San Mateo County, California

San Mateo County the County of San Mateo, is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451; the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Berkeley, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is part of the San Francisco Bay Area, the nine counties bordering San Francisco Bay, it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the northern end of the county, Silicon Valley begins at the southern end; the county's built-up areas are suburban with some areas being urban, are home to several corporate campuses. San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the state's 18 original counties established with California statehood in 1850, was split apart; until 1856, San Francisco's city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, south to 20th Street. In response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county.

A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain. Everything south of the line became the new San Mateo County while everything north of the line became the new consolidated City and County of San Francisco, to date the only consolidated city-county in California; the consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by a bill introduced by Horace Hawes, signed by the governor on 19 April 1856. San Mateo County was organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G. Phelps; the 1857 bill defined the southern boundary of San Mateo County as following the south branch of San Francisquito Creek to its source in the Santa Cruz Mountains and thence due west to the Pacific Ocean, named Redwood City as the county seat. San Mateo County annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by "unblushing frauds... perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco" named Belmont the county seat.

The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, with land being donated from the original Pulgas Grant for the county government on 27 February 1858. Redwood City's status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the state supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875 and the county seat has been in Redwood City since. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew; as a place name, San Mateo appears as early as 1776 in the diaries of Font. Several local geographic features were designated San Mateo on early maps including variously: a settlement, an arroyo, a headland jutting into the Pacific, a large land holding; until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo. The Japanese first arrived in San Mateo county and were part of a group guided by Ambassador Tomomi Iwakura back in 1872.

There were a number of all male Japanese students who came to San Mateo to learn English and many other helpful skills to bring back to Japan. These students were some of the first Japanese to join American students in the Belmont school for boys; these students had to work for their housing and food in the evenings. Many of the first Japanese immigrants were able to find jobs as gardeners and landscapers In San Mateo. Most of them had good educational background from their homelands, but their lack of knowing the English language made it difficult for them to find other jobs in the beginning. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 741 square miles, of which 448 square miles is land and 293 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in California by land area. A number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the western county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio, Denniston Creek.

These streams originate along the northern spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. The northern and north-east parts of the county are heavy densely populated with urban and suburban areas, with many of its cities as edge-cities for the Bay Area, whilst the deep south and the west central parts of the county are less heavy densely populated with more rural environment and coastal beaches areas. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length; the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannah. There are numerous species of wildlife present along the San Francisco Bay estuarine shoreline, San Bruno Mountain, Fitzgerald Marine Reserve and the forests on the Montara Mountain block. Several creeks discharge to the San Francisco Bay including San Mateo Creek and Laurel Creek and several coastal streams discharge to the Pacific Ocean such as Frenchmans Creek and San Vicente Creek.

Año Nuevo State Marine Conservation Area and Greyhound Rock State Marine Conservation Area are two adjoining marine protected areas off the coast of San Mateo County. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems; the county is home to several endangered species including the San Francisco garter snake and the San Bruno elfin butter

Feodor Lynen

Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen was a German biochemist. In 1964 he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine together with Konrad Bloch for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism while he was director of the Max-Planck Institute for Cellular Chemistry in Munich. Feodor Lynen was born in Munich on 6 April 1911, he started his studies at the chemistry department of Munich University in 1930 and graduated in March 1937 under Heinrich Wieland with the work: "On the Toxic Substances in Amanita". Lynen remained in Germany throughout World War II. In 1942 he became a chemistry lecturer at the Munich University. In 1947 he became an assistant professor and in 1953 a professor of biochemistry. From 1954 onwards he was director of the Max-Planck Institute for Cellular Chemistry in Munich, a position, created for him at the instigation of two senior scientists, Otto Warburg and Otto Hahn. In 1972, that institute was merged into the newly founded Max-Planck Institute of Biochemistry in 1972.

In 1972, Lynen was named President of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker. In 1964 he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine together with Konrad Bloch for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism; these discoveries took many years to work out. The Nobel Committee felt that this was important because understanding the metabolism of sterols and fatty acids could reveal how cholesterol affects heart disease and stroke, his Nobel Lecture on 11 December 1964 was'The pathway from "activated acetic acid" to the terpenes and fatty acids'. Working separately and Bloch both discovered the steps that created squalene and turned the squalene into cholesterol. Lynen found that acetate activated by Coenzyme A was needed to start the process, he discovered the chemical structure of acetyl-coenzyme A, needed for a detailed understanding of the biochemical pathways. He learned that biotin, or Vitamin B7, was needed for in the process. On 14 May 1937, Lynen married daughter of his academic teacher.

