Tacubaya is an area of Mexico City located in the west, in the borough of Miguel Hidalgo, consisting of the colonia Tacubaya proper and adjacent areas in other colonias, with San Miguel Chapultepec sección II, Daniel Garza and Ampliación Daniel Garza being considered part of Tacubaya. The area has been inhabited since the fifth century BCE, its name comes from Nahuatl, meaning “where water is gathered.” From the colonial period to the beginning of the 20th century, Tacubaya was an separate entity to Mexico City and many of the city’s wealthy, including viceroys, built residences here to enjoy the area’s scenery. From the mid-19th century on, Tacubaya began to urbanize both due to the growth of Mexico City and the growth of its own population. Along with this urbanization, the area has degraded into one of the poorer sections of the city and contains the “La Ciudad Perdida”, a shantytown where people live in shacks of cardboard and other materials. Many of the mansions that were built here in the 19th century remain, such as the Casa Amarilla and Casa de la Bola, but most Mexico City residents are familiar with it due to its transportation hub on Avenida Jalisco where the Metro and many street buses all converge.
This area was designated as a "Barrio Mágico" by the city in 2011. Archeological evidence shows continuous human habitation here since between 450 and 250 BCE by the Chichimecas; this prehistoric settlement divided into a ceremonial center in the north and housing in the south, showing signs of influence from the Teotihuacan culture. The Mexica first arrived in 1276 but left in 1279, when they moved on to Chapultepec, its original Nahuatl name was Acozcomac renamed Atlalcuihaya. The name comes from Nahuatl and means “where water is gathered.” The second name was Hispanicized to Tacubaya when the Spanish built a monastery here called San José de Tacubaya in the early colonial period. The area was important to the Spaniards in the early colonial period. After the Conquest, the Spanish founded several churches and large mansions in this area. Viceroys spent time here because of its natural beauty; as a result, the area became divided between the rich and poor. Tacubaya consisted of wide, flat land and had free flowing rivers that supplied fresh water to Mexico City.
Moving the capital of New Spain from Mexico City to Tacubaya was considered early in the colonial period but it never happened. After the end of the Mexican War of Independence in the 19th century, Tacubaya remained a popular getaway for the wealthy. Over the 19th century, as communal property rights were dismantled in favor of private property, many of the well-to-do bought land here for second homes, making it a summer-home suburb of Mexico City; this was the scene of the Plan of Tacubaya. In 1861, Benito Juárez named it Tacubaya de los Mártires in honor of those who lost their lives on 11 April 1859. Tacubaya remained a rural suburb of Mexico City until the second half of the 19th century; the urbanization of Tacubaya was a gradual process that occurred from this time until about 1930. This urbanization was the result of both the growth of Tacubaya's population and the growth of Mexico City proper, both of which changed the economic and political scene here. Community property was dismantled in favor of private property by the Liberals in order to promote economic development.
This brought foreign investment which led to the establishment of immigrant communities of Spaniards. This pushed the indigenous population to the periphery of the municipality. Development of the economy led to the establishment of rail and trolley lines, as well as streets and roads for automobiles; the creation of the Departmento del Distrito Federal eliminated the municipal government structure here, integrated the area politically with the city. Tacubaya became an important commercial center for Mexico City, linking the city with the west of the country. In the early 20th century, the first tall structure of the Mexico City area was built here, called the Ermita Conjunto or Triángulo de Tacubaya, at the vanguard architecturally at the time in Art Deco style. For many years, this building housed the Teatro Hipódromo. Other major constructions such as El Jardin followed, transforming the formally-rural nature of the area; the main river through here is the Tacubaya River, but since the 1970s this river has been channelled into tunnels underneath the streets.
Tacubaya is the home of boxer Finito López. Films such as Los Olvidados, Amores Perros, Perfume de Violetas have been shot here. Since its height in the late 19th and early 20th century, this area has degraded considerably; the stately mansions that line the sides of the Alameda and used to house the political and intellectual elite now sit among garbage and drug trafficking. There have been attempts to clean the area up and restore it, but there are disputes between residents and the borough of Miguel Hidalgo as to how to do this. Residents want the federal agency INAH to intervene to protect buildings such as the Justo Sierra House, now a primary school, the Parish of La Candelaria, over 450 years old; the borough of Miguel Hidalgo has established a “consejo ciudadano” or citizen’s council to allow public participation in the “Renace” Project. The goals are to work on issues such as peddlers, pothole repair and the maintenance of historic buildings; the Alameda Tacubaya Park is located on Avenida Revolución, between Parque Lira and José María Vigil.
