Dublin/Pleasanton is a Bay Area Rapid Transit station on the border of Dublin and Pleasanton. The eastern end of the Dublin/Pleasanton–Daly City line, it is a major bus terminal served by six providers; the station consists of an island platform located in the center median of the elevated Interstate 580. A fare lobby is located under the platform; the Iron Horse Regional Trail connects to south sides of the station. Service at the station began on May 10, 1997. Original plans in the late 1980s called for a station in West Dublin, with an East Dublin station near the Hacienda Business Park to be added later; the station was known as East Dublin/Pleasanton during planning to differentiate it from the planned West Dublin/Pleasanton station. However, it has been known as Dublin/Pleasanton since opening; the station features a "wave" design motif, most notably in the titanium canopy roof over the passenger platform, which has a silhouette of five curves intended to both echo the shape of the nearby hills in Dublin and "represent the sound waves generated by BART's electric propulsion."An adjacent transit-oriented development on the Dublin side of the station finished initial construction in 2006.
The development included a 1,513-space BART parking garage, which opened on May 23, 2008. According to its architects, the "external design treatments... draw the eye away from the height and size", but the San Francisco Chronicle's urban design critic John King dismissed the result as "cartoonishly clumsy."The construction of a second 665-space garage, promised by BART in 2002, proved controversial. A $37.1 million design was brought forward in February 2017. The Board instead approved a $17.2 million "hybrid" model that included restriping existing parking, improving bus service and Iron Horse Regional Trail connections, installation of an automated parking system. In May 2018, local officials announced plans for a $30 million garage on city-owned land and not subject to BART approval; the project will use $20 million in state funds awarded to the Livermore Amador Valley Transit Authority plus $10 million in local funds. As the terminus of a BART line, Dublin/Pleasanton station serves as a intercity bus hub.
A 10-bay bus plaza is located on the north side of the station. Two local bus providers use these bays for a number of routes that run in the Tri-Valley: County Connection: 35, 36, 97X WHEELS: 1, 2, 3, 8, 10R, 14, 20X, 30R, 54, 70X, 580XBecause I-580 is the primary highway from the Bay Area to the Central Valley, the station is the western terminus for several lengthy commuter-based routes from Central Valley cities; those three routes, plus several daily Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach trips connecting with the San Joaquin, stop next to the parking garage north of the station. Modesto Area Express: MAX BART Express San Joaquin Regional Transit District: Route 150 Stanislaus Regional Transit: StaRT Commuter Two Early Bird Express routes - the WHEELS-operated route 711 and AC Transit-operated route 703 - stop adjacent to the garage. Tri-Delta Transit ran a Delta Express route from Antioch to West Dublin/Pleasanton station via Brentwood and Dublin/Pleasanton station from August 18, 2003 to February 24, 2012.
BART - Dublin/Pleasanton
San Joaquin (train)
The San Joaquin is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak in California's Central Valley. Seven round-trip trains a day run between its southern terminus at Bakersfield and Stockton, where the route splits to Oakland or Sacramento; the route has an extensive network of dedicated Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach buses that are critical to the performance of the service. In 2016, over 55% of passengers used an Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach on at least one end of their trip. Buses are timed to meet trains and offer connections to points in Southern California, the city of San Francisco, the Central Coast, the North Coast, the High Desert, Redding and the Yosemite Valley; the San Joaquin is Amtrak's sixth-busiest service in the nation and the railroad's third-busiest in the state of California. During fiscal year 2016, the service carried 1,122,301 passengers, a 4.7% decrease from FY2015. Total revenue during FY2016 was US$35,585,570, a 4.8% decrease over FY2015. Like all regional trains in California, the San Joaquin is operated by a joint powers authority.
The San Joaquin Joint Powers Authority is governed by a board that includes two elected representatives from each of eight counties the train travels through. The SJJPA contracts with the San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission to provide day-to-day management of the service and with contracts with Amtrak to operate the service and maintain the rolling stock; the California Department of Transportation provides the funding to operate the service and owns the rolling stock. The San Joaquin runs over lines; the top trains were the Golden Gate on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, the San Joaquin Daylight on the Southern Pacific Railroad. Prior to 1960s service cutbacks passenger service continued south of Bakersfield, to Glendale and Los Angeles. In April 1965 as ridership on passenger trains continued to drop, the Santa Fe Railway received permission from the Interstate Commerce Commission to curtail Golden Gate operations, with service abandoned three years later; the San Joaquin Daylight was discontinued with the start-up of Amtrak in May 1971.
