Roque González y de Santa Cruz
Not to be mistaken for footballer Roque Santa Cruz. Roque González de Santa Cruz, S. J. was a Jesuit priest, the first missionary among the Guarani people in Paraguay. He is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church. González was born in the City of Asunción, now part of Paraguay, on 17 November 1576, he was the son of the Spanish colonists Bartolomé González y de Villaverde and María de Santa Cruz, who were both from noble families. Due to the large native population in the region, he spoke Guaraní fluently from an early age, as well as his native Spanish. In 1598, at the age of 23, González was ordained a priest by Fernando Trexo y Senabria, O. F. M; the Bishop of Córdoba, to serve that diocese. In 1609 he became a member of the Society of Jesus, beginning his work as a missionary in what is now Brazil, he became the first European person to enter the region known today as the State of Rio Grande do Sul, extending the system of Jesuit reductions begun in Paraguay to that region. González' arrival in the area happened only after his developing delicate relationships of trust with local indigenous leaders, some of whom feared that the priests were preparing the way for the arrival of masses of Spanish colonists in their land.
In 1613 González led the founding of the Reduction of San Ignacio Miní. In 1615 he founded Itapúa, now the City of Posadas in the Argentine Province of Misiones, he had to move the reduction to the other side of the river, now the site of the City of Encarnación. He founded the reductions of Concepción de la Sierra Candelaria, San Javier, Yapeyú, San Nicolás, Asunción del Ijuí, Caaró. In the region of Iyuí, he had difficulties with the local chieftain and sorcerer Ñezú. On 15 November 1628, while preparing to oversee the installation of a new bell for the church at the Mission of Todos los Santos de Caaró, González was struck down and killed with a tomahawk, along with his fellow Jesuit, Juan del Castillo, S. J. upon the orders of the local chieftain Nheçu. After their deaths, their bodies were dragged into the church, set ablaze. Two days their colleague, Alonso Rodríguez y Olmedo, S. J. was murdered by followers of Ñezú. González was beatified by Pope Pius XI on 28 January 1934, he and his companions were canonized by Pope John Paul II in Asunción, thus becoming the first native of Paraguay to be declared a saint by the Catholic Church.
González has been named the patron saint of the cities of Posadas and Encarnación, Paraguay. Liturgically he is commemorated on 16 November, along with the other "Martyrs of the Rio de la Plata". González' heart and the weapon which killed him are in the Chapel of the Martyrs in his native city of Asunción. Ghezzi, Bert. "St. Roque González, SJ", Voices of the Saints, ISBN 978-0-8294-2806-3 Clement J. McNaspy, S. J.: Conquistador without Sword. The Life of Roque González, S. J. Chicago, Loyola University Press, 1984, 206pp.'Os Olhos do Pe. Roque' or'Father Roque's Eyes'
Encarnación is a district and the capital city of Itapúa Department in Paraguay, located at the south-east of the department, on the right-hand shore of the Paraná River, opposite Posadas, Argentina. The city has an area of 274 km² and a population of 93,497. Encarnación is the third-largest city of Paraguay. Encarnación is connected to the Argentine city of Posadas by the San Roque González de Santa Cruz Bridge and the International Train; the city is located on Route 1, some 370 km from Asunción, located on Route 6, some 280 km from Ciudad del Este. The Teniente Amin Ayub Gonzalez Airport, at coordinates 27°13′23″S 55°50′03″W, is 12 kilometres from the city, is the third most important airport of the country. Encarnación is the capital of the department of Itapúa and has a total population of 93,497 and an urban population of 67,173 according to the 2002 National Census. Most of the inhabitants are of mixed Spanish and Amerindian descent as in the rest of Paraguay but there are minorities of Germans and Poles.
The city is the largest settlement of Ukrainians in Paraguay. The mission called Anunciación de Itapua was founded by the Paraguayan Jesuit San Roque González de Santa Cruz on March 25, 1615 on the southern side of the Paraná river; that mission was relocated to the north side in the current location of the city in 1703 under the name Encarncación de Itapua. It gained in importance after the coming of the railway in 1894. In 1957, the city was made the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Encarnación; because of its mild climate Encarnación is called "The Pearl of the South". Encarnación was the birthplace of Alfredo Stroessner and head of state of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989; the city experienced a radical change, with the loss of the "Zona Baja" because the "Plan de Terminación Yacyretá" giving way to a renewed modern city with wide avenues, etc.. Encarnación has become the tourism capital of the country, with its wide beaches and newly completed waterfront boardwalk; the city is located near the Jesús and Trinidad Jesuit Ruins, declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1993.