When this neighborhood was at its height, the park was surrounded by mansions with large gardens, where the political and intellectual
Metro Tacubaya is a station on Lines 1, 7 and 9 of the Mexico City Metro system. It is located in the Miguel Hidalgo borough of west of the city centre; the station logo represents a water bowl while the name, taken from the surrounding neighbourhood, means "where water joins" in Nahuatl. An Aztec settlement was built on the area, which back was at the edge of Lake Texcoco. Metro Tacubaya is one of the network's busiest stations. Line 9 has its terminus here, but there are plans for further expansion of the line; the station was built on many levels. It has a maze of long, wide corridors between the lines' platforms, which are equipped with escalators; this station's exits connect with many zones of Tacubaya neighbourhood, such as Parque Lira, a local market and the offices of the Miguel Hidalgo borough administration. Metro Tacubaya has facilities for the handicapped, a cultural display, it was in this area of Mexico City where the French pastry chef had his shop, damaged in 1828. It was this incident.
Service at this station began November 20, 1970. Metro Tacubaya serves the Tacubaya neighborhood. Parque Lira, public park. Museo Casa de la Bola, museum. Museo Nacional de Cartografía, museum of cartography. Alameda de Tacubaya, public plaza. Northwest: Castellanos Quinto, Tacubaya Northeast: Av. Parque Lira, Tacubaya Southwest: Av. Jalisco and Rufina, Tacubaya Southeast: Av. Parque Lira, Tacubaya Doctora and Av. Parque Lira, Tacubaya Northwest: Av. Jalisco and Manuel Dublan, Tacubaya Northeast: Av. Jalisco and Iturbide, Tacubaya Southeast: Av. Jalisco and Mártires de la Conquista, Tacubaya List of Mexico City metro stations Media related to Tacubaya at Wikimedia Commons
Los Pinos was the official residence and office of the President of Mexico from 1934 to 2018. Located in the Bosque de Chapultepec in central Mexico City, it became the presidential seat in 1934, when Gen. Lázaro Cárdenas became the first president to live here; the term Los Pinos became a metonym for the Presidency of Mexico. After the Spanish Conquest, around 1550 a trapiche was built in Chapultepec, where wheat and maize were processed into flour; this mill became so important that it was called el Molino del Rey. In 1853, the Molino del Rey was sold to Doctor José Pablo Martinez del Rio, who built the Casa Grande that would become known as Rancho La Hormiga. In 1865 the whole property was sold to Emperor Maximilian for a total of 25,000 Mexican pesos. Following the 1867 overthrow and execution of Maximilian, the property was, in 1872, returned to Doctor Martinez del Rio. In 1917, with the end of the armed phase of the Mexican Revolution, President Venustiano Carranza expropriated the properties, paying MX$886,473 for both the property and the construction of a residence that would be close to Chapultepec Castle so that his most trustworthy cabinet member could live there.
Because of this, the first inhabitant of the residence was Álvaro Obregón while he held the post of Navy and War Secretary. After his tenure the residence was unused. In 1934, President Lázaro Cárdenas took office but refused to use the Castle of Chapultepec as his official residence as he thought it too ostentatious, he was offered use of Rancho la Hormiga. He changed its name to Los Pinos for two reasons: first, he did not consider the name La Hormiga to be accordant with the residence of a President and, second, he promised his wife that when he became president, the house they shared would be named after the huerta in Tacámbaro, where they met. Los Pinos was home to thirteen of the fourteen presidents in office between 1935 and 2018, with the exception of Adolfo López Mateos. In 2000, President Vicente Fox chose one of the nearby cottages as his home and the Casa Miguel Alemán was used for offices and other government functions. In 2018, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, at the time a candidate for the Mexican presidency, announced that he would not live in Los Pinos if he won the election and would instead open the residence to the public.
López Obrador won the election, Los Pinos was opened to the public on December 1, 2018, the day of López Obrador's presidential inauguration. López Obrador moved the presidential offices back to the National Palace, lives in his own house in Mexico City. Presidencia de la República website
Nuevo Polanco is an area of Mexico City consisting of warehouses and factories, bordering the upscale Polanco on the north across Avenida Ejército Nacional. It consists of two colonias and Ampliación Granada; this area is undergoing an accelerated process of development. With a major transformation taking place, it is one of the fastest and most important real estate development areas in the country. Taking advantage of their now prime location, big pieces of land occupied by industries are being used to build large housing, office and cultural developments with shops, cinemas, museums, a 1,500-seat theater, a luxury hotel, etc. Many of them integrate in their name the word'Polanco' thus seeking to capitalize on its reputation. In October 2013, the Secretariat of Urban Development and Housing put a stop to further development until a master plan for dealing with the infrastructure problems was approved. At that time the population of Nuevo Polanco was 76,000, twice as high as foreseen, with 23,469 housing units.
Nuevo Polanco had gained attention in the international press as an example of how development can go wrong if there is no proper planning for infrastructure. The area has now been converted into new shopping and mixed-use developments; these include: Acuario Inbursa, Mexico's largest aquarium, opened in June 2014 Antara Polanco a fashionable shopping and restaurants center, built on the land occupied by a General Motors de Mexico car assembly plant Plaza Carso, a large cultural, commercial and living complex owned by Carlos Slim, built on the land occupied by General Popo-General Tire battery and tire plant. The total cost of the complex is quoted between USD 1.4 billion. The complex claims to be the largest mixed-use development in Latin America and includes the following components: Museo Soumaya, owned by the Carlos Slim Foundation; the museum contains the Slim's extensive art, religious relic, historical document, coin collection. The museum holds works by many of the best known European artists from the 15th to the 20th century including a large collection of casts of sculptures by Auguste Rodin.
The building is a shiny silver cloud-like structure reminiscent of a Rodin sculpture. Museo Júmex, opening November 2013, to house part of the Colección Jumex, the contemporary art collection of the Jumex juice company. Plaza Carso shopping center, featuring an 82,500 square feet Saks Fifth Avenue store, the second to have opened in Mexico. Together with the atrium this section measures 48,090 square metres. Teatro Cervantes theater, seating 1500 Residential towers: Torre Dalí, Torre Monet and Torre Rodin Office towers, two of 23 floors each, one of 20 floors; the three buildings are joined on the lower 3 levels by the shopping center. The towers are: Torre Telcel - the headquarters of América Móvil are here. Miyana, one of the largest mixed-use developments in the city, consisting of apartment buildings, a VIP Cinepolis, several stores and tens of restaurants and eating places. Grand Polanco, developed on the land occupied by a Chrysler franchise Parques Polanco, first occupied by Fábricas Automex, a Chrysler car assembly plant Portika Polanco Ventanas Polanco Terret Polanco, located in land used by a factory producing yeast Polarea, located on the grounds until occupied the plant of Vitro, a glass factory.
Alto Polanco, on the grounds housing the H. Steele y Compañía office furniture factory The new headquarters of the United States Embassy in Mexico will be located in New Polanco, a large complex to be built on land used for a Colgate-Palmolive plant. Ramírez, Kenya. "Alistan plan maestro para Nuevo Polanco." El Exelsior. June 1, 2014
Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City
Miguel Hidalgo is one of the 16 delegaciones into which Federal District of Mexico City is divided. It was created in 1970, joining the historic areas of Tacuba and Tacubaya along with a number of notable neighborhoods such as Polanco and Lomas de Chapultepec. With landmarks such as Chapultepec Park and the Museo Nacional de Antropología, it is the second most visited borough in Mexico City after Cuauhtémoc, D. F. where the historic center of Mexico City is located. Tacubaya and Tacuba both have long histories as independent settlements and were designated as “Barrios Mágicos” by the city for tourism purposes; the borough is located in the northwest Federal District of Mexico City, just west of the historic center. The borough is divided into eighty one neighborhoods called colonias; the largest of these is Bosques de las Lomas at 3.2km2, the smallest is Popo Ampliación with only.33km2. It is bordered by the boroughs of Azcapotzalco, Cuauhtémoc, Benito Juárez, Álvaro Obregón and Cuajimalpa with the State of Mexico bordering it on the west side.
