A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
Colorado is a state in the United States encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is part of the Western United States, the Southwestern United States, Colorado is the 8th most extensive and the 21st most populous of the 50 United States. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado was 5,540,545 on July 1,2016, the state was named for the Colorado River, which Spanish travelers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28,1861, Colorado is nicknamed the Centennial State because it became a state in the same year as the centennial of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is noted for its landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, rivers. Denver is the capital and the most populous city of Colorado, residents of the state are properly known as Coloradans, although the term Coloradoan has been used archaically and lives on in the title of Fort Collins newspaper, the Coloradoan.
Colorado and Utah are the states which have boundaries defined solely by lines of latitude and longitude. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado, Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies entirely above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than one half of the area of Colorado is flat, East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from roughly 3,350 to 7,500 feet. The Colorado plains were mostly prairies, but they have many patches of forests, buttes. Eastern Colorado is presently covered in farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages. Precipitation is fair, averaging from 15 to 25 inches annually, wheat, hay and oats are all typical crops, and most of the villages and towns in this region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator.
Irrigation water is available from the South Platte, the Arkansas River, and a few other streams, heavy use of ground water from wells for irrigation has caused underground water reserves to decline. As well as agriculture, eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as cattle ranches. Roughly 70% of Colorados population resides along the edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado. The Front Range includes Denver, Fort Collins, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships, on the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose
1990 United States Census
Approximately 16 percent of households received a long form of the 1990 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. It was the first census to designate Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander as a group separate from Asians. To increase black participation in the 1990 United States Census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, personally identifiable information will be available in 2062. The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election. Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats, eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat.
The final result involved 19 seats being switched
Fort Garland, Colorado
Fort Garland is a census-designated place in Costilla County, United States. The population was 433 at the 2010 census, the Fort Garland Post Office has the ZIP code 81133. Fort Garland is referred to as the Gateway to the San Luis Valley, Fort Garland is home to many artists, painters and internationally known musicians. The Annual Fort Garland Band Jam Music Festival features local and regional musicians and this summer event, usually held in mid-July, includes an open-air market, local food vendors offering up traditional and regional cuisine, a beer garden, and childrens activities. The music offered covers numerous styles, from traditional Spanish guitar to R&B to rock, the Blanca/Fort Garland Community Center is open to residents and the public on daily, monthly or annual fees. Fort Garland is at the crossroads of U. S. Route 160 and Colorado State Highway 159, Fort Garland was established in 1858 to protect settlers in the San Luis Valley, part of the New Mexico Territory. The fort was abandoned in 1883, following the confinement of the Utes to reservations, the Fort Garland Museum preserves some of the historic buildings from the fort.
Fort Garland is located in northern Costilla County at 37°25′46″N 105°26′07″W, the town of Blanca is 4 miles west on U. S. Route 160. Walsenburg is 47 miles to the east, across the Sangre de Cristo Range, according to the United States Census Bureau, the Fort Garland CDP has a total area of 0.37 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 432 people,152 households, the population density was 1,514.5 people per square mile. There were 164 housing units at a density of 574.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 53. 01% White,0. 69% African American,2. 31% Native American,1. 16% Asian,0. 93% Pacific Islander,36. 81% from other races, and 5. 09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 72. 22% of the population,18. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the family size was 3.19. In the CDP, the population was out with 29. 9% under the age of 18,9. 7% from 18 to 24,27. 3% from 25 to 44,21. 5% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 85.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.4 males, the median income for a household in the CDP was $18,929, and the median income for a family was $25,833. Males had an income of $25,625 versus $18,750 for females
Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
1970 United States Census
Microdata from the 1970 census are freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files and these data were originally created and disseminated by DUALabs. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2042, california took over as the most populous state, New York had previously been ranked number one. While the entire country increased to more than 204 million persons, four states lost population with West Virginia leading the list, down 8, historic US Census data 1971 U. S Census Report, with estimated 1970 Census results 1970 Census of Population
Costilla County, Colorado
Costilla County is the ninth-least populous of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,524, the county seat is San Luis, the oldest town in Colorado. Costilla County was the first area of Colorado to be settled by European-Americans, Hispanic settlers from Taos, New Mexico, officially established San Luis on April 9,1851. Costilla County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Territory of Colorado on November 1,1861, the county was named for the Costilla River. Although San Miguel was originally designated the county seat, the county government was moved to San Luis in 1863, the countys original boundaries extended over much of south-central Colorado. Much of the northern portion became part of Saguache County in 1866, Costilla County arrived at its modern boundaries in 1913 when Alamosa County was created from its northwest portions. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,230 square miles. The population density was 3 people per square mile, there were 2,202 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile. 67.