Other passenger trains that ran through the Central Valley included Southern Pacific's Owl and Santa Fe's San Francisco Chief and Valley Flyer. Amtrak routed all Los Angeles-San Francisco service over the Southern Pacific's Coast Line in its initial 1971 route structure, leaving the San Joaquin Valley without service. Both the Southern Pacific's San Joaquin Daylight and the Santa Fe's San Francisco Chief had served the region. Beginning in 1972 Amtrak revisited the decision at the urging of area congressmen, notably Bernice F. Sisk, who favored service between Oakland and Barstow or, failing that and Sacramento. Service began on March 5, 1974 with one round-trip per day between Bakersfield and Oakland and a bus connection from Bakersfield to Los Angeles; the San Joaquin could not continue south of Bakersfield due to capacity limits over the Tehachapi Loop, the only line between Bakersfield and points south and one of the world's busiest single-track freight rail lines. Amtrak chose the Santa Fe route over the Southern Pacific, citing the higher speed of the Santa Fe–79 miles per hour vs. 70 miles per hour –and freight congestion on the Southern Pacific.
The decision was not without controversy, with Sisk alleging that the Southern Pacific lobbied the Nixon Administration to influence the decision. In 1979 Amtrak proposed discontinuing the San Joaquin as part of system-wide reductions ordered by the Carter Administration; the state of California stepped in to provide a yearly subsidy of $700,000 to cover the train's operating losses, it was retained. At the time the state asked Amtrak to add a second round trip between Oakland and Bakersfield, to extend the service south over the Tehachapi Pass to Los Angeles. Amtrak added the second train in February 1980, but attempts to extend the train over the Tehachapi Loop failed due to Southern Pacific's opposition. A third round trip was added on December 17, 1989, followed by a fourth on October 25, 1992. On May 16, 1999, Amtrak added a Sacramento–Bakersfield round trip - the fifth daily San Joaquin round trip. A second Sacramento–Bakersfield round trip was added on March 18, 2002, with a fifth Oakland–Bakersfield round trip added on June 20, 2016.
On May 7, 2018, the last southbound train was cut to Fresno, allowing it to become an early-morning "Morning Express Service" northbound trip to Sacramento. This change, which allowed same-day trips to Sacramento for the first time, was expected to result in increased ridership from business travelers. However, it was criticized by Bakersfield-area officials because it reduced daily service to Bakersfield by one daily round trip; the SJJPA plans to evaluate a proposal from those officials to instead originate the train in Bakersfield, but skip many intermediate stops to allow arrival in Sacramento for business hours. The service is expected to be suspended and reverted to its previous time slot on May 6. Counts indicated ridership at 50 people compared to 130 with the old timetable; the SJJPA plans to convert an existing morning trip to Oakland to a Fresno-originating "Morning Express" trip in mid-2019, with a southbound train cut back to Fresno. In June 2020, a third Sacramento–Bakersfield round trip will be added, with one existing Oakland–Bakersfield round trip converted
SamTrans is a public transport agency in and around San Mateo, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. It provides bus service throughout San Mateo County and into portions of San Francisco and Palo Alto. SamTrans operates commuter shuttles to BART stations and community shuttles. Service is concentrated on the east side of the Santa Cruz Mountains, and, in the central county, I-280, leaving coast-side service south of Pacifica spotty and intermittent. SamTrans is constituted as a special district under California state law, it is governed by a board of nine appointed members. The district was established in 1976 and consolidated eleven different municipal bus systems serving the county. One year SamTrans began operation of mainline bus service to San Francisco. Shuttle service began in 2000. In addition to fixed route bus and paratransit operations, the district participates in the administration of the San Jose-San Francisco commuter rail line Caltrain. SamTrans provides administrative support for the San Mateo County Transportation Authority, a separate board charged with administering the half-cent sales tax levy that funds highway and transit improvement projects.
