The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy. It is situated on the side of the River Arno. The core of the present palazzo dates from 1458 and was originally the residence of Luca Pitti. The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It grew as a treasure house as generations amassed paintings, jewelry. In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a base by Napoleon. The palace and its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919, the palazzo is now the largest museum complex in Florence. The principal palazzo block, often in a building of design known as the corps de logis, is 32,000 square metres. It is divided into several principal galleries or museums detailed below, the construction of this severe and forbidding building was commissioned in 1458 by the Florentine banker Luca Pitti, a principal supporter and friend of Cosimo de Medici.
The early history of the Palazzo Pitti is a mixture of fact, Pitti is alleged to have instructed that the windows be larger than the entrance of the Palazzo Medici. Besides obvious differences from the architects style, Brunelleschi died 12 years before construction of the palazzo began. The design and fenestration suggest that the architect was more experienced in utilitarian domestic architecture than in the humanist rules defined by Alberti in his book De Re Aedificatoria. Though impressive, the original palazzo would have no rival to the Florentine Medici residences in terms of either size or content. Whoever the architect of the Palazzo Pitti was, he was moving against the flow of fashion. The rusticated stonework gives the palazzo a severe and powerful atmosphere, reinforced by the series of seven arch-headed apertures. The Roman-style architecture appealed to the Florentine love of the new style allantica, work stopped after Pitti suffered financial losses following the death of Cosimo de Medici in 1464.
Luca Pitti died in 1472 with the building unfinished, the building was sold in 1549 by Buonaccorso Pitti, a descendant of Luca Pitti, to Eleonora di Toledo. Raised at the court of Naples, Eleonora was the wife of Cosimo I de Medici of Tuscany
The Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore is the main church of Florence, Italy. The exterior of the basilica is faced with marble panels in various shades of green. The cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and these three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major attraction to tourists visiting Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italys largest churches, and until development of new materials in the modern era. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed, the cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is currently Giuseppe Betori. Santa Maria del Fiore was built on the site of a cathedral dedicated to Saint Reparata. The new church was designed by Arnolfo di Cambio and approved by city council in 1294, di Cambio was architect of the church of Santa Croce and the Palazzo Vecchio. He designed three wide naves ending under the dome, with the middle nave covering the area of Santa Reparata.
The first stone was laid on September 9,1296, by Cardinal Valeriana, the building of this vast project was to last 140 years, Arnolfos plan for the eastern end, although maintained in concept, was greatly expanded in size. After Arnolfo died in 1310, work on the cathedral slowed for thirty years, when the relics of Saint Zenobius were discovered in 1330 in Santa Reparata, the project gained a new impetus. In 1331, the Arte della Lana, the guild of merchants, took over patronage for the construction of the cathedral. Assisted by Andrea Pisano, Giotto continued di Cambios design and his major accomplishment was the building of the campanile. When Giotto died in 1337, Andrea Pisano continued the building work was halted due to the Black Death in 1348. In 1359, Talenti was succeeded by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini who divided the nave in four square bays. Other architects were Alberto Arnoldi, Giovanni dAmbrogio, Neri di Fioravante, by 1375, the old church Santa Reparata was pulled down. The nave was finished by 1380, and by 1418, only the dome remained incomplete, on 18 August 1418, the Arte della Lana announced an architectural design competition for erecting Neris dome.
