The Elkhead Mountains are a mountain range in Colorado. The mountain range is considered to be low altitude within Colorado as the mountains are under 11,000 feet. Located within Routt and Moffat counties, the mountain range is far from metropolitan areas and has few lakes and streams, so it attracts few visitors; the mountain range is a volcanic range and all of the peaks were formed by volcanic action. The mountain range extends 16 miles east to west and 10 miles north to south, its center is located at 40.77404°N 107.32132°W / 40.77404. All of the peaks within the Elkhead Mountains are a part of Routt National Forest. Significant peaks are: Bears Ears, Sugar Loaf, Saddle Mountain, Black Mountain, Pilot Knob, Meaden Peak. Park Range Mountain ranges of Colorado
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Maroon Bells are two peaks in the Elk Mountains, Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak, separated by about half a kilometer. The mountains are on the border between Pitkin County and Gunnison County, United States, about 12 miles southwest of Aspen. Both peaks are fourteeners. Maroon Peak, at 14,163 feet, is the 27th highest peak in Colorado. North Maroon Peak, at 14,019 feet, is the 50th highest; the view of the Maroon Bells to the southwest from the Maroon Creek valley is photographed. The peaks are located in the Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness of White River National Forest. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness was one of five areas in Colorado designated as wilderness in the original Wilderness Act of 1964; the Wilderness area surrounds the popular Maroon Bells Scenic Area, a major access point for Wilderness travel. Unlike other mountains in the Rockies that are composed of granite and limestone, the Bells are composed of metamorphic sedimentary mudstone that has hardened into rock over millions of years.
Mudstone is weak and fractures giving rise to dangerously loose rock along any route. A US Forest Service sign on the access trail warns would-be climbers of "downsloping, loose and unstable" rock that "kills without warning"; the mudstone is responsible for the Bells' distinctive maroon color. The Bells got their "deadly" reputation in 1965. Maroon Lake elevation 9,580 ft occupies a basin, sculpted by Ice-Age glaciers and dammed by a landslide and rockfall debris from the steep slopes above the valley floor; the Maroon Bells are an popular destination for the day and overnight visitors. Due to the volume of people, a bus service runs everyday from 8am-5pm from mid-June through the first weekend in October. During these times, with just a few exceptions, personal vehicle access is limited to those with handicap placards or disability license plates; the bus runs from Aspen Highlands to Maroon Lake every 20 minutes. The Maroon Bells scenic area features several hiking trails ranging from short hikes near Maroon Lake to longer hikes into the Maroon-Snowmass Wilderness.
Not only is the use of trails and other outdoor recreational space growing, the overall population of Colorado is growing as well. It is expected. By 2050,the population of Colorado is expected to increase from 5.5 million to 8.5 million,and with this population growth recreational tourism will continue to grow. In 2017, 1 in 4 of Colorado’s 86 million visitors spent most of their trip in mountain towns and resorts; this rapid growth poses challenges for Forest Services to properly maintain natural areas, if changes are not made to how the recreational space is utilized, wilderness areas like the Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness trails will feel the impacts of human traffic. Because the Maroon Bells area receives such high levels of visitor use, the USFS has established a long-term plan to protect and preserve the scenic area and larger wilderness areas. Solutions include the required use of bear canisters for backcountry campers, management of day and overnight use, leashed dog education and ticketing, reduction of heavy horse use in high use areas, prohibiting overnight camping and excessive day use at particular sites.
The US Forest Service has come up with a paid permit plan to aid preservation efforts. The permit system was created to allow visitors to stay overnight while mitigating environmental damage and preserving the visited area. A permit is required year-round, limits campers to stay in the Conundrum Creek Valley area from Silver Dollar Pond to Triangle Pass. Campsite limits range depending on the campsite location; the USFS limits the number of permits to 2 permits per person per calendar year and the maximum stay from June 1- September 1 is 3 nights. The Conundrum Hot Springs alone can attract up to 300 people a night. Specific environmental impacts can occur due to the high number of visitors the Maroon Bells experiences each year. See below for more information; the Maroon Bells Recreation area is surrounded by Maroon Creek, which feeds into Crater Lake and Maroon Lake. These natural freshwater ecosystems fill from snowmelt from the surrounding peaks and precipitation, are major sources of water for the city of Aspen,CO.
According to the study Environmental Impacts of Tourism on Lakes, water pollution can occur through indirect and direct methods. Direct pollution to these natural bodies of water occurs when visitors choose to wade or throw items into these bodies of water, disrupting the fragile biodiversity. An increase in human-traffic,such as the increase in the number of visitors who drive up Maroon Creek Road, is an example of indirect pollution; this constant vehicular traffic releases pollutants such as nitrogen and sulfur dioxide into the water and air. U. S. Forest Service officials were concerned about the high nitrogen compound levels in the waters at the Maroon Bells in 2003. Officials mentioned that the increase in population and recreation in Colorado as well as an increase in the number of vehicles could be a cause of the elevated nitrogen compound levels, as these sources emit pollutants; when precipitation forms over peaks like the Maroon Bells, these pollutants fall back to the Earth’s surface and can travel into the river and lakes negatively impacting fish and plants due to high levels of nitrogen.