59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,28. 10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was out with 25. 00% under the age of 18,6. 60% from 18 to 24,23. 30% from 25 to 44,28. 30% from 45 to 64. The median age was 42 years, for every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.20 males, the median income for a household in the county was $19,531, and the median income for a family was $25,509, the lowest for Colorado. Males had an income of $22,390 versus $16,121 for females. The per capita income for the county was $10,748, about 21. 30% of families and 26. 80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32. 40% of those under age 18 and 23. 30% of those age 65 or over. Costilla County tends to favor the Democratic candidate in Presidential elections, the last Republican to carry the county was Calvin Coolidge in 1924.
In the last five Presidential elections the Democratic candidate has received over 60% of the countys vote. In the Colorados first elections as a state in 1876, Auguste Lacome ran against William H. Meyer for State Senate in Costilla County, Meyer would become the Lt
Mountain Time Zone
The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time at the 105th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. In the United States, the specification for the location of time zones. In the United States and Canada, this zone is generically called Mountain Time. Specifically, it is Mountain Standard Time when observing standard time, the term refers to the fact that the Rocky Mountains, which range from northwestern Canada to the US state of New Mexico, are located almost entirely in the time zone. In Mexico, this zone is known as the Pacific Zone. In the United States and Canada, the Mountain Time Zone is one ahead of the Pacific Time Zone and one hour behind the Central Time Zone. Sonora in Mexico and most of Arizona in the United States do not observe daylight saving time, and during the spring and autumn months they are on the same time as Pacific Daylight Time. The Navajo Nation, most of which lies within Arizona, does observe DST, although the Hopi Nation, as well as some Arizona state offices lying within the Navajo Nation, the largest city in the Mountain Time Zone is Phoenix, Arizona.
TV broadcasting in the Mountain Time Zone is typically tape-delayed one hour, sonora – no daylight saving time, always on MST. Sinaloa Revillagigedo Islands, three of the four islands have the time as Mountain Time Zone, Isla Socorro, San Benedicto Island. The following states or areas are part of the Mountain Time Zone, Arizona – no daylight saving time, always on MST, except on the Navajo Nation. Colorado Idaho – southern half, south of the Salmon River Kansas – only the counties of Sherman, Wallace and Hamilton, the remaining three counties that border Colorado, Cheyenne and Stanton, observe Central Time, as do all other Kansas counties. However, the state of Oklahoma is officially in the Central Time Zone. Additionally, northwestern Culberson County, Texas unofficially observes Mountain Time
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child
New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico.
The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico.
New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the state
U.S. Route 160
U. S. Route 160 is a 1,465 mile long east–west United States highway in the Midwestern United States. The western terminus of the route is at US89 five miles west of Tuba City, the eastern terminus is at US67 and Missouri 158 southwest of Poplar Bluff, Missouri. Its route, if not its number, was famous in song in 1975, as the road from Wolf Creek Pass to Pagosa Springs. US160 begins at US89 near the edge of Navajo Nation. Near Tuba City, it intersects State Route 264 and it goes through Tonalea and Cow Springs before entering Kayenta, where it intersects U. S. Route 163. It continues northeast through Dennehotso, has an overlap with U. S. Route 191 in Mexican Water. It goes east until Teec Nos Pos, where it intersects U. S. Route 64, US160 is one of the major routes crossing the Navajo Nation and in Arizona does not leave the Navajo Nation. About 0.9 miles of US160 is located within New Mexico, the highway travels northeast through extreme northwestern New Mexico, intersecting State Road 597, which provides access to the Four Corners Monument. U. S.