The two main competitors were two master goldsmiths, Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi, the latter of whom was supported by Cosimo de Medici. Ghiberti had been the winner of a competition for a pair of doors for the Baptistery in 1401
Museo Nazionale Alinari della Fotografia
It hosts special exhibitions on a regular basis and possesses 350.000 vintage prints from the 19th and 20th centuries. Since 1 November 2006 it is located in the Ospedale di San Paolo, before that, the museum was in the Palazzo Rucellai and in the premises of the Fratelli Alinari. It was the first museum of Italy to be devoted exclusively to photography, amedeo Benedetti, I Fratelli Alinari, in Gli archivi delle immagini, Erga,2000, pp. 348–358
Palma il Giovane
Iacopo Negretti, best known as Jacopo or Giacomo Palma il Giovane or simply Palma Giovane, was an Italian painter from Venice. After Tintorettos death, Palma became Venices dominant artist perpetuating his style, in 1567 Guidobaldo II della Rovere, duke of Urbino, recognized Palmas talents, supporting him for four years and sending him to Rome, where he remained until about 1572. Shedding most remnants of Roman manner after his return to Venice, Palma adopted the inescapable models and mannerisms of Tintoretto. His early biographers assert that he found a place in the ageing Titians workshop, when the master died, Palma stepped in to finish his last work, Palmas first major public commission arrived after a 1577 fire in the Doges Palace, three scenes in its grand council hall. By the mid-1580s he had digested Tintorettos versatile figure postures and Titians thick surfaces, emphasis on light, in Palma Giovanes output, Freedberg detects an occasional discursive opulence à la Veronese, and inclinations towards descriptive naturalism à la Bassano.
He worked alongside Veronese and Tintoretto on the decorations in the Doges Palace where he came to know fully the Venetian tradition, thanks to the intelligent way they quoted from Tintoretto and their own narrative drive, these are Palma the Youngers best works. After this he went back to commissions at the Doges Palace. After three centuries in Tuscany, it was bought by Sir Robert Dick in 1842, after 1600 he painted mythologies for a small circle of intellectuals. After the death of Tintoretto in 1594, he remained one of the painters in the City of Venice. He was interred in the Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, among his followers was the Brescian painter, Camillo Rama. Palma Vecchio Italian Paintings, Venetian School, a catalog containing information about the artist. Media related to Palma Giovane at Wikimedia Commons
The Tornabuoni Chapel is the main chapel in the church of Santa Maria Novella, Italy. It is famous for the extensive and well-preserved fresco cycle on its walls, one of the most complete in the city, the main chapel of Santa Maria Novella was first frescoed in the mid-14th century by Andrea Orcagna. Remains of these paintings were found during restorations in the 1940s, some of these were detached and can be seen today in the Museum of the church. By the late 15th century, Orcagnas frescoes were in poor condition, the Ricci had never recovered from their bankruptcy in 1348, and so they arranged to sell their rights to the choir to the Sassetti. Francesco Sassetti wanted the new frescoes to portray stories of St. Francis of Assisi, Sassetti therefore moved the commission to the church of Santa Trinita, where Ghirlandaio executed one of his masterworks, the Sassetti Chapel. The rights to the chapel in Santa Maria Novella that were lost by the Sassetti were sold by the Ricci to Giovanni Tornabuoni, John the Baptist, patron of Tornabuoni and of the city of Florence.
It is possible that the new scenes followed the pattern as Orcagnas. The windows were executed according to Ghirlandaios design. The complex was completed by an altarpiece portraying the Madonna del Latte in Glory with Angel and Saints, on the recto a Resurrection of Christ was painted. This work is now divided between the Gemäldegalerie and the Alte Pinakothek, Munich. The cycle portrays on three walls the Life of the Virgin and the Life of St John the Baptist, the saint of Florence. The left and right walls each have three rows, each divided into two rectangular scenes framed by fictive architecture, and surmounted by a large lunette beneath the vault, each side wall has a total of seven narrative scenes which are read beginning from the bottom. The chancel wall has a mullioned window of three lights with stained glass, provided in 1492 by Alessandro Agolanti after Ghirlandaios design. On the lower part of the wall is a portrait of Giovanni Tornabuoni and his wife Francesca Pitti. Above the window is another large lunette, containing the Coronation of the Virgin, in the vault are depicted the Four Evangelists.