SamTrans was formed in 1976 with the consolidation of 11 different city bus systems throughout San Mateo County. Today, SamTrans operates 48 fixed bus routes and a paratransit service branded Redi-Wheels or RediCoast on an annual budget of $177 million. Voters in San Mateo County approved the formation of the San Mateo County Transit District in 1974. SamTrans purchased the local bus fleet from Greyhound in 1977, the SamTrans fleet exceeded 200 buses by 1980. In August 2013 the agency merged two routes along El Camino Real into the single all-day ECR route with 15-minute headways stemming a long-term decline in bus ridership that began in the early 1990s. Ridership on SamTrans buses was 52,140 passengers per weekday in November 2009. According to a route-level analysis, in 2014, four lines accounted for more than half of all weekday riders: ECR, 120, 292, 122/28, with ECR alone accounting for more than 1⁄4 of all weekday riders. SamTrans is predicting a $28 million budget deficit by 2024 if it maintains existing levels of service and revenue sources, driven by growing employee pension obligations.
In November 2017 the agency announced that it would place another 1⁄2-cent sales tax, dubbed "Get Us Moving", on the county's November 2018 ballot. SamTrans has not developed a spending plan for the estimated $80 million in annual revenues, but according to the San Mateo Daily Journal, "A preliminary proposal suggested half of the money go toward SamTrans and Caltrain, both facing financial difficulty; the remaining revenue could be allocated in a manner similar to the current countywide transportation tax that supports projects covering highways, local roads, grade separations, bikes and other transit-related expenditures." The Staff Report stated that half the revenue raised by the proposed tax would go to public transit projects, with the remainder going to highway/interchange improvements, local safety/pothole repairs, regional connections, bicycle/pedestrian infrastructure. Measure W passed on the November 2018 ballot. SamTrans headquarters are at 1250 San Carlos Avenue in a 125,000-square-foot building built in 1979 and acquired in 1990, one block southwest of the San Carlos Caltrain station.
SamTrans has two maintenance bases. North Base opened in 1988, it is in South San Francisco, just north of San Francisco International Airport and adjacent to U. S. 101 and I-380. South Base opened in 1984 near the San Carlos Airport, east of U. S. 101 off Redwood Shores Parkway. Primary maintenance is carried out at North Base. South Base can store 150 buses. SamTrans owns Brewster Depot in Redwood City, used by its subcontractor MV Transportation for storage and dispatching. SamTrans serves the cities of San Mateo County, including Atherton, Burlingame, Daly City, East Palo Alto, Foster City, Half Moon Bay, Menlo Park, Pacifica, Palo Alto, Redwood City, San Bruno, San Carlos, San Mateo, South San Francisco. Most routes provide connecting service to Caltrain, or both. There is regular scheduled service to San Francisco International Airport and Transbay Terminal in downtown San Francisco. Unlike most large transit operators in the Bay Area, SamTrans outsources to private contractors the operation of a number of its routes.
The current contract operator for Peninsula mainline and paratransit services is MV Transportation. SamTrans operated special service for a couple of Bay Area events such as San Francisco 49ers home football games and the quirky Bay To Breakers footrace in San Francisco. Notes SamTrans reorganized its bus routes in August 1999 and adopted a new route designation system to identify service types, geographical coverage, connections to rail services. Local routes have a special designation. For three digit routes, the first digit ident
The California Zephyr is a passenger train operated by Amtrak between Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area, via Omaha, Salt Lake City, Reno. At 2,438 miles, it is Amtrak's second longest route after the Texas Eagle branch to Los Angeles, with travel time between the termini taking 511⁄2 hours. Amtrak claims the route as one of its most scenic, with views of the upper Colorado River valley in the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada; the modern train is the second iteration of a train named California Zephyr, the original train was operated and ran on a different route through Nevada and California. During fiscal year 2016, the California Zephyr carried 417,322 passengers, an increase of 11.2% over FY2015. The train had a total revenue of $51,950,998 in FY2016. Prior to the 1971 creation of Amtrak, three competing trains ran between Chicago and the East Bay, with bus connections to San Francisco: The California Zephyr was operated by the Chicago and Quincy Railroad and Rio Grande Western Railroad, Western Pacific Railroad between Chicago and Oakland along what is today called the Central Corridor and Feather River Route via Omaha and Salt Lake City.