In 2015 Encarnacion reached a new peak in tourists. With more than 30 000 people going there for their vacation Jaime Fernandez, head of the Hotel Association of Encarnación, confirmed that there were no places available throughout the Encarnacion and lodgings were improvised 50 km around the city. On December 2011 the Costanera Avenue was inaugurated and with it three beaches were opened to the public; these three beaches were the Mbói Ka’e Beach, the Pacu Cuá Beach, the San José Beach. From the three beaches the San José Beach is the most visited by tourists and has several restaurants at the tourists disposal. Furthermore, another big touristic attraction is the annually celebrated Carnaval Encarnaceno in February; this event attracts more than 100,000 people every year and marks the summer high season in tourism for the city. Different clubs will compete against each other on a parade in which they will be qualified by a group of judges under the following criteria: originality, charisma, rhythm and elegance.
Encarnación has a humid subtropical climate. The summers are hot and humid, winters are temperate and cool. Due to its geographical position in the extreme south of the country Encarnación is the coldest city in Paraguay. Encarnación registered snowfall in the first time in the history of Paraguay; the annual mean temperature is 21 °C. The annual mean relative humidity is 77%. Carnival in Encarnacion Official site World Gazeteer: Paraguay – World-Gazetteer.com multimedia in youtube
San Cosme y Damián
San Cosme y Damián is a district in the Itapúa Department of Paraguay. World Gazeteer: Paraguay– World-Gazetteer.com
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Departments of Paraguay
Paraguay consists of 17 departments and one capital district. The country is divided into two regions: The "Occidental Region" or Chaco, the "Oriental Region". Ranked list of Paraguayan departments List of regions of Paraguay by Human Development Index ISO 3166-2:PY "Departments of Paraguay". Statoids
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, level 3 secondary education is the stage before tertiary education; every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19. Since 1989, education has been seen as a basic human right for a child; the terminology has proved difficult, there was no universal definition before ISCED divided the period between primary education and university into junior secondary education and upper secondary education. In classical and mediaeval times secondary education was provided by the church for the sons of nobility and to boys preparing for universities and the priesthood.
As trade required navigational and scientific skills the church reluctantly expanded the curriculum and widened the intake. With the Reformation the state wrestled the control of learning from the church, with Comenius and John Locke education changed from being repetition of Latin text to building up knowledge in the child. Education was for the few. Up to the middle of the 19th century, secondary schools were organised to satisfy the needs of different social classes with the labouring classes getting 4 years, the merchant class 5 years and the elite getting 7 years; the rights to a secondary education were codified after 1945, countries are still working to achieve the goal of mandatory and free secondary education for all youth under 19. Secondary education is in most countries the phase in the education continuum responsible for the development of the young during their adolescence, the most rapid phase of their physical and emotional growth, it is at this education level in its first cycle, where values and attitudes formed at primary school are more ingrained alongside the acquisition of knowledge and skills.
The 1997 International Standard Classification of Education describes seven levels that can be used to compare education internationally. Within a country these can be implemented in different ways, with different age levels and local denominations; the seven levels are: Level 0 – Pre-primary education Level 1 – Primary education or first stage of basic education Level 2 – Lower secondary or second stage of basic education Level 3 – secondary education Level 4 – Post-secondary non-tertiary education Level 5 – First stage of tertiary education Level 6 – Second stage of tertiary educationWithin this system, Levels 1 and 2 – that is, primary education and lower secondary – together form basic education. Beyond that, national governments may attach the label of secondary education to Levels 2 through 4 together, Levels 2 and 3 together, or Level 2 alone; these level definition were put together for statistical purposes, to allow the gathering of comparative data nationally and internationally.
They were approved by the UNESCO General Conference at its 29th session in November 1997. Though they may be dated, they do provide a universal set of definitions and remain unchanged in the 2011 update; the start of lower secondary education is characterised by the transition from the single-class-teacher, who delivers all content to a cohort of pupils, to one where content is delivered by a series of subject specialists. Its educational aim is to complete provision of basic education and to lay the foundations for lifelong learning. Lower secondary education is to show these criteria: entry after some 6 years of primary education the requirement for more qualified teachers teaching only within their specialism exit to Level 3 courses, or vocational education, or employment after 9 or more total years of education; the end of lower secondary education coincides with the end of compulsory education in countries where that exists. Secondary education starts on the completion of basic education, defined as completion of lower secondary education.
The educational focus is varied according to the student's interests and future direction. Education at this level is voluntary. Secondary education is to show these criteria: entry after some 9 years of basic education typical age at entry is between 14 and 16 years all teachers have level 5 qualifications in the subject they are teaching exit to Level 4 or 5 courses or to direct employment. More subjects may be dropped, increased specialism occurs. Completion of secondary education provides the entry requirements to Level 5 tertiary education, the entry requirements to technical or vocational education, or direct entry into the workplace. In 2012 the ISCED published a further work on education levels where it codified particular paths and redefined the tertiary levels. Lower secondary education and secondary education could last between 2 and 5 years, the transition between two would be when students were allowed some subject choice. Terminology for secondary schools varies by country, the exact meaning of any of these varies.
Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda was a Paraguayan Army officer who served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. He ascended to the position after leading an army coup in 1954, his 35-year-long rule, marked by an uninterrupted period of repression in his country, is the longest in modern South American history. Stroessner's rule is ranked 20th-longest among non-royal national leaders since 1900 and made him one of the world's longest-serving non-royal heads of state. In 1954, he ousted Federico Chávez, becoming president after winning an election in which he was the sole candidate. A staunch anti-communist, Stroessner had the backing of the United States for most of his time in power, his supporters packed the legislature and ran the courts, he ruthlessly suppressed all opposition. He kept his country in what he called a constant "state of siege" that overruled civil liberties, enforced a cult of personality, tortured and killed political opponents. Membership in his Colorado Party was a prerequisite for job promotion, free medical care and other services.
The constitution had to be modified in 1967 and 1977 to legitimize his six consecutive elections to the presidency. Stroessner provided exile for Nicaragua's Anastasio Somoza Debayle. In 1988, he won an unprecedented eighth term on a majority, according to official figures, of over 89 percent of the registered vote. Less than a year he was overthrown in a military coup d'état led by his former confidant, General Andrés Rodríguez, forced into exile in Brazil, where he spent the last 17 years of his life. Following a bout of pneumonia, he tried to return to his homeland to die, but was rejected by the government, he died in Brasília on August 2006, of complications from a hernia operation. Stroessner's parents were Hugo Strößner, who emigrated from Hof, Bavaria and worked as an accountant for a brewery, Heriberta Matiauda, who grew up in a wealthy Paraguayan family of Criollo Spanish descent. Stroessner was born in Encarnación on November 3, 1912, he enrolled in the Francisco López Military Academy in 1929, received his commission as a lieutenant in the Paraguayan Army in 1931.
In 1932, he fought against Bolivian forces in the Battle of Boquerón during the Chaco War. After the war he rose in rank; when the Paraguayan Civil War broke out in 1947, he commanded the artillery division at Paraguarí that ensured that President Higinio Morínigo won the war by destroying a working-class rebel area of Asunción. President Morínigo found Stroessner's military skills useful and promoted him rapidly; as one of the few officers who had remained loyal to Morínigo, Stroessner became a formidable political and social player once he entered the higher echelons of the Paraguayan armed forces. He became a brigadier — and the youngest general officer in South America — in 1948, his accurate political sense failed him only once, when he found himself in 1948 on the wrong side of a failed coup attempt and had to be driven to the Brazilian embassy in the trunk of a car, earning him the nickname of "Colonel Trunk". Stroessner backed Felipe Molas López in a successful coup against Juan Natalicio González.
He backed Federico Chávez against Molas López and by 1951 he was Commander-in-chief of the Armed forces of Paraguay in 1951. Stroessner objected to President Federico Chávez's plans to arm the national police and threw him out of office in a coup on May 4, 1954. After a brief interim presidency by Tomás Romero, Stroessner was the only candidate in a special election on July 11 to complete Chávez's term, he was reelected seven times—in 1958, 1963, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1983 and 1988. He appeared alone on the ballot in 1958. In his other elections, he won by implausibly high margins, he served for 35 years, with only Fidel Castro having a longer tenure among 20th-century Latin American leaders. Soon after taking office, Stroessner declared a state of siege, which allowed him to suspend civil liberties; the state-of-siege provisions allowed the government to arrest and detain anyone indefinitely without trial, as well as forbid public meetings and demonstrations. It was renewed every 90 days until 1987, except for a brief period in 1959.
Although it technically only applied to Asunción after 1970, the courts ruled that anyone charged with security offenses could be brought to the capital and charged under the state-of-siege provisions—even if the offense took place outside the capital. Apart from one 24-hour period on election days, Stroessner ruled under what amounted to martial law for nearly all of his tenure. A devoted anti-communist who brought Paraguay into the World Anti-Communist League, he justified his repression as a necessary measure to protect the country. Paraguay enjoyed close military and economic ties with the United States and supported US invasion of the Dominican Republic; the Stroessner regime offered to send troops to Vietnam alongside the Americans. The United States played a "critical supporting role" in the domestic affairs of Stoessner's Paraguay. Between 1962 and 1975 the US provided $146 million to Paraguay's military government and Paraguayan officers were trained at the US Army School of the Americas.
Although the military and security forces under Stroessner received less material support from the United States than other South American countries, strong inter-military connections existed through military advisors and military training. Between 1962 and 1966, nearly 400 Paraguayan military personnel were trained