A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in size to smallest, they are, Africa, North America, South America, Europe, in geology, areas of continental crust include regions covered with water. Islands are frequently grouped with a continent to divide all the worlds land into geopolitical regions. Under this scheme, most of the countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean are grouped together with the continent of Australia to form a geopolitical region called Oceania. By convention, continents are understood to be large, discrete masses of land, many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated completely by water. Earths major landmasses all have coasts on a single, continuous World Ocean, the most restricted meaning of continent is that of a continuous area of land or mainland, with the coastline and any land boundaries forming the edge of the continent.
From this perspective the edge of the shelf is the true edge of the continent. In this sense the islands of Great Britain and Ireland are part of Europe, while Australia, as a cultural construct, the concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments. In this way, Iceland is considered part of Europe and Madagascar part of Africa, extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australasian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one continent called Oceania. This divides the land surface of Earth into continents or quasi-continents. The ideal criterion that each continent be a discrete landmass is commonly relaxed due to historical conventions, of the seven most globally recognized continents, only Antarctica and Australia are completely separated from other continents by ocean. Several continents are defined not as absolutely distinct bodies but as more or less discrete masses of land and Africa are joined by the Isthmus of Suez, and North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama.
In both cases, there is no separation of these landmasses by water. Both these isthmuses are very narrow compared to the bulk off the landmasses they unite, North America and South America are treated as separate continents in the seven-continent model. However, they may be viewed as a continent known as America or the Americas. This viewpoint was common in the United States until World War II and this remains the more common vision in Latin American countries, Portugal, France and Greece, where they are taught as a single continent. The criterion of a landmass is completely disregarded if the continuous landmass of Eurasia is classified as two separate continents and Asia
Napa County, California
Napa County is a county located north of San Pablo Bay in the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 136,484, the county seat is the City of Napa. Napa County was one of the counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the territory were given to Lake County in 1861. Napa County comprises the Napa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland. It is one of four North Bay counties, in prehistoric times, the valley was inhabited by the Patwin Native Americans, with possible habitation by Wappo tribes in the northwestern foothills. Most villages are thought to have been constructed near the floodplains of watercourses that drain the valley and their food consisted of wild roots, small animals, earthworms and bread made from crushed California buckeye kernels. In winter they would construct huts made of tree branches, in summer they camped near rivers and streams. In winter months, they were clad in wild animal skins.
The maximum prehistoric population is not to have exceeded 5000 persons. In 1776, a fort was erected by the Spanish Governor, Felipe de Neve a short distance northwest of Napa, francis Castro and Father Jose Altimura were the first Europeans to explore the Napa Valley in 1823. When the first white settlers arrived in the early 1830s, there were six tribes in the valley speaking different dialects, the Mayacomos tribe lived in the area where Calistoga was founded. The Callajomans were in the area near where the town of St. Helena now stands, further south, the Kymus dwelt in the middle part of the valley. The Napa and Ulcus tribes occupied part of the area where the City of Napa now exists while the Soscol tribe occupied the portion that now makes up the end of the valley. Many of the native peoples died during an epidemic in 1838. Settlers killed several over claims of cattle theft, during the era between 1836 and 1846, when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 13 ranchos were granted in Napa County, George C.
Yount was a settler in Napa County and is believed to be the first Anglo-Saxon resident in the county. In 1836 Yount obtained the Mexican grant Rancho Caymus where he built what is said to be the first log house in California, soon afterward, he built a sawmill and grain mill, and was the first person to plant a vineyard in the county
Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, the OMB Director reports to the President, Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War. The Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration, the first OMB included Roy Ash, Paul ONeill, Fred Malek and Frank Zarb and two dozen others. OMB prepares the Presidents budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies, OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules and proposed legislation are consistent with the presidents budget, OMB oversees and coordinates the administrations procurement, financial management and regulatory policies.
OMB manages other agencies financials, and IT, the Office is made up mainly of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships. These staff have dual responsibility for management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the presidents budget and they are often called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member. Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is largely responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the presidents budget each February.
The Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and they are responsible for writing an Enrolled Bill Memorandum to the president once a bill is presented by both bodies of Congress for the presidents signature. They issue Statements of Administration Policy that let Congress know the White Houses official position on proposed legislation. S. com, August 22,2005
The seabed is the bottom of the ocean. Most of the oceans have a structure, created by common physical phenomena, mainly from tectonic movement. The mid-ocean ridge, as its name implies, is a rise through the middle of all the oceans. Typically a rift runs along the edge of this ridge, along tectonic plate edges there are typically oceanic trenches – deep valleys, created by the mantle circulation movement from the mid-ocean mountain ridge to the oceanic trench. Hotspot volcanic island ridges are created by volcanic activity, erupting periodically, in areas with volcanic activity and in the oceanic trenches there are hydrothermal vents – releasing high pressure and extremely hot water and chemicals into the typically freezing water around it. Deep ocean water is divided into layers or zones, each with features of salinity, pressure and marine life. Lying along the top of the plain is the abyssal zone. The hadal zone – which includes the oceanic trenches, lies between 6, 000–11,000 metres and is the deepest oceanic zone, the acronym mbsf meaning meters below the seafloor is a convention used for depths below the seafloor.
Benthos is the community of organisms which live on, in, or near the seabed and this community lives in or near marine sedimentary environments, from tidal pools along the foreshore, out to the continental shelf, and down to the abyssal depths. The benthic zone is the region on, in and immediately above the seabed, including the sediment surface. Benthos generally live in relationship with the substrate bottom. Examples of contact soil layers include sand bottoms, rocky outcrops, each area of the seabed has typical features such as common soil composition, typical topography, salinity of water layers above it, marine life, magnetic direction of rocks, and sedimentation. Seabed topography is flat where sedimentation is heavy and covers the tectonic features, marine life is abundant in the deep sea, especially around hydrothermal vents. Large deep sea communities of life have been discovered around black and white smokers—vents emitting chemicals toxic to humans. This marine life receives its energy both from the temperature difference and from chemosynthesis by bacteria.
Brine pools are another seabed feature, usually connected to cold seeps, the seabed has been explored by submersibles such as Alvin and, to some extent, scuba divers with special equipment. The process that adds new material to the ocean floor is seafloor spreading. In recent years satellite images show a very clear mapping of the seabed, some childrens play songs include elements such as Theres a hole at the bottom of the sea, or A sailor went to sea
San Mateo County, California
San Mateo County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451, the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, and is part of the San Francisco Bay Area and it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the end of the county. The countys built-up areas are mostly suburban with some areas being very urban, San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the states 18 original counties since Californias statehood in 1850, was split apart. Until 1856, San Franciscos city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, in response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated rapidly between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county. A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain.
The consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by an introduced by Horace Hawes. San Mateo County was officially organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G, San Mateo County annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by unblushing frauds, perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco named Belmont the county seat. The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, Redwood Citys status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew, until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 741 square miles. It is the third-smallest county in California by land area, a number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio. These streams originate along the spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length, the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannah
Santa Cruz County, California
Santa Cruz County, officially the County of Santa Cruz, is a county on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 262,382, the county seat is Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz County comprises the Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the county is on the California Central Coast, south of the San Francisco Bay Area region. The county forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay, with Monterey County forming the southern coast, Santa Cruz County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. In the original act, the county was given the name of Branciforte after the Spanish pueblo founded there in 1797, a major watercourse in the county, Branciforte Creek, still bears this name. Less than two months on April 5,1850, the name was changed to Santa Cruz, mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791 and completed in 1794, was destroyed by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, but a smaller-scale replica was erected in 1931.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 607 square miles. It is the second-smallest county in California by land area and third-smallest by total area, of Californias counties, only San Francisco is physically smaller. The county is situated on a coastline with over 29 miles of beaches. It is a strip of about 10 miles wide between the coast and the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains at the end of the Monterey Bay. Agriculture is concentrated in the lowlands of the countys northern and southern ends. Most of the coastline is flanked by cliffs, like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. The 2010 United States Census reported Santa Cruz County had a population of 262,382, hispanic or Latino of any race were 84,092 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 255,602 people,91,139 households, the population density was 574 people per square mile. There were 98,873 housing units at a density of 222 per square mile. 25. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25.
In the county, the population was out with 23. 8% under the age of 18,11. 9% from 18 to 24,30. 8% from 25 to 44,23. 5% from 45 to 64. The median age was 35 years, for every 100 females there were 99.7 males
Sonoma County, California
Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878 and its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is located to the north of Marin County and the south of Mendocino County and it is west of Napa County and Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is the northwestern county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the county and largest producer of California’s Wine Country region, which includes Napa, Mendocino. It possesses thirteen approved American Viticultural Areas and over 250 wineries, in 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production. More than 7.4 million tourists each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Sonoma State University and Santa Rosa Junior College, Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use, Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit largely divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007, grapes and pasturage.
The voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, and other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, spaniards and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber and farmland. The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County and this settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento. The Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo.
The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846, Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat originally the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, the town of Sonoma had declined in importance in terms of commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, and it was relatively remote. As a result, elements in the newer, rapidly growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, the dispute ultimately was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa. Allegedly, several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, some of the countys land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860
San Joaquin County, California
San Joaquin County /ˈsæn wɑːˈkiːn/ is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306, San Joaquin County comprises the Stockton-Lodi, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the more inclusive San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county is located in Northern Californias Central Valley, just east of the less extensive nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region, the City of San Joaquin, despite sharing its name with the county, is located in Fresno County. San Joaquin County was one of the original United States counties of California, the county was named for the San Joaquin River which runs through it. San Joaquin County is the site of the San Joaquin Valleys first permanent residence and it was developed for ranching and agriculture. It attracted more miners and settlers at the time of the California Gold Rush, on August 7,1998, a tire fire ignited at S. F. Roysters Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for more than two years before it was extinguished.
Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out. The cleanup cost $16.2 million and wound up contaminating local groundwater anyway. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,426 square miles. The center of San Joaquin County is near Stockton at about 37°54N 121°12W, San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that San Joaquin County had a population of 685,306. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 266,341 persons, the Filipino American population was 46,447, just under half of all Asian Americans in San Joaquin County, and as of 1990 have been the largest population of Asian Americans in the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 563,598 people,181,629 households, the population density was 403 people per square mile. There were 189,160 housing units at a density of 135 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58. 1% White,6. 7% Black or African American,1. 1% Native American,11.
4% Asian,0. 4% Pacific Islander,16. 3% from other races, and 6. 1% from two or more races. 30. 5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,9. 3% were of German,5. 3% Irish and 5. 0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 66. 4% spoke English,21. 3% Spanish,2. 2% Tagalog,1. 8% Mon-Khmer or Cambodian,1. 1% Vietnamese and 1. 1% Hmong as their first language. 20. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48
San Benito County, California
San Benito County is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,269, San Benito County is included in the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. El Camino Real passes through the county and includes one mission in San Juan Bautista, San Benito County was formed from parts of Monterey County in 1874. The county is named after the San Benito Valley, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,390 square miles, of which 1,389 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. Sharing a border with Santa Clara County, San Benito County lies adjacent to the San Francisco Bay Area and is considered a part of that region. The county borders Merced County and Fresno County in the east, the county is the location of the Mount Harlan and San Benito American Viticultural Areas. The latter contains the Cienega Valley, Lime Kiln Valley, there are a number of plant communities that occur in San Benito County including grasslands and chaparral, one of the more unusual is the Sargent cypress forest.
Benitoite, the gem of the State of California, was discovered in San Benito County. The county is home to the San Benito evening primrose, and Illacme plenipes. The plant genus Benitoa was named for San Benito County, pinnacles National Park The 2010 United States Census reported that San Benito County had a population of 55,269. The racial makeup of San Benito County was 35,181 White,483 African American,895 Native American,1,443 Asian,94 Pacific Islander,14,471 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,186 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 53,234 people,15,885 households, the population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 16,499 housing units at a density of 12 per square mile. 56. 4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,7. 6% were of German,6. 3% Irish and 5. 4% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 62. 8% spoke English and 35. 3% Spanish as their first language,14. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 3.32 and the family size was 3.64. In the county, the population was out with 32. 2% under the age of 18,8. 8% from 18 to 24,31. 5% from 25 to 44,19. 3% from 45 to 64. The median age was 31 years, for every 100 females there were 102.5 males
Contra Costa County, California
Contra Costa County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,049,025, the name is Spanish for opposite coast, referring to its position on the other side of the bay from San Francisco. Contra Costa County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it occupies the northern portion of the East Bay region and is primarily suburban. In the northern part of the county, significant coal and sand deposits were formed in even earlier geologic eras, other areas of the county have ridges exposing ancient but intact seashells, embedded in sandstone layers alternating with limestone. Layers of volcanic ash ejected from geologically recent but now extinct volcanoes and now tilted by compressive forces, may be seen at the site of some road excavations. This county is an agglomeration of several distinct geologic terranes, as is most of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, younger deposits at middle altitudes include pillow lavas, the product of undersea volcanic eruptions.
