First Baptist Church of Ventura
First Baptist Church of Ventura is a historic church at 101 S. Laurel Street in Ventura, California, it was built in 1926 and renovated extensively into the Mayan Revival style in 1932. Declared a landmark by the City of Ventura In 1975, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2009. Since 1952, it has been home to the Ventura Center for Spiritual Living. According to its NRHP nomination, it was deemed nationally significant "as a fine and unaltered example of a scarce property designed in the Mayan Revival style by its most prominent and widely-recognized proponent, architect Robert B. Stacy-Judd of Los Angeles; the First Baptist Church of Ventura exemplifies architectural exoticism by representing a moment in American architectural history when the public's desire for the new and different was at its peak. The property is the product of a rare convergence of national cultural events and a unique force of personality."Some of his other notable Southern California commissions include the Aztec Hotel, the Masonic Temple, the Philosophical Research Society, the Atwater Bungalows.
The other architect known for working in this style was Frank Lloyd Wright. In Los Angeles his Hollyhock House and Ennis House are relevant examples; the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo was a zenith of this style. His son, the landscape architect and architect Lloyd Wright, designed the John Sowden House in a similar style. National Register of Historic Places listings in Ventura County, California Bardsdale United Methodist Church City of Ventura Historic Landmarks and Districts Official website City of Ventura. "City Landmarks, Points of Interest, Historic Districts". Historic Preservation in Ventura webpage
Mission San Buenaventura
Mission San Buenaventura is a Spanish mission founded by the Franciscans in present-day Ventura, California. Founded on March 31, 1782, it was the ninth Spanish mission established in California and the last to be established by Father Junípero Serra; the mission was named after Saint Bonaventure, a 13th century Franciscan saint and Doctor of the Church. The mission is located in the historic downtown of Ventura. Mission San Buenaventura was planned to be founded in 1770, but the founding was delayed because of the low availability of the military escorts needed to establish the mission. In 1793, the first church burned down. Today, only a small section of the entire mission complex still stands, it took the neophytes 16 years to build the new church, which still functions as a parish church of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. The founding of the San Buenaventura Mission traces to the decision on Palm Sunday, March 30, 1749 by the Franciscan priest Junipero Serra to journey to the New World as a missionary to the native peoples.
Thirty-three years and one day he raised the Cross at "la playa de la canal de Santa Barbara" on Easter morning, March 31, 1782. Assisted by Pedro Benito Cambon, he celebrated a High Mass, preached on the Resurrection, dedicated a mission to San Buenaventura, it had been planned as the third in the chain of twenty-one missions founded by Serra but was destined to be the ninth and last founded during his lifetime, one of six he dedicated. Under the direction of Cambon, whom Serra left in charge of the new mission, a system of aqueducts were built by the Chumash between 1805–1815 to meet the needs of the Mission population and consisted of both ditches and elevated stone masonry; the watercourse ran from a point on the Ventura River about ½ mile north of the remaining ruins and carried the water to holding tanks behind the mission, a total of about 7 miles. With plentiful water the mission was able to maintain flourishing orchards and gardens, which were described by English navigator George Vancouver as the finest he had seen.
The water distribution system was damaged by floods and abandoned in 1862. The mission's first church building was destroyed by fire; the construction of a second church was abandoned because "the door gave way." In 1792 work was in progress on the present church and the small utility buildings which formed a quadrangle enclosing a plaza. Although half finished in 1795, the church was not completed until 1809. Dedication was held September 9 of that year and the first liturgical services took place September 10. At about that time the San Miguel Chapel and the Santa Gertrudis Chapel were completed. A series of earthquakes and an accompanying seismic sea wave in 1812 forced the priests and Indian neophytes to seek temporary shelter a few miles inland. Six years the priests and their flock had to remove sacred objects from the church and flee into the hills to elude a pirate, pillaging the missions but was headed off after a "bargaining session" at El Refugio in Santa Barbara; the Mexican government in 1834 issued a secularization decree divesting the priests of administrative control over the missions.
In 1845 Mission San Buenaventura was rented to Don Jose Arnaz and Narciso Botello and was illegally sold to Arnaz. The mission did not escape the impact that the Mexican–American War of 1846–1847 had on California. On January 5, 1847, while on its way from Santa Barbara to Los Angeles, the 428 men-strong California Battalion, under the command of U. S. Army Major John C. Fremont, managed to disperse an armed force of up to 70 enemy Californios near the mission. After California became a state of the Union, Bishop Joseph Sadoc Alemany petitioned the United States Government to return that part of the mission holdings comprising the church, clergy residence, cemetery and vineyard to the Catholic Church; the request was granted in the form of a proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln on May 23, 1862. Because of severe damage in the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, the Mission's tile roof was replaced by a shingle roof. In 1893, Cyprian Rubio "modernized" the interior of the church, painting over the original artwork.
