennedy in November 1963, many social issues fueled the growth of the larger counterculture movement. On college and university campuses, student activists fought for the right to exercise their constitutional rights, especially freedom of speech. The availability of new and more effective forms of control was a key underpinning of the sexual revolution. With this change in attitude, by the 1990s the ratio of children out of wedlock rose from 5% to 25% for Whites. The end of censorship resulted in a reformation of the western film industry. Communes and intentional communities regained popularity during this era, Some of these self-sustaining communities have been credited with the birth and propagation of the international Green Movement.
The emergence of an interest in expanded spiritual consciousness, occult practices, in 1957, 69% of US residents polled by Gallup said religion was increasing in influence. By the late 1960s, polls indicated less than 20% still held that belief, the Generation Gap, or the inevitable perceived divide in worldview between the old and young, was perhaps never greater than during the counterculture era. Ultimately and comfortable casual apparel, namely updated forms of T-shirts, many began to live largely clandestine lives because of their choice to use such drugs and substances, fearing retribution from their governments. The confrontations between college students and law enforcement officials became one of the hallmarks of the era, many younger people began to show deep distrust of police, and terms such as fuzz and pig as derogatory epithets for police reappeared, and became key words within the counterculture lexicon
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush