Battle of San Jacinto
The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 18 minutes. A detailed, first-hand account of the battle was written by General Houston from Headquarters of the Texian Army, San Jacinto, on April 25, 1836. Numerous secondary analyses and interpretations have followed, several of which are cited and discussed throughout this entry. General Santa Anna, the President of Mexico, General Martín Perfecto de Cos both escaped during the battle. Santa Anna was captured the next day on April 22 and Cos on April 24, 1836. After being held about three weeks as a prisoner of war, Santa Anna signed the peace treaty that dictated that the Mexican army leave the region, paving the way for the Republic of Texas to become an independent country; these treaties did not recognize Texas as a sovereign nation, but stipulated that Santa Anna was to lobby for such recognition in Mexico City.
Sam Houston became a national celebrity, the Texans' rallying cries from events of the war, "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!" became etched into Texan history and legend. General Antonio López de Santa Anna was a proponent of governmental federalism when he helped oust Mexican president Anastasio Bustamante in December 1832. Upon his election as president in April 1833, Santa Anna switched his political ideology and began implementing centralist policies that increased the authoritarian powers of his office, his abrogation of the Constitution of 1824, correlating with his abolishing local-level authority over Mexico's state of Coahuila y Tejas, became a flashpoint in the growing tensions between the central government and its Tejano and Anglo citizens in Texas. While in Mexico City awaiting a meeting with Santa Anna, Texian empresario Stephen F. Austin wrote to the Béxar ayuntamiento urging a break-away state. In response, the Mexican government kept him imprisoned for most of 1834.
Colonel Juan Almonte was appointed Director of Colonization in Texas, ostensibly to ease relations with the colonists and mitigate their anxieties about Austin's imprisonment. He delivered promises of self-governance, conveyed regrets that the Mexican congress deemed it constitutionally impossible for Texas to be a separate state. Behind the rhetoric, his covert mission was to identify the local power brokers, obstruct any plans for rebellion, supply the Mexican government with data that would be of use in a military conflict. For nine months in 1834, under the guise of serving as a government liaison, Almonte traveled through Texas and compiled an all-encompassing intelligence report on the population and its environs, including an assessment of their resources and defense capabilities. In consolidating his power base, Santa Anna installed General Martín Perfecto de Cos as the governing military authority over Texas in 1835. Cos established headquarters in San Antonio on October 9, triggering what became known as the Siege of Béxar.
After two months of trying to repel the Texian forces, Cos raised a white flag on December 9, signed surrender terms two days later. The surrender of Cos removed the occupying Mexican army from Texas. Many believed the war was over, volunteers began returning home. In compliance with orders from Santa Anna, Mexico's Minister of War José María Tornel issued his December 30 "Circular No. 5" referred to as the Tornel Decree, aimed at dealing with United States intervention in the uprising in Texas. It declared that foreigners who entered Mexico for the purpose of joining the rebellion were to be treated as "pirates", to be put to death if captured. In adding "since they are not subjects of any nation at war with the republic nor do they militate under any recognized flag," Tornel avoided declaring war on the United States; the Mexican Army of Operations numbered 6,019 soldiers and was spread out over 300 miles on its march to Béxar. General Joaquín Ramírez y Sesma was put in command of the Vanguard of the Advance that crossed into Texas.
Santa Anna and his aide-de-camp Almonte forded the Rio Grande at Guerrero, Coahuila on February 16, 1836, with General José de Urrea and 500 more troops following the next day at Matamoros. Béxar was captured on February 23 and when the assault commenced, attempts at negotiation for surrender were initiated from inside the fortress. Travis sent Albert Martin to request a meeting with Almonte, who replied that he did not have the authority to speak for Santa Anna. Bowie dispatched Green B. Jameson with a letter, translated into Spanish by Juan Seguín, requesting a meeting with Santa Anna, who refused. Santa Anna did, extend an offer of amnesty to Tejanos inside the fortress. Alamo non-combatant survivor Enrique Esparza said that most Tejanos left when Bowie advised them to take the offer. Cos, in violation of his surrender terms, forded into Texas at Guerrero on February 26 to join with the main army at Béxar. Urrea proceeded to secure the Gulf Coast, was victorious in two skirmishes with Texian detachments serving under Fannin at Goliad.
On February 27 a foraging detachment under Frank W. Johnson at San Patricio was attacked by Urrea. Sixteen were killed, 21 taken prisoner, but Johnson and 4 others escaped. Urrea sent a company to Agua Dulce searching for James Grant and Plácido Benavides who were leading a company of Anglos and Tejanos towards an invasion of Matamoros; the Mexicans set a trap, killing most of the company. Benavides and 4 others escaped, 6 were taken prisoner; the Convention of 1836 met at Washington-on-the-Brazos on March 1. The following day, Sam Hou
Montgomery County, Texas
Montgomery County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 455,746. A 2016 estimate places the population at 556,203; the county seat is Conroe. The county was created by an act of the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 14, 1837 and is named for the town of Montgomery. Between 2000 and 2010, its population grew by 55%, the 24th-fastest rate of growth of any county in the United States. Montgomery County is part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,077 square miles, of which 1,042 square miles are land and 35 square miles are covered by water. Walker County San Jacinto County Liberty County Harris County Waller County Grimes County Sam Houston National Forest As of the 2010 census, there were 455,746 people, 162,530 households, 121,472 families residing in the county; the population density was 423 people per square mile. There were 177,647 housing units at an average density of 165 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 83.5% White, 4.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.0% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. 20.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 162,530 households out of which 36.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.70% had a male householder with no wife present, 25.30% were non-families. 20.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, 27.60% of the population was under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.29 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.94 males.
As of the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the county was $50,864, the median income for a family was $58,983. Males had a median income of $42,400 versus $28,270 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,544. About 7.10% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.90% of those under age 18 and 10.10% of those age 65 or over. From 2010-2016, 54% of all vehicle-related fatalities in the county were related to the use of controlled substances, including alcohol, marijuana and synthetic drugs. According to Tyler Dunman, Montgomery County assistant district attorney 60-70% of all crime in the county is connected to substance abuse. Montgomery County is one of the most Republican counties in Texas, giving 78.1 percent of its vote to George W. Bush in 2004 and 75.8% of its vote to John McCain in 2008. The county has not been won by a Democratic presidential candidate since native Texan Lyndon Johnson won 60.9% of the county's vote in 1964.
In 1968, George Wallace, running as a third-party candidate, won the county, whilst in 1948, “States’ Rights” candidate Strom Thurmond had won over 29 percent of the vote to make Montgomery his fourth-strongest county in Texas, in 1992, Ross Perot, another third-party candidate received more votes than Democratic candidate Bill Clinton. In 2016, it was the only county in the United States which Republican nominee Donald Trump won against Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton by a margin of greater than 100,000 votes. Several school districts operate public schools in the county: Conroe ISD Magnolia ISD Montgomery ISD New Caney ISD Richards ISD Splendora ISD Tomball ISD Willis ISD Covenant Christian School Christ Community School Esprit International School The Woodlands Christian Academy The John Cooper School St. Anthony Of Padua Catholic School The Woodlands Preparatory School Porter Christian Academy Cunae International School Willis Classical Academy The county is home to two campuses of the Lone Star College System: Montgomery and The University Center.
The county operates the Montgomery County Memorial Library System. Lone Star Executive Airport, a general-aviation airport, is located in Conroe; the Houston Airport System stated that Montgomery County is within the primary service area of George Bush Intercontinental Airport, an international airport in Houston in Harris County. William P. Hobby Airport in Houston in Harris County operates regular commercial service. Interstate 45 Interstate 69/U. S. Highway 59 State Highway 75 State Highway 99 - Grand Parkway Toll Road State Highway 105 State Highway 242 State Highway 249 Montgomery County has several toll roads within its borders, most of which are operated as "pass-through toll roads" or shadow toll roads; the only true toll road within the county is State Highway 99 until the extension of State Highway 249 is completed. Montgomery County operates two direct-connect flyover ramps that connect between State Highway 242 and Interstate 45, located in The Woodlands. Roman Forest Stagecoach Woodloch Pinehurst Porter Heights The Woodlands List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast Earth Quest Adventures National Register of Historic Places listings in Montgomery County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Montgomery County Montgomery County government's website Montgomery County in the Handbook of Texas Online from The University of Texas at Austin History of the Lake Creek Settlem
Walker County, Texas
Walker County is a county located in the east central section of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 67,861, its county seat is Huntsville. Walker County was named for Robert J. Walker, a legislator from Mississippi who introduced into the United States Congress the resolution to annex Texas. Walker supported the Union during the Civil War and earned some enmity. In order to keep the county's name, the state renamed it for Samuel H. Walker, a Texas Ranger and soldier in the United States Army. Walker County is part of the Huntsville, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Houston–The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area. Americans James Mitchell and his wife, the former Calpernia Franklin, immigrated to the future Walker County in 1833 and were awarded a Mexican land grant. Mitchell, who became one of the first county commissioners, established the Mitchell House and Inn on the Old San Antonio Road known as El Camino Real. During the 1840s, the house was a stop for hungry stagecoach travelers.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 802 square miles, of which 784 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. Interstate 45 U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 19 State Highway 30 State Highway 75 Houston County Trinity County San Jacinto County Montgomery County Grimes County Madison County Sam Houston National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 61,758 people, 18,303 households, 11,384 families residing in the county; the population density was 78 people per square mile. There were 21,099 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.12% White, 23.88% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.42% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. 14.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,303 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.80% were married couples living together, 11.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.80% were non-families.
27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 18.00% under the age of 18, 23.00% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, 8.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 151.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 161.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,468, the median income for a family was $42,589. Males had a median income of $27,634 versus $22,579 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,508. About 10.60% of families and 18.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.10% of those under age 18 and 13.40% of those age 65 or over. Sam Houston State University is located in Huntsville. School districts serving portions of the county include: Huntsville Independent School District New Waverly Independent School District Richards Independent School District Trinity Independent School District The Gulf Coast Trades Center, a charter school, is in an unincorporated area of the county.
The headquarters of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the Texas agency that operates adult state correctional facilities, are in Huntsville. Walker County has the highest number of state jails of all of the counties in Texas. Several TDCJ prisons for men, including the Byrd Unit, the Goree Unit, the Huntsville Unit, the Wynne Unit, are in the Huntsville city limits; the Holliday Unit, a transfer unit, is in Huntsville. In addition the Ellis Unit and the Estelle Unit are in unincorporated areas of Walker County; the Huntsville Unit houses the State of Texas execution chamber. Huntsville New Waverly Riverside Dodge Eugene C. Barker Marilyn McAdams Sibley Walker County Jane Doe, an unidentified teenager or young woman found murdered on November 1, 1980 National Register of Historic Places listings in Walker County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Walker County John N. Raney Kate Borcherding Walker County government's website Walker County from the Handbook of Texas Online
Interstate 69 in Texas
Interstate 69 is an Interstate Highway in the U. S. state of Texas, planned to pass through the eastern part of the state and along the Gulf Coast to Victoria, where it will split into multiple segments with I-69E terminating in Brownsville, I-69C terminating in Pharr, I-69W terminating in Laredo. The first segment of I-69 in Texas was opened in 2011 near Corpus Christi; the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials approved an additional 53 miles of US 77 from Brownsville to Raymondville for designation as I-69, to be signed as I-69E upon concurrence from the Federal Highway Administration. FHWA approval for this segment was announced on May 29, 2013. By March 2015, a 74.9 mile section of US-59 had been completed and designated as I-69 through the Houston Metropolitan Area. The congressionally designated I-69 corridor begins at the Mexican border with 3 auxiliary routes: I-69W begins at the entrance to the World Trade International Bridge, which connects to Mexican Federal Highway 85D, near the border in Laredo.