The windows were lengthened, the beamed ceiling and tile floor were covered, the remnants of the quadrangle were razed. The west sacristy was removed to provide room for a school, not built until 1921. During the pastorate of Patrick Grogan the roof of the church was once again tiled, the convent and present rectory were built, a new fountain was placed in the garden; the education of children at Mission San Buenaventura has flourished intermittently since 1829 and continuously since 1922. A four-classroom structure, Holy Cross School served its students and the parish admirably since its 1922 dedication. In 1925 it was expanded to accommodate growth and in 1949 a subsequent renovation brought it out to Main Street with no space left for further expansion. In a major restoration under the supervision of Aubrey J. O'Reilly in 1956–1957 the windows were reconstructed to their original size, the ceiling and floor were uncovered. A long-time parishioner commissioned the casting of a bell with an automatic angelus device and donated it to the mission.
The second half of the twentieth century brought more growth, as well as wear-and-tear and obsolescence, the school's problems far exceed spatial deficiency. In response to this situat
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
Ventura is a passenger rail station in downtown Ventura, California. The station is served by Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner from San Luis Obispo to San Diego. Ten Pacific Surfliner trains serve the station daily. Of the 73 California stations served by Amtrak, Ventura was the 33rd-busiest in FY2010, boarding or detraining an average of 125 passengers daily; the single platform is located on the south side of the tracks with a view of the Santa Barbara Channel and the Channel Islands. The Ventura Freeway is parallel on the north side of tracks; the Metrolink Ventura County Line terminus is in Montalvo at the East Ventura Metrolink Station since commuters traveling towards Los Angeles are better served by that station and overnight storage of trains in the downtown was impractical. Special service trains may come to this station such as service to the Ventura County Fair, in season. FlixBus Ventura County Fair at Seaside Park The platform is located on a portion of Coast Line between the Ventura River and Ash Street, under franchise from the City of Ventura.
Having approved an official map in 1869, the town trustees approved the laying down of tracks on Front Street through the existing townsite. Approval was conditioned on Southern Pacific Branch Railway building and maintaining a depot within the corporate limits; the original train station was located about a half mile east within the Eastern Addition to the town. Ventura Junction where the Ventura and Ojai Valley Railroad Company branched off up along the Ventura River is just west of the station; the rails reached the town of Nordhoff in 1898 and the line was acquired by Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1899. The Ventura River Parkway Trail has been constructed within the abandoned railroad right-of-way. E. P. and Orpha Foster donated much of the land for Seaside Park adjacent to the station. They envisioned this broad flat area as a beautiful gateway to Ventura, where families could walk and enjoy family outings; the large parking lot across Harbor Boulevard from the station is the former site of Babe Ruth Field.
The minor-league team games that played there from 1948 to 1955 were appreciated by the adjacent neighborhood called Tortilla Flats. This neighborhood was eliminated with the construction of the freeway. According to Public Art in Public Places, the 2008 mural "Tortilla Flats" by MB Hanrahan and Moses Mora at the Figueroa Street freeway underpass commemorates the neighborhood. A car carrier trailer leaving the fairgrounds with vintage Porsche automobiles "high-centered" as it crossed the tracks near the station and became stranded in 2004. Although the police notified Union Pacific, there was just enough time to get the driver out of the truck cab, pulling the car-carrier before the collision. A northbound freight train hit the center of the trailer scattering the vintage cars alongside the tracks; the station is on the Pacific Coast Bicycle Route and serves as an access point for California Coastal Trail. Figueroa Street leads down to beachfront Promenade Surfers' Point at Seaside Park; the promenade is a walking/bike trail that leads down coast to San Buenaventura State Beach after passing underneath the second oldest pier in California.
Up coast the path has been designated the Omer Rains Bike Trail. Beachwalkers will find cobble beaches while walking to these state parks. While crossing the sand bar at the mouth of the Ventura River may be possible, the bike route is an alternate route for walkers; the rustic railroad bridge over the river has been an attractive and apparent short-cut but the curve in the middle of the river limits visibility for this illegal and dangerous river crossing. Amtrak California Station Info Page Ventura --Great American Stations
Ventura County Courthouse
The Ventura County Courthouse, known since 1974 as Ventura City Hall, is a historic building in Ventura, California. It is located on a hill at the top of California Street, overlooking the city's downtown district with views of the Santa Barbara Channel and Channel Islands, it was the first building in the City of Ventura to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places and has received historic designations at the state and city levels. Built from 1912 to 1913, the Neoclassical courthouse was designed by the noted Los Angeles architect Albert C. Martin Sr. in a Beaux Arts style. The building's facade includes white glazed terra cotta panels and decorations, including 24 whimsical faces of Franciscan friars, fluted Doric columns, a copper-sheathed dome and cupola, Roman-arched windows; the second-floor city council chambers include carved mahogany woodwork, stained glass skylights, arched windows overlooking the city and ocean. The courthouse was expanded in the early 1930s with the construction of an annex off the building's west wing.