Route 160 enters Colorado near the Four Corners Monument and it goes northeast and intersects U. S. Route 491, turns north to enter Cortez with U. S.491. East of Cortez, a road south from U. S.160 to Mesa Verde National Park. It continues east to Durango, where it intersects U. S. Route 550, after overlapping with U. S.550 south of Durango, U. S.160 turns east and meets U. S. Route 84 at Pagosa Springs. It goes northeast and crosses the Continental Divide at Wolf Creek Pass, from Wolf Creek Pass, U. S.160 continues northeast and turns east at South Fork. At Monte Vista, an overlap begins with U. S. Route 285 and it turns east, goes northeast to go through North La Veta Pass, continues east to Walsenburg, where it intersects Interstate 25. From Walsenberg, U. S.160 continues south with Interstate 25 to Trinidad and it continues east, passing through the Comanche National Grassland before intersecting the concurrent U. S. Route 287 and U. S. Route 385 south of Springfield. It continues east and enters Kansas east of Walsh, US-160 enters Kansas just west of Saunders.
It goes northeast to Johnson, turns east to go through Ulysses, near Sublette, it intersects U. S. Route 83 and runs concurrently southward past its intersection with U. S. Route 56. It turns east and runs concurrently with U. S. Route 54 between Plains and Meade and it continues east, and runs concurrently with U. S. Route 283 and U. S. Route 183. At Medicine Lodge, it intersects U. S. Route 281 and it continues east and at Wellington, intersects U. S. Route 81 and Interstate 35, on which the Kansas Turnpike is routed in the area
The territory was organized in the wake of the Pikes Peak Gold Rush of 1858–1861 which brought the first large concentration of white settlement to the region. The boundaries of the Colorado Territory were identical with those of the current State of Colorado, the organization of the territory helped solidify Union control over a mineral-rich area of the Rocky Mountains. Statehood was regarded as fairly imminent, but territorial ambitions for statehood were thwarted at the end of 1865 by a veto by President Andrew Johnson. Statehood for the territory was an issue during the Ulysses Grant administration. The Colorado Territory ceased to exist when the State of Colorado was admitted to the Union in 1876, on the western side of the divide, the territory included much of the eastern Utah Territory, all of which was strongly controlled by the Ute and Shoshoni. The Eastern Plains were held more loosely by the intermixed Cheyenne and Arapaho, as well as by the Pawnee, Comanche. By the end of the American Civil War in 1865, the Native American presence had been eliminated from the High Plains.
The land claims of Texas were, at first, the Comanche and Jicarilla Apache formally ruled over the southeastern portions of the state. Arapaho and Cheyenne hunted and sometimes lived in the far eastern and northeastern portion of the state as well, in 1776, Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante explored southern Colorado in the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition. Frémont expedition in 1845–46, and the Powell Geographic Expedition of 1869 by John Wesley Powell, in 1779, Governor de Anza of New Mexico fought and defeated the Comanches under Cuerno Verde in southwestern Colorado. In 1786, de Anza made peace with the Comanches, creating an alliance against the Apaches, a group of Cherokee crossed the South Platte and Cache la Poudre River valleys on their way to California in 1848 during the California Gold Rush. They reported finding trace amounts of gold in the South Platte, in the south, in the San Luis Valley, early Mexican families established themselves in large land grants from the Mexican government.
In the early 19th century, the upper South Platte River valley had been infiltrated by fur traders, the first movement of permanent U. S. settlers in the area began with the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which allowed private land claims to be filed. In 1858, Green Russell and a party of Georgians, having heard the story of the gold in the South Platte from Cherokee after they returned from California and that summer they founded a mining camp Auraria at the confluence of the South Platte and Cherry Creek. The Georgians left for their state the following winter. At Bents Fort along the Arkansas River, Russell told William Larimer, Jr. a Kansas land speculator, realizing the opportunity to capitalize on it, hurried to Auraria. In November 1858, he claim to an area across Cherry Creek from Auraria and named it Denver City in honor of James W. Denver. Larimer did not intend to mine gold himself, he wanted to promote the new town, early arrivals moved upstream into the mountains quickly, seeking the lode source of the placer gold, and founded mining camps at Black Hawk and Central City