There is an extensive but little recorded human history pre-European settlement in this area, the earliest definitively established occupation by modern man appears to have occurred six to ten thousand years ago. However, there may have been human presence far earlier, at least as far as non–settling populations are concerned, extensive trading from tribe to tribe transferred exotic materials such as obsidian throughout the region from far distant Californian tribes. Unlike the nomadic Native American of the Great Plains it appears that these tribes did not incorporate warfare into their culture but were generally cooperative. Within these cultures the concept of individual or collective land ownership was nonexistent, early European settlers in the region, did not record much about the culture of the natives. Most of what is known comes from preserved contemporaneous and excavated artifacts. Although there were no missions established within this county, Spanish influence here was direct and extensive, in 1821 Mexico gained independence from Spain.
Mission lands extended throughout the Bay Area, including portions of Contra Costa County, between 1836 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 15 land grants were made in Contra Costa County. Rough surveying was based on a map, or diseño, measured by streams, and/or horseman who marked it with rope, lands outside rancho grants were designated el sobrante, as in surplus or excess, and considered common lands. The law required the construction of a house within a year, fences were not required and were forbidden where they might interfere with roads or trails. Locally a large family required roughly 2000 head of cattle and two leagues of land to live comfortably. Foreign entrepreneurs came to the area to provide goods that Mexico couldn’t, Rancho Canada de los Vaqueros was granted to Francisco Alviso, Antonio Higuera, and Manuel Miranda. Two ranchos, both called Rancho San Ramon, were granted by the Mexican government in the San Ramon Valley, in 1833, Bartolome Pacheco and Mariano Castro shared the two square league Rancho San Ramon
Solano County, California
Solano County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 413,344, Solano County comprises the Vallejo-Fairfield, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Solano County is the county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. A portion of the South Campus at the University of California, Solano County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Chief Solano at one time led the tribes between the Petaluma River and the Sacramento River, the chief was called Sem-Yeto, which signifies brave or fierce hand. The Chief was given the Spanish name Francisco Solano during baptism at the Catholic Mission, Solano is a common surname in the north of Spain, especially in Navarra, Zaragoza and La Rioja. Travis Air Force Base is located just east of Fairfield, Solano County is the easternmost county of the North Bay. As such, it is reported by news agencies as being in the East Bay.
Additionally, a portion of the county extends into the Sacramento Valley, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 906 square miles, of which 822 square miles is land and 84 square miles is water. Service connects with BART stations in Contra Costa County, transit links are provided to Napa and Sacramento counties as well. Greyhound and Amtrak provide long-distance intercity service, general aviation airports in Solano County which are open to the public are the Nut Tree Airport and Rio Vista Municipal Airport. The following table includes the number of reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. The 2010 United States Census reported that Solano County had a population of 413,344. The racial makeup of Solano County was 210,751 White,60,750 African American,3,212 Native American,60,473 Asian,3,564 Pacific Islander,43,236 from other races, and 31,358 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99,356 persons, at 52,641 Filipinos in the County making up 12% of the population, Solano County has the largest percentage Filipino population of any County in all of the United States.
As of the census of 2000, there were 394,542 people,130,403 households, the population density was 476 people per square mile. There were 134,513 housing units at a density of 162 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 56. 4% White,14. 9% Black or African American,0. 8% Native American,12. 8% Asian,0. 8% Pacific Islander,8. 0% from other races, and 6. 4% from two or more races
Alameda County, California
Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area, occupying much of the East Bay region. The county was formed on March 25,1853, from a portion of Contra Costa County. The Spanish word alameda means a place where trees grow. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early explorers of a road lined with trees, the county seat at the time it was formed was located at Alvarado, now part of Union City. In 1856 it was moved to San Leandro, where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault, the county seat was re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, which has been the county seat since 1873, much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed as a trolley car suburb of San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton, the fair runs for three weekends from June to July. Attractions include horse racing, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 821 square miles, of which 739 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water. The San Francisco Bay borders the county on the west, the crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary, and reach into the center of the county. A coastal plain several miles wide lines the bay, and is Oaklands most populous region, Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge A2014 analysis found Alameda County to be the 4th most racially diverse county in the United States, the 2010 United States Census reported that Alameda County had a population of 1,510,271. The population density was 2,047.6 people per square mile, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339,889 persons,16.
4% Mexican,0. 8% Puerto Rican,0. 2% Cuban,5. 1% Other Hispanic. 26. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.31. In the county, the population was out with 24. 6% under the age of 18,9. 6% from 18 to 24,33. 9% from 25 to 44,21. 7% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males, the median income for a household in the county was $55,946, and the median income for a family was $65,857. Males had an income of $47,425 versus $36,921 for females