In 1968, the building was declared structurally unsound and county workers relocated. The City of Ventura purchased the building from the County and renovated it at a cost of $3.4 million. The building has served as Ventura City Hall since 1974; the building architecture has been described as Neoclassical Revival, Beaux Arts Classicisim, Roman Doric, French Renaissance. The architect Albert C. Martin referred to it as "resembling Roman Doric"; when the plans were unveiled in 1911, the Los Angeles Times reported that the "Roman Doric order" design would be "one of the most imposing public structures in California, a credit to the seat of government of the prosperous lima bean section."Notable design features of the facade include white glazed terra cotta panels and decorations, including 24 whimsical faces of Franciscan friars, fluted Doric columns, a copper-sheathed dome and cupola, Roman-arched windows, ornate brass gates and double doors. The interior design features include extensive use of Italian marble, bronze ballustrades, a large, second-floor courtroom with carved mahogany woodwork, three domes with leaded, stained glass skylights, arched windows overlooking the city and ocean.
The building has been praised as one of Southern California's most beautiful government buildings. In 1926, the Ventura Star wrote: "She stands majestically upon the hill, this courthouse of ours, with her national colors fluttering in the harbor breezes, for all the world like a beautiful woman in a Paris gown." In 1991, the Los Angeles Times said of the landmark structure: "Probably no local structure is more visually and symbolically dramatic, or as steeped in local legend. Perched like a lordly, lavish manor at the juncture of California and Poli streets, it overlooks the old town and the blue Pacific beyond -- a constant reminder of the past."The courthouse has been designated as a historic building at the federal, state and city levels. In December 1970, it was designated as Ventura County Historic Landmark No. 12. Five months in May 1971, it was desiganted as California Historical Landmark No. 847. Three months after that, in August 1971, the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the first building in the city to be so recognized.
When the City of Ventura adopted its own historic landmark program in February 1974, the courthouse was one of the first buildings to be selected, receiving the designation as Ventura Historic Landmark No. 4. The original Ventura County Courthouse was built at a cost of $10,000 in 1873 by William Dewey Hobson, who had earlier in the year lobbied the California Legislature to created Ventura County; the land, donated by Bishop Thaddeus Amat, was carved out of the gardens at the Mission San Buenaventura at a location between Santa Clara, Meta and Junipero Streets. After the new courthouse opened in 1913, the old courthouse remained vacant, though it was used for a time as housing for indigent Mexican families; the old courthouse was demolished in 1921 by contractor A. Pefley who purchased the building from the County for $200 and salvaged 200,0000 bricks from the structure. A 2007 archaeological dig uncovered a portion of the mission era wall foundation built with 40 to 50 pound stones as expected from historical surveys and maps.
The dig found artifacts from many periods besides the first courthouse and first hospital including signs of the long history of human settlement such as beads made of shells by Native Americans harvested from the nearby ocean. By 1910, the tower of the original courthouse was leaning over the front entrance. A bigger courthouse would better serve the County's population which had grown from 5,073 in 1880 to 18,347 in 1910. Judge Felix Ewing recommended the site at the top of California Street for a new courthouse; the Board of Supervisors followed Judge Ewing's recommendation, deciding to acquire land totaling 400 feet by 400 feet along the north side of Poli Street, a site occupied by the homes of James Blackstock and Henry Neel. However, a bond measure to raise funds for the new courthouse was defeated in 1911; the following year, voters approved a $150,000 bond measure to build the courthouse. The noted. Martin's Los Angeles works include Los Angeles City Hall, the May Company Building, St. Vincent de Paul Church.