It has a territory of 47.68km2, 3.17 percent of the total Federal District. The borough consists of an area which used to the west bank of Lake Texcoco, with three major zones, Tacuba and Tacubaya; the geography of the borough includes canyons and mesas associated with the Sierra de las Cruces, most present in the southwest bordering Cuajimalpa. In the northeast defined by the Circuit Interior road, is the most important elevation, the Cerro de Chapultepec at 2,260masl; the area today is completely developed with green spaces limited to parks. The largest green space is Chapultepec Park at 2.2 km2. Parque Lineal was the former rail line of the Ferrocarril de Cuernavaca; the strip was converted into a park in 2011. Where the park crosses Lago Constanza Street in Colonia Anáhuac, there are cultural events held. One of the newest parks in the borough is located on Lago Caneguin in Colonia Argentina, created over a former roadway called Ruta 100; the unnamed park has 10,000 meters of surface area, gymnasium, bicycle path, multipurpose room, rain water containment system and child care center.
It serves about 40,000 area residents. In 2008, reforestation efforts were undertaken, beginning at the Cañitas Park. While there were important rivers here such as Remedios, today there are no longer any free flowing currents of water; the climate is semi moist and temperate with annual rainfall varying between 800 mm. The average annual temperature is 15C with lows in the winter about 8C and highs around 19C. Certain areas of the borough have problems with the stability of the ground due to old abandoned underground mines; these areas include the América, Daniel Garza, 16 de Septiembre, Daniel Garza Apliación and Observatorio neighborhoods, which are affected, but the problem is found in El Capulín, Monte Sol and Ex Hacienda de Pedregal. The number of people living in these areas is estimated at over 25,000, about 500 families living in high risk areas. Abandoned mines have been detected in Tacubaya, Lomas Altas, Bosque de las Lomas and under Chapultepec Park; as of 2005, the borough had 106,005 residences of which 25,308 were freestanding houses, 54,079 were apartments and the rests of other types.
This total number grew to a total of 123,910. About eighty percent of homes are owned by their residents and not rented. Around 95 % have basic services such as running water. While the borough contains working class areas in and around Tacuba and Tacubaya, the southwest contains some of the most exclusive colonias of the borough. While most of the borough is residential, the population of the borough has dropped from 650,497 in 1960 to 372,889 in 2010, it is now the twelfth most densely occupied borough of sixteen. Just over eighty eight percent identify themselves as Catholic; the borough has 112 preschools, 160 primary schools, 79 middle schools, seven vocational/technical high schools and 49 high schools. The borough has an educational program called “Faros del Saber”, which began in 2001. There are nine installations related to the program: each dedicated to a different field, such as ecology and science and technology, each designed to promote these fields to the youth of the borough through workshops and various events.
The main library of the program is designed to promote reading. The borough offers classes to youth and adults in basic computer technology. Main thoroughfares include Paseo de la Reforma, Calzada México Tacuba, the Anillo Periférico, Avenida V Palmas and Avenida Constituyentes. Numerous bus and Metro lines pass through here, with the major transportation hub centered in Metro Tacubaya, where Lines 1, 7 and 9 converge; the borough is home to the Observatorio bus station, which serves buses heading west to Toluca and other destinations. The working population is 45.4% of the total. Overall socioeconomic marginalization of the borough is ranked low; the borough is the second most visited by tourists in Mexico City according to the Secretary of Tourism of the Federal District, receiving just under 13% of total visitors in 2006. The borough has nineteen major hotels, five of the six best hotels in the city, its major, upscale restaurants and entertainment centers are located in Polanco and Lomas de Chapultepec.