The first episode represents the expulsion of Joachim, the father of Mary, a ceremony is taking place in which several figures are carrying lambs for sacrifice. However, Joachim was banned from attending due to his alleged sterility, Ghirlandaio set the scene in a sumptuous loggia of Greek cross plan, with a sequence of arches in the background and an octagonal altar in the middle, where the sacrificial fire is lit. The characters are illuminated from above, as if by the lighting from the real chapel windows
The Pazzi Chapel is a chapel located in the first cloister on the southern flank of the Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence, Italy. Commonly credited to Filippo Brunelleschi, it is considered to be one of the masterpieces of Renaissance architecture. Though funds for the chapel were assembled in 1429 by Andrea Pazzi, head of the Pazzi family, whose wealth was only to the Medici. The chapel was completed in 1443, almost two decades after the death of Brunelleschi. The building is considered to be an Early Renaissance masterpiece, the main purpose of the building was the cathedral chapter house and use as a classroom for the teaching of monks and other religious purposes. There was a chapel behind the altar where the family had the right to bury its dead. The Pazzis ulterior motive in building the chapel was probably to make their mark on the city of Florence and to emphasize their wealth and power. The fact that the city was at war with a city at the time and still acquired the funds to build this chapel showed the importance it had to the Pazzi family. A façade that he had begun, and of only the lower register can be seen, was partially obscured by the addition of a porch.
The main inspiration for this piece was the Dominican monastery of Santa Maria Novella, between the pilasters in the transept there are tall, round headed panels and, above them, common Renaissance decorative motifs. The architectural elements of the interior are all in pietra serena, the building used bearing masonry in its construction, which is mason units or concrete blocks with lime and man made adhesives to stick them together. As to the architect, scholars argue that it is not actually by Brunelleschi, no period sources nor period documents support this theory, with the first written mention of Brunelleschi as the architect first appearing with an anonymous author who wrote in the 1490s. Scholars now consider the chapel as possibly the work of Giuliano da Maiano or Michelozzo, the tondi of the seated Apostles are by Luca della Robbia, who did the terracotta decorations in the cupola of the porch. It has been suggested that the roundels of the Evangelists may have been the work of Donatello
David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504 by Michelangelo. It is a 5. 17-metre marble statue of a male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David, a subject in the art of Florence. The eyes of David, with a glare, were turned towards Rome. The statue was moved to the Galleria dellAccademia, Florence, in 1873, the history of the statue begins before Michelangelos work on it from 1501 to 1504. In 1410 Donatello made the first of the statues, a figure of Joshua in terracotta, a figure of Hercules, in terracotta, was commissioned from the Florentine sculptor Agostino di Duccio in 1463 and was made perhaps under Donatellos direction. Eager to continue their project, in 1464, the Operai contracted Agostino to create a sculpture of David, a block of marble was provided from a quarry in Carrara, a town in the Apuan Alps in northern Tuscany. Agostino only got as far as beginning to shape the legs and his association with the project ceased, for reasons unknown, with the death of Donatello in 1466, and ten years Antonio Rossellino was commissioned to take up where Agostino had left off.
Rossellinos contract was terminated soon thereafter, and the block of marble remained neglected for 25 years, all the while exposed to the elements in the yard of the cathedral workshop. This was of concern to the Opera authorities, as such a large piece of marble not only was costly but represented a large amount of labour. In 1500, an inventory of the cathedral workshops described the piece as a figure of marble called David, badly blocked out. A year later, documents showed that the Operai were determined to find an artist who could take this piece of marble. They ordered the block of stone, which they called The Giant, raised on its feet so that an experienced in this kind of work might examine it. Though Leonardo da Vinci and others were consulted, it was Michelangelo, only 26 years old, on 16 August 1501, Michelangelo was given the official contract to undertake this challenging new task. He began carving the statue early in the morning on 13 September and he would work on the massive statue for more than two years.
They convened a committee of 30 Florentine citizens that comprised many artists, including Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli, while nine different locations for the statue were discussed, the majority of members seem to have been closely split between two sites. Another opinion, supported by Botticelli, was that the sculpture should be situated on or near the cathedral. In June 1504, David was installed next to the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, replacing Donatellos bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes and it took four days to move the statue the half mile from Michelangelos workshop into the Piazza della Signoria
The Galleria dellAccademia di Firenze, or Gallery of the Academy of Florence, is an art museum in Florence, Italy. It is the home of Michelangelos sculpture David and it has other sculptures by Michelangelo and a collection of Renaissance paintings. It adjoins the Accademia di Belle Arti or academy of arts of Florence. The Galleria dellAccademia was founded in 1784 by Pietro Leopoldo, Grand Duke of Tuscany, the Galleria dellAccademia has housed the original David by Michelangelo since 1873. The sculpture was brought to the Accademia for reasons of conservation. The original intention was to create a Michelangelo museum, with sculptures and drawings. Today, the small collection of Michelangelos work includes his four unfinished Prisoners, intended for the tomb of Pope Julius II. In 1939, these were joined by a Pietà discovered in the Barberini chapel in Palestrina, the David in the Accademia is the original. There is a replica in the Piazza della Signoria, as well as a number of Florentine Gothic paintings, the gallery houses the idiosyncratic collection of Russian icons assembled by the Grand Dukes of the House of Lorraine, of which Leopoldo was one.