It was discontinued in March 1970 – the only of the three trains not still operating when Amtrak took over service. The City of San Francisco was operated by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad, Southern Pacific Railroad between Chicago and Oakland on the Overland Route via Omaha and Ogden; the San Francisco Chief was operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway via the more southerly Southern Transcon between Chicago and Richmond via Kansas City and Bakersfield. Railpax intended to revive the California Zephyr as part its original route network, using the Burlington Northern east of Denver, the DRG&W between Denver and Ogden and the WP west of Ogden; the California Zephyr route served more populated areas than the Overland Route, ran through rural communities that lacked good highway access, could attract passengers to its scenic routes. However, the WP had shed the last of its money-losing passenger service with the end of the California Zephyr, it was not eligible to participate in Amtrak's formation.
On April 12, 1971, the WP refused to cooperate with Railpax, the SP route between Ogden and Oakland was chosen instead. On April 26, the D&RGW elected not to join Amtrak; the D&RGW chose to operate the Denver–Ogden Rio Grande Zephyr, Amtrak scrambled to piece together a Denver–Cheyenne–Ogden routing on the UP. Between the spring of 1971 and the summer of 1972, passengers traveling between Chicago and Oakland would have to travel on two different trains: the Denver Zephyr, which operated daily between Chicago and Denver, the City of San Francisco, which operated three times a week, between Denver and the San Francisco Bay Area. However, after several false starts, Amtrak consolidated the two trains into one, dubbed the San Francisco Zephyr, homage to both the California Zephyr and the San Francisco Chief, between Chicago and Oakland; the Rio Grande continued to operate the Rio Grande Zephyr between Ogden. In 1983 the D&RGW elected citing increasing losses in passenger operations. Amtrak re-routed the San Francisco Zephyr over the D&RGW's Moffat Subdivision between Denver and Salt Lake City, its original preference from 1971.
The change was scheduled for April 25, but a mudslide at Thistle, Utah closed the line and delayed the change until July 16. With the change of route, Amtrak renamed the train as the California Zephyr; the modern California Zephyr uses the same route as the original east of Winnemucca, Nevada. The train uses the route of the former City of San Francisco, along the Overland Route, between Elko and Sacramento. Across central Nevada, the two rail lines have been combined to use directional running; as such the exact spot the train switches. The western terminus of the train was cut back to Emeryville station when Oakland Central station was closed on August 5, 1994; the California Zephyr was re-extended to Oakland with the opening of the Jack London Square station on May 12, 1995. However, this required a complicated reverse move along street running tracks to reach the wye at West Oakland; the train was cut back again to Emeryville on October 26, 1997. The west-bound train is Amtrak number 5. Upon leaving Chicago Union Station, the train travels along the Metra BNSF Railway Line, with an intermediate stop in Naperville, Illinois.
After passing through Aurora, the train passes through the endless corn, soybean fields and small farming towns of Illinois and Iowa. The route crosses into Iowa at the Burlington Rail Bridge across the Mississippi River in Burlington, Iowa into Nebraska between Council Bluffs and Omaha. Overnight, into the early morning, the train traverses Nebraska and northeastern Colorado, before making a morning arrival in Denver. At Denver the train departs BNSF Railway-owned track. From Denver west, the train runs along the Union Pacific Railroad's Central Corridor; the scenery changes departing Denver as the train climbs the Rocky Mountains. After going through the Tunnel District, the line crosses the Continental Divide via the 6.2 mile-long Moffat Tunnel under James Peak. The tracks f
San Francisco cable car system
The San Francisco cable car system is the world's last manually operated cable car system. An icon of San Francisco, the cable car system forms part of the intermodal urban transport network operated by the San Francisco Municipal Railway. Of the 23 lines established between 1873 and 1890, only three remain: two routes from downtown near Union Square to Fisherman's Wharf, a third route along California Street. While the cable cars are used to a certain extent by commuters, the vast majority of their 7 million annual passengers are tourists, they are among the most significant tourist attractions in the city, along with Alcatraz Island, the Golden Gate Bridge, Fisherman's Wharf. The cable cars are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the cable cars are separate from San Francisco's heritage streetcars, which operate on Market Street and the Embarcadero, as well as from the more modern Muni Metro light rail system. In 1869, Andrew Smith Hallidie had the idea for a cable car system in San Francisco after witnessing an accident in which a streetcar drawn by horses over wet cobblestones slid backwards, killing the horses.