It is co-signed with both US 59 and Loop 20 and extends 1.4 miles to I-35. It will continue on US 59 east to George West, where it will intersect I-69C, it will intersect I-37 east of George West, it will continue east to Victoria. I-69C begins in Pharr at I-2 and is designated for 18 miles through Edinburg and co-signed with US 281, it will continue north along US 281 to George West, where it will intersect I-69W and terminate at this point. I-69E begins just north of the Veterans International Bridge. 101 and Fed. 180, near the border in Brownsville and continues for 53.3 miles through Olmito, where it intersects I-169 and through Harlingen, where it intersects I-2 and past Raymondville and co-signed with US 77, it is co-signed with US 83 from Brownsville to Harlingen. The route will follow the US 77 corridor north to Corpus Christi, where a 7.8-mile segment is designated as I-69E and co-signed with US 77 and intersects I-37, it will continue north to Victoria. I-69W and I-69E will merge just south of Victoria, where mainline I-69 will follow US 59 northeast to Fort Bend County.
In the Houston area, I-69 follows US 59 from Fort Bend County to the west loop of I-610. I-69 follows US 59 from the north loop of I-610 to the Liberty-Montgomery county line; the segment of US 59 inside Loop I-610, through downtown Houston, was approved for designation as I-69 by the FHWA on March 9, 2015 and approved for signage as I-69 by the Texas Transportation Commission on March 25, 2015. I-69 will follow US 59 to the north, serving Cleveland, Livingston, Lufkin and Tenaha. At Tenaha, I-69 will head into Louisiana along the US 84 corridor; the segment of US 59 from Tenaha to Texarkana will be signed as I-369. Since the first section of US 77 between Corpus Christi and Robstown was signed as I-69, it implied that the I-69 mainline would follow the coastal route from Victoria to Brownsville; this implied that the branch along US 59 from Victoria to Laredo and the branch along US 281 from George West to Pharr would be signed as either three-digit spurs of I-69 or as separate two-digit Interstate Highways.
While federal legislation designating the south Texas branches as I-69 suggested that these routes may be designated as "I-69E", "I-69C", "I-69W", the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Special Committee on Route Numbering rejected the Texas Department of Transportation's request for these three designations along the proposed I-69 branches, citing that AASHTO policy no longer allows Interstate Highways to be signed as suffixed routes. Stating that the I-69E, I-69C, I-69W designations for the three I-69 branches south of Victoria were written into federal law, the initial denial of TxDOT's applications were subsequently overturned by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Highways, the approval for the I-69E, I-69C, I-69W branch designations were confirmed by the AASHTO Board of Directors, pending concurrence from the Federal Highway Administration during the AASHTO Spring Meeting on May 7, 2013. During this same meeting, the section of US 83 between Harlingen and Penitas was conditionally approved to be designated as I-2, with FHWA concurrence.
The US 83 freeway in south Texas was anticipated to receive an I-x69 designation instead of I-2. In any case, Texas is proceeding in the same fashion as Indiana, conducting environmental studies for its portion of I-69 in a two-tier process; the mainline route through Texas will be 500 miles. On June 11, 2008, TxDOT announced they planned to limit further study of I-69 to existing highway corridors outside transition zones in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Laredo and Texarkana. Texas sought a public-private partnership to construct much of the route through Texas as a operated toll road under the failed Trans-Texas Corridor project. However, on June 26, 2008, TxDOT announced that they had approved a proposal by Zachry American and ACS Infrastructure to develop the I-69 corridor in Texas, beginning with upgrades to the US 77 corridor between Brownsville and I-37. Original plans for the route included a potential overlap with the "TTC-35" corridor component as well, but the preferred alternative for that component follows I-
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Liberty County, Texas
Liberty County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 75,653; the county seat is Liberty. The county was created in 1831 as a municipality in Mexico and organized as a county in 1837, it is named for the popular American ideal of liberty. Liberty County is included in the Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,176 square miles, of which 1,158 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water; the Trinity River flows through this county, dividing the county in half. The river begins on the northern border of Liberty County, forming the San Jacinto - Polk County line through the Liberty County line; the east fork of the San Jacinto River flows through far Northeast parts of the county, Flowing through Cleveland. Tarkington Bayou begins in the Sam Houston National Forest in San Jacinto County, working its way south through Northeast and east Liberty County and joining other feeders, before traveling into Harris County and emptying into Galveston Bay.