His Ventura County works include St. Mary Magdalen Church in Camarillo and the Bella Maggiore Inn in downtown Ventura; the courthouse was built in 1912 and 1913 at a cost of $278,000. The July 1913 dedication of the courthouse was c
Dudley House (Ventura, California)
Dudley House in Ventura, California is a historic house museum built in 1891 in a Late Victorian-style. Designed and built by local architect and builder Selwyn Shaw, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. At the time of the NRHP listing, the farmhouse was occupied by the fifth generation of the Dudley family and the property included nine out of an original 200 acres; the property was deemed significant for its architecture and for its association with this farming family. The city-owned house is now managed by San Buenaventura Heritage, Inc. and is open for tours on a limited basis. City of Ventura Historic Landmarks and Districts National Register of Historic Places listings in Ventura County, California Dudley House - San Buenaventura Heritage, Inc. "City Landmarks, Points of Interest, Historic Districts" "Historic Preservation in Ventura" webpage. City of Ventura. Accessed 16 September 2017. City of Ventura. Accessed 29 September 2013 Detail Sheet #44 accessed from link on City Map with Historic Landmarks
Channel Islands (California)
The Channel Islands form an eight-island archipelago along the Santa Barbara Channel in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California. Five of the islands are part of Channel Islands National Park, the waters surrounding these islands make up Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary; the islands were first colonized by the Chumash and Tongva Native Americans 13,000 years ago, who were displaced by Spaniards who used the islands for fishing and agriculture. The U. S. military uses the islands as training grounds, weapons test sites, as a strategic defensive location. The Channel Islands and the surrounding waters house a diverse ecosystem with many endemic species and subspecies; the islands harbor 150 unique species of plant that are found only on the Islands and nowhere else in the world. The eight islands are split among the jurisdictions of three separate California counties: Santa Barbara County, Ventura County, Los Angeles County; the islands are divided into two groups. The four northern Islands used to be a single landmass known as Santa Rosae.
The archipelago extends for 160 miles between San Miguel Island in the north and San Clemente Island in the south. Together, the islands' land area totals about 346 square miles. Five of the islands were made into the Channel Islands National Park in 1980; the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles off these islands. Santa Catalina Island is the only one of the eight islands with a significant permanent civilian settlement—the resort city of Avalon and the unincorporated town of Two Harbors. University of Southern California houses its USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies marine lab in Two Harbors. Natural seepage of oil occurs at several places in the Santa Barbara Channel. Tar balls or pieces of tar in small numbers are found on the beaches. Native Americans used occurring tar, for a variety of purposes which include roofing, waterproofing and some ceremonial purposes; the Channel Islands at low elevations are frost-free and constitute one of the few such areas in the 48 contiguous US states.
It snows only on higher mountain peaks. Separated from the California mainland throughout recent geological history, the Channel Islands provide the earliest evidence for human seafaring in the Americas, it is the site of the discovery of the earliest paleontological evidence of humans in North America. The northern Channel Islands are now known to have been settled by maritime Paleo-Indian peoples at least 13,000 years ago. Archaeological sites on the island provide a unique and invaluable record of human interaction with Channel Island marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the late Pleistocene to historic times; the Anacapa Island Archeological District is a 700-acre historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. The northern islands were occupied by the island Chumash, while the southern islands were occupied by the Tongva. Author Scott O'Dell wrote about the indigenous peoples living on the island in his novel Island of the Blue Dolphins. Aleut hunters visited the islands to hunt otters in the early 1800s.
The Aleuts purportedly clashed with the native Chumash. Aleut interactions with the natives were detailed in O'Dell's book; the Chumash and Tongva were removed from the islands in the early 19th century and taken to Spanish missions and pueblos on the adjacent mainland. For a century, the Channel Islands were used for ranching and fishing activities, which had significant impacts on island ecosystems, including the local extinction of sea otters, bald eagles, other species. Several of the islands were used by whalers in the 1930s to hunt for sperm whales. With most of the Channel Islands now managed by federal agencies or conservation groups, the restoration of the island ecosystems has made significant progress. An example of conservation progress has been the bald eagle, threatened due to DDT contamination, but whose populations are now recovering. With the help of scientists from the USC Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, the Catalina Island Fox has recovered from a low of 100 individual foxes to over 1,500 foxes in 2018.
In 1972, in "a bit of political theater”, twenty-six Brown Berets sailed to Catalina Island on tourist boats, set up a small encampment near the town of Avalon, put up a Mexican flag and claimed the island on behalf of all Chicanos, citing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Twenty-four days sheriff's deputies took everyone back to the mainland. Channel Islands National Park's mainland visitor center received 342,000 visitors in 2014; the islands attract around 70,000 tourists a year, most during the summer. Visitors can travel to the islands via public airplane transportation. Camping grounds are available on Anacapa, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, Santa Barbara Islands in the Channel Islands National Park. Attractions include whale watching, snorkeling and camping; the United States Navy controls San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, has installations elsewhere in the chain. During World War II all of southern California’s Channel Islands were put under military control, including the civilian-populated Santa Catalina where tourism was halted and established residents needed permits to travel to and from the mainland.
San Miguel Island was used as a bombing range and Santa Barbara Island as an early warning outpost under the presumed threat of a