The first successful cable-operated street railway was the Clay Street Hill Railroad, which opened on August 2, 1873. The promoter of the line was Hallidie, the engineer was William Eppelsheimer; the line involved the use of grip cars, which carried the grip that engaged with the cable, towing trailer cars. The term "grip" became synonymous with the operator; the line started regular service on September 1, 1873, its success led it to become the template for other cable car transit systems. It was a financial success, Hallidie's patents were enforced on other cable car promoters, making him wealthy. Accounts differ as to the precise degree of Hallidie's involvement in the inception of the line, to the exact date on which it first ran; the next cable car line to open was the Sutter Street Railway, which converted from horse operation in 1877. This line introduced the side grip, lever operation, both designed by Henry Casebolt and his assistant Asa Hovey, patented by Casebolt; this idea came about because Casebolt did not want to pay Hallidie royalties of $50,000 a year for the use of his patent.
The side grip allowed cable cars to cross at intersections. In 1878, Leland Stanford opened his California Street Cable Railroad; this company's first line was on California Street and is the oldest cable car line still in operation. In 1880, the Geary Street, Park & Ocean Railway began operation; the Presidio and Ferries Railway followed two years and was the first cable company to include curves on its routes. The curves were "let-go" curves, in which the car drops the cable and coasts around the curve on its own momentum. In 1883, the Market Street Cable Railway opened its first line; this company was controlled by the Southern Pacific Railroad and would grow to become San Francisco's largest cable car operator. At its peak, it operated five lines, all of which converged on Market Street to a common terminus at the Ferry Building. During rush hours, cars left. In 1888, the Ferries and Cliff House Railway opened its initial two-line system; the Powell–Mason line is still operated on the same route today.
The Ferries & Cliff House Railway was responsible for the building of a car barn and powerhouse at Washington and Mason, this site is still in use today. In the same year, it purchased the original Clay Street Hill Railway, which it incorporated into a new Sacramento–Clay line in 1892. In 1889, the Omnibus Railroad and Cable Company became the last new cable car operator in San Francisco; the following year the California Street Cable Railroad opened two new lines, these being the last new cable car lines built in the city. One of them was the O'Farrell–Jones–Hyde line, the Hyde section of which still remains in operation as part of the current Powell–Hyde line. In all, twenty-three lines were established between 1873 and 1890; the first electric streetcars in San Francisco began operation in 1892 under the auspices of the San Francisco and San Mateo Electric Railway. At that time, it was estimated that it cost twice as much to build and six times as much to operate a line with cable cars as with electric streetcars.
By the beginning of 1906 many of San Francisco's remaining cable cars were under the control of the United Railroads of San Francisco, although Cal Cable and the Geary Street Company remained independent. URR was pressing to convert many of its cable lines to overhead electric traction, but this was met with resistance from opponents who objected to what they saw as ugly overhead lines on the major thoroughfares of the city center; those objections disappeared after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The quake and resulting fire destroyed the power houses and car barns of both the Cal Cable and the URR's Powell Street lines, together with the 117 cable cars stored within them; the subsequent race to rebuild the city allowed the URR to replace most of its cable car lines with electric streetcar lines. At the same time the independent Geary Street line was replaced by a municipally owned electric streetcar line – the first line of the San Francisco Municipal Railway. By 1912, only eight cable car lines remained, all with steep gradients impassable to electric streetcars.
In the 1920s and 1930s, these remaining lines came under pressure from the much improved buses of the era, which could now climb steeper hills than the electric streetcar. By 1944, the only cable cars remaining were the two Powell Street lines – by under munic
Ferries of San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay in California has been served by ferries of all types for over 150 years. John Reed established a sailboat ferry service in 1826. Although the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge led to the decline in the importance of most ferries, some are still in use today for both commuters and tourists. One of the earliest ferry routes ran between San Francisco and Oakland on what was called the "creek route"; the name derived from the Oakland landing site located at the foot of Broadway where Jack London Square is today, fronting on what is today called the Oakland Estuary, an inlet of San Francisco Bay. The estuary, which in the 1800s included what is today's Lake Merritt, was the "creek". In 1851, Captain Thomas Gray, grandfather of the famous dancer Isadora Duncan, began the first regular ferry service to San Francisco from the East Bay. Service started with the stern-wheel Sacramento River packet General Sutter and the small iron steam ferry Kangaroo.