The highest point in Liberty County is "Davis Hill", the roof of a salt dome in the northern part of the county. Polk County Hardin County Jefferson County Chambers County Harris County Montgomery County San Jacinto County Big Thicket National Preserve Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 70,154 people, 23,242 households, 17,756 families residing in the county; the population density was 60 people per square mile. There were 26,359 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.90% White, 12.82% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.03% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. 10.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 23,242 households out of which 38.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.50% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.60% were non-families.
20.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 31.60% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 10.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,361, the median income for a family was $43,744. Males had a median income of $37,957 versus $22,703 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,539. About 11.10% of families and 14.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.30% of those under age 18 and 15.00% of those age 65 or over. Of Liberty County's residents, 8.8% have a college degree, the lowest percentage of any U. S. county with a population exceeding 50,000.
Liberty County strongly Democratic like much of the rest of Texas, has trended Republican in recent years. District 3: Robert Nichols - first elected in 2006 District 18: Ernest Bailes - first elected in 2016 Around 1995 the economy of Liberty County was focused on agriculture and oil; as of that year the economy of Liberty County was struggling. At that time the Texas Department of Criminal Justice had established four correctional facilities in the county within a six-year span; as of 1995 the facilities employed 1,045 employees and contributed $22 million in the county's annual payroll. Since Cleveland is a operated facility, the county receives tax revenue from the prison's operation. Where "ISD" means "Independent School District". Dayton ISD Liberty ISD Cleveland ISD Tarkington ISD Hardin ISD Hull-Daisetta ISD Devers ISDThe Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, operated by the Texas State Library and Archives Commission is located 3 miles north of Liberty in an unincorporated area.
Judge and Mrs. Price Daniel donated 114 114 acres of land for the purpose of establishing a library on September 27, 1973. Construction began in the fall of 1975; the library opened on May 14, 1977. Outside of the city limits ambulance services are provided by Liberty County EMS, Cleveland EMS. Fire protection is provided through Volunteer Fire Departments, four of which in Liberty County are funded by Emergency Services Districts; the headquarters of the Liberty County Sheriff's Office is within the city of Liberty. Most incorporated areas operate their own police departments, including Cleveland, Dayton and Liberty. Liberty County operates the Liberty County Sheriff's Office, which serves unincorporated areas and supplements police forces of incorporated areas. Liberty County has a constable for each of its six precincts and deputies assigned to each. Incorporated cities of Cleveland and Liberty operate their own fire departments staffed by a combination of paid and volunteers. Both departments cover territory outside their respective city limits.
Unincorporated areas have fire service through Volunteer Fire Departments. Fire departments serving unincorporated areas: Ames VFD 1 Station Cleveland VFD 2 Stations
Trinity County, Texas
Trinity County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,585, its county seat is Groveton. The county is named for the Trinity River. Trinity County is included in the Huntsville, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Houston-The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 714 square miles, of which 694 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. Angelina County Polk County San Jacinto County Walker County Houston County Davy Crockett National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 13,779 people, 5,723 households, 4,000 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 8,141 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.75% White, 11.92% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.66% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races.
4.85% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,723 households out of which 25.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 26.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.90% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 22.30% from 25 to 44, 25.80% from 45 to 64, 22.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,070, the median income for a family was $32,304. Males had a median income of $27,518 versus $21,696 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,472.
About 13.20% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.80% of those under age 18 and 13.90% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Trinity County: Apple Springs Independent School District Groveton Independent School District Trinity Independent School District Centerville Independent School DistrictA small portion of Kennard ISD, located in neighboring Houston County, goes into Trinity County. U. S. Highway 287 State Highway 19 State Highway 94 Union Pacific operates a freight line running north-south through Trinity County. Groveton Trinity Westwood Shores Center Point Friendship Saron SumpterSaunders National Register of Historic Places listings in Trinity County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Trinity County Media related to Trinity County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons Trinity County government's website Trinity County from the Handbook of Texas Online Groveton Times & Trinity Standard A History Of Trinity County 1827-1928 by Flora Gatlin Bowles Cadastral Map of Trinity County 1857 by John Baumgarthen Cadastral Map of Trinity County 1882 by V Schmidt