They had five children between 1938 and 1946. Feodor Lynen died in Germany, on 6 August 1979, six weeks after an operation for aneurism; the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation has a fellowship named in his honor. 1963: Otto Warburg Medal from the German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 1964: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the metabolism of cholesterol and fatty acids" 1965: Grand Cross of Merit with Star and Sash of the Federal Republic of Germany 1967: Norman Medal of the German Society for Fat Research 1971: Pour le Mérite for Science and Art 1972: Austrian Decoration for Science and Art Nobel biography Feodor Lynen's Nobel lecture, "The pathway from'activated acetic acid' to the terpenes and fatty acids" Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Feodor Lynen Research Fellowships

Iatmül language

Iatmul is the language of the Iatmul people, spoken around the Sepik River in the East Sepik Province, northern Papua New Guinea. The Iatmul, however, do not call it gepmakudi. There are about 8,400 Iatmul traditionally organized in villages, whereas a total amount of 46,000 speakers is estimated; the inhabitants of the villages are trilingual, being fluent with Tok Pisin, good with Iatmul and having some knowledge of English. Tok Pisin is the first language of the youngest children, despite efforts to revise this trend. An extensive grammar of Iatmul has been written by Gerd Jendraschek as a postdoctoral thesis. Iatmul is part of the Ndu language family, which consists of at least six languages in which ndu is the word for'man'. Together with Manambu it is the southernmost language of the Ndu family, spoken along the Sepik River. Iatmul is the best known Ndu language of them all. Iatmul is a nearly isolating language. Flexion is predominantly suffixed and regular, whereas the phonological processes are the most complex ones within the language.

Stems change their form while multiple-morpheme structures can become so coalescent that they are difficult to segment. Iatmul has masculine and feminine gender marking as well as singular and plural numbers. Nouns and verbs are the only two major classes in Iatmul with only little derivation across them. There is not a strong distinction between modifiers and nouns as many roots can be used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs. Smaller word classes include personal pronouns, postpositions, interrogatives as well as proclauses, while there are no clause-linking conjunctions; the phonological system of Iatmul is a matter of controversy among scholars. There is no consensus about how many vowels Iatmul has and about which realisations are to be considered as phonemes or allophones. There were attempts of analysing the language as consisting of only 1-3 vowels by Staalsen and Laycock. Jendraschek in contrast describes 7 phonemic diphthongs; the canonical syllable structure of Iatmul is CV. Possible codas are and.

Most words begin with the nasal consonants. Excluded from this rule are about 5% of the words in Iatmul, which begin with the vowels or. A common phenomenon in Iatmul is regressive assimilation. Assimilation can be blocked to avoid ambiguity. Whereas is ambiguous due to assimilation of bâk to bap, example is not ambiguous as assimilation was blocked in favour of a clear meaning. Elision can be encountered frequently. In the following example, both vowel fusion and onset elision are operating at the same time, making the meaning of the final form hard to recognize. Epenthesis can be observed when for example focus is marked with the suffix -a: Reduction Reduction happens quantitatively, so that the vowels are shorted in their length. Qualitative reduction happens on a rare occasion and occurs during monophthongization. In Iatmul, words are not differentiated via accentuation; the meanings of words are not autonomous, but influenced by factors like vocal length, syllable structure and speed of enunciation.

The following rules are the most important ones in descending order: Long vowels are stressed CVC syllables are stressed Word-initial syllables are stressed. In compounds, these rules can be randomly applied to the second word; as diphthongs are not stressed, there are no long monophthongized diphthongs. A phonological utterance ends with falling intonation. Simple sentences are marked via pauses. Complex sentences end with falling intonation. Questions are marked via variations in pitch. Focus is marked by a subsequent fall of the pitch. Iatmul is a moderately agglutinative language. Therefore, much information is being expressed morphologically instead of syntactically, true for the category of the verb. Information regarding actions like the direction, the manner or temporal relations are expressed via derivation of the verbs. There are many affixes specifying the manner in which an action is performed, like the means or the amount of control over the action. Temporal marking exists in present past tense, but not in the future tense.

The marker for the present tense is -ka and in some cases the allomorph -a. The past tense is unmarked. Thus, some tenses can be distinguished only by the length of a single vowel; the expression of future is covered by the irrealis mood with the allomorphs -kiya,-ikiya and it' short form -ika occurring in fast speech. Besides future reference, the irrealis expresses possibility and permission and can be used in conditional constructions; the imperfective aspect marker -ti'~li' occurs most with the present tense. Therefore, in some constructions in which present cannot be marked, the imperfective expresses present time reference. Thus, it' semantics is about to shift from aspect to tense. Other aspects in Iatmul are Hortative marked with -kak, -li, -lu Optative marked with -ba and -ka Apprehensive marked with -ka Imperative, built using the bare stem or additionally by the suffix -li'. A special category in Iatmul are event-specifier-suffixes. Temporal relations are expressed with -jibu: event takes place during the whole night until sunrise -pwali: expresses that the event is done cont