Service was augmented in 1852 by Caleb Cope, the small ferry Hector powered by a steam sawmill engine, the river packets Jenny Lind and Boston. Boston burned that year and was replaced first by William Brown's San Joaquin River packet Erastus Corning and by Charles Minturn's river packet Red Jacket. In 1853, Minturn formed the Contra Costa Steam Navigation Company and had the ferry Clinton built expressly for trans-bay service. A second ferry, Contra Costa began operating over the route in 1857. Contra Costa Steam Navigation Company acquired San Antonio Steam Navigation Company with ferries San Antonio and Oakland by merger before being purchased by the San Francisco and Oakland Railroad in 1865; the first railroad ferries on San Francisco Bay were established by the San Francisco and Oakland Railroad and the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad which were taken over by the Central Pacific Railroad in 1870 to become an integral part of the First Transcontinental Railroad. The earliest railroad ferries ran from Oakland Point and from Alameda Terminal when Alameda was still a peninsula.
The ferry pier at Oakland Point was enlarged to form the Oakland Long Wharf. These railroad ferries carried passengers, not trains, although there was some ferrying of freight cars to San Francisco; when the Central Pacific re-routed the Sacramento to Oakland segment of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1876, a ferry across the Carquinez Strait was established, the world's largest ferryboat, the Solano was built, to serve the crossing. This railroad ferry carried whole trains of up to 48 freight cars or 24 passenger cars with their locomotives; these ferries became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad when it assumed many of the facilities of its affiliate, the Central Pacific. These large train ferries were idled when a railway bridge was completed over the Carquinez Strait in November, 1930; when trains reached Oakland, freight cars were loaded aboard ferries from Long Wharf on Oakland Point beginning in 1870. Freight car ferry loading switched to the Oakland Mole in 1881. After 1890 freight cars were delivered to the San Francisco Belt Railroad ferry slip at the foot of Lombard and East Streets.
Belt Railroad tracks were dual-gauged to carry cars from the narrow gauge North and South Pacific Coast Railroads. The Key System transit company established its own ferry service in 1903 between the Ferry Building in San Francisco and its own pier and wharf on the Oakland shoreline, located just south of what is today the eastern approach to the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Ferries began serving north bay rail connections with the Petaluma and Haystack Railroad in 1864. San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad and Petaluma and Santa Rosa Railroad ferries connected Petaluma River landing locations with San Francisco. North Pacific Coast Railroad ferries connected Sausalito with San Francisco, SF&NP ferries sailed from Tiburon; some of these ferries operated on Northwestern Pacific Railroad schedules from 1907 to 1938. The Napa Valley Railroad established service in 1865 and connected with ferry boat service in Vallejo, California. Monticello Steamship Company began operating ferries between Vallejo and San Francisco in 1895, began coordinating with train schedules in 1905.
Golden Gate Ferry Company gained control of Monticello in 1927 and, after merging with Southern Pacific, discontinued ferry service to Vallejo in 1937. Sacramento Northern Railway used a ferry to cross the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers between Mallard and Chipps. Service began in 1912 with the wooden ferry Bridgit carrying six interurban cars. Bridgit was replaced by the steel ferry Ramon with the same car capacity. Santa Fe and Western Pacific both ran passenger ferries connecting their east bay terminals to San Francisco. Southern Pacific maintained a dominant position in Bay ferry service by gaining control of the South Pacific Coast Railroad ferries in 1887, the Northwestern Pacific ferries in 1929, the Petaluma and Santa Rosa ferries in 1932. After the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Golden Gate Bridge opened in 1936 and 1937, Southern Pacific passenger ferry service was reduced to three routes: San Francisco to Oakland Pier, San Francisco to Alameda Pier, Hyde Street to Sausalito.