The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency further supports the relationship bet
San Juan Mountains
The San Juan Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. The area is mineralized and figured in the gold and silver mining industry of early Colorado. Major towns, all old mining camps, include Creede, Lake City, Silverton and Telluride. Large scale mining has ended in the region, although independent prospectors still work claims throughout the range; the last large scale mines were the Sunnyside Mine near Silverton, which operated until late in the 20th century and the Idarado Mine on Red Mountain Pass that closed down in the 1970s. Famous old San Juan mines include the Camp Bird and Smuggler Union mines, both located between Telluride and Ouray; the Summitville mine was the scene of a major environmental disaster in the 1990s when the liner of a cyanide-laced tailing pond began leaking heavily. Summitville is in the Summitville caldera, one of many extinct volcanoes making up the San Juan volcanic field. One, La Garita Caldera, is 35 miles in diameter.
Large beds of lava, some extending under the floor of the San Luis Valley, are characteristic of the eastern slope of the San Juans. Tourism is now a major part of the regional economy, with the narrow gauge railway between Durango and Silverton being an attraction in the summer. Jeeping is popular on the old trails which linked the historic mining camps, including the notorious Black Bear Road. Visiting old ghost towns is popular, as is wilderness trekking and mountain climbing. Many of the old mining camps are now popular sites of summer homes. Though the San Juans are steep and receive a lot of snow, so far only Telluride has made the transition to a major ski resort. Purgatory Resort, once known as Durango Mountain Resort, is a small ski area 26 miles north of Durango. There is skiing on Wolf Creek Pass at the Wolf Creek ski area. Silverton Mountain ski area has begun operation near Silverton; the Rio Grande drains the east side of the range. The other side of the San Juans, the western slope of the continental divide, is drained by tributaries of the San Juan and Gunnison rivers, which all flow into the Colorado River.
The San Juan and Uncompahgre National Forests cover a large portion of the San Juan Mountains. The San Juan Mountains are distinctive for their high altitude plateaus and peaks; as a result, facilities in the towns and cities of the region are among the highest in the nation. Telluride Airport, at an elevation of 9,070 feet, is the highest in the United States with scheduled commercial service. Note: This is only a partial list of important peaks in the San Juans, listing peaks by prominence only. There are dozens more summits over 12,000 feet. Mining operators in the San Juan mountain area formed the San Juan District Mining Association in 1903, as a direct result of a Western Federation of Miners proposal to the Telluride Mining Association for the eight-hour day, approved in a referendum by 72 percent of Colorado voters; the new association consolidated the power of thirty-six mining properties in San Miguel and San Juan counties. The SJDMA refused to consider any reduction in hours or increase in wages, helping to provoke a bitter strike.
Southern Rocky Mountains Sneffels Range Cimmaron Range Needle Mountains La Garita Mountains Cochetopa Hills La Plata Mountains Mountain ranges of Colorado Bove, D. et al.. Geochronology and geology of Late Oligocene through Miocene volcanism and mineralization in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Lippman, P. W.. Geologic map of southwestern Colorado. Reston, VA: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Widerange.org: Photos of the San Juan Mountains San Juan Mountains @ Peakbagger Southern Rocky Mountains @ Peakbagger Rocky Mountains @ Peakbagger
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
Castle Peak (Colorado)
Castle Peak is the ninth highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,279-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Elk Mountains and the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness; the peak is located 11.6 miles northeast by north of the Town of Crested Butte, United States, on the drainage divide separating Gunnison National Forest and Gunnison County from White River National Forest and Pitkin County. The summit of Castle Peak is the highest point of both counties. Castle Peak takes its name from its castellated summit; the best climbing months are June, August, September through the Montezuma Glacier, a permanent snowfield between Castle and Conundrum Peaks. There are two standard routes for ascent; the Northwest Ridge features a moderate snow climb followed by an easy ridge scramble. It should not be attempted late in the summer when the 200 feet of loose dirt and scree meet the climber near the top of the Castle-Conundrum saddle; the Northeast Ridge features an easy snow climb, but harder scrambling and route-finding once on the ridge.
There are two other peaks in Colorado that have the same name: one in Eagle County at 39°46′23″N 106°50′04″W, with an elevation 11,280+ feet,. Conundrum Peak is a northern subsummit of Castle Peak, it has two spaced summits. It is 0.4 miles north of Castle Peak, has 200 feet of clean topographic prominence. This does not meet the usual 300-foot prominence criterion for an separate peak. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners "Castle Peak and Conundrum Peak". 14ers.com. Retrieved 2011-05-09. "Castle Peak". SummitPost.org. "Conundrum Peak". SummitPost.org. "Castle Peak / Conundrum Peak". Colorado Fourteeners. Archived from the original on 2008-03-29. Retrieved 2011-05-09. "Castle Peak". Peakware. Retrieved 2011-05-09