Media related to Galleria dellAccademia at Wikimedia Commons
Orsanmichele is a church in the Italian city of Florence. The building was constructed on the site of the garden of the monastery of San Michele. Located on the Via Calzaiuoli in Florence, the church was built as a grain market in 1337 by Francesco Talenti, Neri di Fioravante. Between 1380 and 1404, it was converted into a used as the chapel of Florences powerful craft. On the ground floor of the building are the 13th-century arches that originally formed the loggia of the grain market. The second floor was devoted to offices, while the third housed one of the citys municipal grain storehouses, late in the 14th century, the guilds were charged by the city to commission statues of their patron saints to embellish the facades of the church. The sculptures seen today are copies, the originals having been removed to museums, inside the church is Andrea Orcagnas bejeweled Gothic Tabernacle encasing a repainting by Bernardo Daddis of an older icon of the Madonna and Child. The facades held 14 architecturally designed external niches, which were filled from 1399 to around 1430, the three richest guilds opted to make their figures in the far more costly bronze, which cost approximately ten times the amount of the stone figures.
Orsanmicheles statuary is a relic of the devotion and pride of Florentine trades. Today, all of the sculptures have been removed and replaced with modern duplicates to protect them from the elements. The originals mainly reside in the museum of Orsanmichele, which occupies the floor of the church, and can be seen on every Monday. Two works by Donatello are in other Florentine museums, St. George and its niche are in the Bargello, digital Imaging Project, Art historical images of European and North American architecture and sculpture from classical Greek to Post-modern. Museums in Florence - Orsanmichele Church and Museum The Orsanmichele Museum National Gallery of Art, exhibition Orsanmichele khan academy video
The Sagrestia Nuova, was designed by Michelangelo. The larger Cappella dei Principi, though proposed in the 16th century, was not begun until the early 17th century, the Sagrestia Nuova was intended by Cardinal Giulio de Medici and his cousin Pope Leo X as a mausoleum or mortuary chapel for members of the Medici family. The Sagrestia Nuova was entered by an entrance in a corner of San Lorenzos right transept. By order of Cosimo I, Giorgio Vasari and Bartolomeo Ammannati finished the work by 1555, there were intended to be four Medici tombs, but those of Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano were never begun. The result is that the two magnificent existing tombs are those of comparatively insignificant Medici, Lorenzo di Piero, Duke of Urbino and Giuliano di Lorenzo and their architectural components are similar, their sculptures offer contrast. A concealed corridor with drawings on the walls by Michelangelo was discovered under the New Sacristy in 1976, the octagonal Cappella dei Principi surmounted by a tall dome,59 m.
high, is the distinguishing feature of San Lorenzo when seen from a distance. It is on the axis as the nave and chancel to which it provides the equivalent of an apsidal chapel. Its entrance is from the exterior, in Piazza Madonna degli Aldobrandini, the opulent Cappella dei Principi, an idea formulated by Cosimo I, was put into effect by Ferdinand I de Medici. A true expression of art, it was the result of collaboration among designers. For the execution of its astonishing revetment of marbles inlaid with colored marbles and semi-precious stone, the Grand Ducal hardstone workshop, the Opificio delle Pietre Dure was established. The art of commessi, as it was called in Florence, the result was disapproved of by 18th and 19th century visitors, but has come to be appreciated for an example of the taste of its time. Six grand sarcophagi are empty, the Medici remains are interred in the crypt below, in sixteen compartments of the dado are coats-of-arms of Tuscan cities under Medici control. In the niches that were intended to hold sculptures of Medici.