Service to Sausalito was suspended in 1938 by order of the State Railroad Commission, the last ferry to Alameda ran in 1939. Many of the large passenger ferries were idled until World War II, when they were mobilized by the federal government to transport military personnel around the bay and shipyard workers from San Francisco to Marinship and Richmond Shipyards. T
AC Transit is an Oakland-based public transit agency serving the western portions of Alameda and Contra Costa counties in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. AC Transit operates "Transbay" routes across San Francisco Bay to San Francisco and selected areas in San Mateo and Santa Clara counties. AC Transit is constituted as a special district under California law, it is governed by seven elected members. It is not a part of or under the control of Alameda or Contra Costa counties or any local jurisdictions. Buses operate out of four operating divisions: Emeryville, East Oakland and Richmond; the Operations Control Center is located in Emeryville. The Richmond operating division closed in 2011, but opened again in early 2017 due to a revived economy; the District is the public successor to the owned Key System. The District encompasses the following cities and unincorporated areas: Oakland, Hayward, Richmond, San Leandro, Castro Valley, San Pablo, El Cerrito, San Lorenzo, Albany, Cherryland, El Sobrante, Fairview, Emeryville and East Richmond Heights.
The District's bus lines serve parts of some other East Bay communities, including Milpitas and Union City. AC Transit serves many universities including the University of California, Berkeley. Most routes connect with regional train service BART, in addition to ACE and Amtrak, including the Capitol Corridor. AC Transit routes connect with several other regional transit services, including Union City Transit, SamTrans, WestCAT, the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority, San Francisco Municipal Railway, Golden Gate Transit, the Alameda-Oakland Ferry, the Harbor Bay Ferry, Emery Go Round, SolTrans and FAST. While most AC Transit service consists of local lines throughout the East Bay, the District provides many Transbay lines. Most of these run across the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge to connect communities as distant as El Sobrante and Newark with San Francisco's Transbay Terminal. Bus service is provided across the San Mateo and Dumbarton bridges to the south. AC Transit's primary hubs include BART stations, major shopping centers, points of interest, which are spread throughout the East Bay.
Most routes terminate at BART stations, providing convenience for transit users. The hubs include: Voters created the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District in 1956 and subsequently approved a $16.5 million bond issue in 1959 enabling the District to buy out the failing owned Key System Transit Lines. In October 1960, AC Transit’s service began; the new District built up the bus fleet with 250 new “transit liner” buses, extended service into new neighborhoods, created an intercity express bus network, increased Bay Bridge bus service. In 2003, the District introduced a San Mateo-Hayward Bridge route. Designated as Line M, the service connected the BART stations of Castro Valley and Hayward with Foster City and San Mateo's Hillsdale Caltrain station. A second San Mateo-Hayward Bridge route, Line MA, was added in 2006 and discontinued in 2007. In 2003, a new "rapid bus" line operating on San Pablo Avenue was introduced. Designated as Line 72R, the service connected Oakland with Richmond and operated at faster speeds than regular local service due to wide stop spacing and signal priority treatments.
In 2004, the District began service on Line U across the Dumbarton Bridge, connecting Stanford University with ACE and BART trains in Fremont. As part of a consortium of transit agencies including AC Transit, BART, SamTrans, Union City Transit, VTA), the District operated Dumbarton Express bus service across the Dumbarton Bridge. Beginning 10 December 2005, AC Transit began participating in the regional All Nighter network, providing 24-hour bus service throughout its service area to supplement BART service, which does not operate during owl hours. AC Transit had provided 24-hour service on many of its trunk lines prior to this date, except in the late 1990s due to budget limitations. On 30 July 2007, AC Transit announced that it had entered into a 25-year partnership with SunPower, MMA Renewable Ventures, PG&E to install solar energy systems at its facilities in an effort to reduce its carbon footprint, improve local air quality, save money on energy costs that could be used instead to spend on transit service.
In 2008, AC Transit sponsored the world's largest chalk drawing at the old Alameda Naval Base and provided free transportation for children to the site. On 28 March 2010, several major service changes were implemented to reduce a severe budget shortfall. Changes included reduced service on local and Transbay lines, elimination of unproductive routes, splitting of the 51 into two sections, the introduction of limited-stop line 58L. Starting in February 2011, all buses on Line 376 were being escorted by a marked Contra Costa County Sheriff's patrol vehicle through the unincorporated community of North Richmond. Line 376 provides late-night service through North Richmond and the nearby cities of Richmond, San Pablo, Pinole; the escorts were introduced to improve the safety of the service, which had five serious incidents between 5 January and 9 February. On Decembe