The lantern at the top of the Medici Chapel is made out of marble and has an “…. unusual polyhedron mounted on the peak of the conical roof, the orb that is on top of the lantern has seventy-two facets and is about two feet in diameter. But because it is on a mausoleum, the Medici family is promoting their own personal power with the orb and cross, laurel wreath and lion heads. The lantern that holds up the orb helps to accentuate the height and size of the chapel, the lantern is a bit less than seven meters tall and, “…is equal to the height of the dome it surmounts, ”. The lantern metaphorically expresses the themes of death and resurrection, the lantern is where the soul could escape and go from “…death to the afterlife. ”. ISBN 5-98856-012-1 Peter Barenboim, Sergey Shiyan, Mysteries of the Medici Chapel, SLOVO, ISBN 5-85050-825-2 Peter Barenboim, Sergey Shiyan, Michelangelo in the Medici Chapel, Genius in details
Pietro Dandini was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in Florence. He is called Pier Dandini and he was the son and pupil of the painter Vincenzo Dandini. Pietros uncle, Cesare Dandini, was a prominent painter in Florence, vincenzos sons and Vincenzo Dandini the younger became painters. Among his pupils as Valerio Baldassarri of Pescia, Father Alberico Carlini of Vellano, Gaetano Santarelli Giovanna Fratellini, in addition to having training within the family, he traveled to Bologna, Modena and Rome to learn about art. As a painter, Dandinis styles are eclectic, as reflected in his travels, though he has the high-minded graciousness, Pietro was strongly patronized by members of the Medici Family, including prince Ferdinand and the Grand Duke. Other works in situ include frescoes in the Capella Nuova of Villa La Petraia, murals for Villa Bellavista near Pistoia, the Palazzo Montecitorio in Rome has a series of paintings of the Four Seasons. He painted some pastoral and rustic scenes, prace badawcze i konserwatorskie, Biuletyn Informacyjny Konserwatorów Dzieł Sztuki, 93–95 Entry by Evelina Borea in Dizionario Treccani Media related to Pietro Dandini at Wikimedia Commons
Ospedale degli Innocenti
The Ospedale degli Innocenti is a historic building in Florence, Italy. It was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, who received the commission in 1419 from the Arte della Seta and it was originally a childrens orphanage. It is regarded as a example of early Italian Renaissance architecture. The hospital, which features a nine bay loggia facing the Piazza SS, was built and managed by the Arte della Seta or Silk Guild of Florence. That guild was one of the wealthiest in the city and, like most guilds, the façade is made up of nine semicircular arches springing from columns of the Composite order. The semicircular windows bring the building down, earthbound and is a revival of the classical style, in the spandrels of the arches there are glazed blue terracotta roundels with reliefs of babies designed by Andrea della Robbia suggesting the function of the building. There is an emphasis on the horizontal because the building is longer than it is tall, above each semicircular arch is a tabernacle window.
The clean and clear sense of proportion is reflected in the building, the height of the columns is the same width of the intercolumniation and the width of the arcade is equal to the height of the column, making each bay a cube. The simple proportions of the building reflect a new age, of secular education, half the height of the column is the height of the entablature, which is appropriate for a clear minded society. Children were sometimes abandoned in a basin which was located at the front portico, this basin was removed in 1660 and replaced by a wheel for secret refuge. There was a door with a rotating horizontal wheel that brought the baby into the building without the parent being seen. This allowed people to leave their babies, anonymously, to be cared for by the orphanage and this system was in operation until the hospitals closure in 1875. Today the building houses a museum of Renaissance art with works by Luca della Robbia, Sandro Botticelli, Piero di Cosimo. The Foundling Hospital was constructed in phases and only the first phase was under Brunelleschi’s direct supervision.
Later phases added the story, but omitted the pilasters that Brunelleschi seems to have envisioned. The vaulted passageway in the bay to the left of the loggia was added later. Since the loggia was started before the hospital was begun, the hospital was not formally opened until 1445, brunelleschis design was based on Classical Roman, Italian Romanesque and late Gothic architecture. The loggia was a well known building type, such as the Loggia dei Lanzi, but the use of round columns with classically correct capitals, in this case of the Composite Order, in conjunction with a dosserets was novel