Five star hotels include the Presidente Intercontinental, the Marriott and Niko, all located on Paseo de la Reforma next to Chapultepec Park. Commercial centers include eighteen traditional markets, the upscale shopping corridor along Avenida Presidente Masarik in Polanco and various malls. Bases for unlicensed taxis and areas crowded with unregulated street vendors is a major problem aroun
Luis Barragán House and Studio
Luis Barragán House and Studio known as Casa Luis Barragán, is the former residence of architect Luis Barragán in Miguel Hidalgo district, Mexico City. It is owned by the Government of the State of Jalisco, it is now a museum exhibiting Barragán's work and is used by visiting architects. It retains Barragán's personal objects; these include a Mexican art collection spanning the 16th to 20th century, with works by Picasso, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Jesús Reyes Ferreira and Miguel Covarrubias. Located in the west of Mexico City, the residence was built in 1948 after the Second World War, it reflects Barragán's design style during this period and remained his residence until his death in 1988. In 1994 it was converted into a museum, run by Barragán’s home state of Jalisco and the Arquitectura Tapatía Luis Barragán Foundation, with tours available only by appointment. In 2004, it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because it is one of the most influential and representative examples of modern Mexican architecture.
The area of the house was just outside the historic town of Tacubaya. The house was built on property that Barragán purchased in 1939 as part of a larger development at a time when his career was shifting from real estate to architecture, he sold the rest of the land, keeping that area for himself. The predecessor to the house is the "Ortega House,". Barragán lived there from 1943 to 1947; the house was designed and built in 1947 for Luz Escandón de R. Valenzuela, but in 1948, Barragán decided to move into it himself, despite the fact that at the time he was developing the elite subdivision Jardines del Pedregal in the south of the city. Barragán lived there until his death in 1988, during this time the house underwent many modifications, functioning as a kind of laboratory for his ideas. In 1993, the government of the state of Jalisco and Arquitectura Tapatía Luis Barragán Foundation acquired the house, turning it into a museum in 1994. In 2004, it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, the only private residence in Latin America to be named so.
It was named because of its representation of 20th-century architecture, which integrated traditional and vernacular elements and mixes various philosophical and artistic tendencies of the mid 20th century. It has named as one of the ten most important houses constructed in the 20th century, it has been the subject of various publications including the book, “La casa de Luis Barragán,” written by three experts on Barragán’s work. Despite its importance, the house is little known to Mexico City tourism visited by architects and art aficionados from various parts of the world; the house was restored in 1995 at a cost of 250,000 pesos for its function as a museum, with money coming from CONACULTA, the national lottery and the Jalisco government. As a key piece of 20th-century architecture in Mexico, the house itself is the main exhibition, it retains Barragán's personal objects. These include a Mexican art collection spanning the 16th to 20th century, with works by Picasso, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Jesús Reyes Ferreira and Miguel Covarrubias.
Reyes Ferreria was appreciated with the house collection contains one of his few oils. Guided tours are offered but a previous appointment is necessary; the museum is run by the state of the Arquitectura Tapatía Luis Barragán Foundation. It maintains personal papers and photographs, it has partnered with Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education to create a faculty position named after the architect. The museum hosts events such as conferences and art exhibits, its book presentation have those about the architect and his works such as “Barragán, obra completa”. Temporary exhibits held at the house include that of Jorge Yázpk, Azul Pacífico by Sofía Taboas, Homenaje al cuadrado by Josef Albers, Equus by Teresas Zimbrón, Little did he know by Aldo Chaparro, Mauricio Garcia Torre and Mauricio Limón, Frederic Amat, Luciano Matus, La mancha by Santiago Borja, Valeria Florescano, Alberto Moreno, José Limón, Intervenciones a la aquitectura by Humberto Spindola, SANAA by Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa and one by Francisco Ugarte.
In the early 2000s, the house hosted a year-long project called El aire es azul with twenty one international artists who spent the time in the house creating art inspired by the house. These artists included Pedro Reyes, Claudia Fernandez, Damian Ortega, Anri Sala and Koo Jeon-A. Luis Barragán Morfin was born in 1902 in Guadalajara to a wealthy family, he grew up on a large ranch near the small town of Mazamitla in Jalisco. He obtained a degree in civil engineering in 1925 spent the following two years in Europe. Here he came in contact with the landscaping work of Ferdinan Bac; when he returned to Mexico, he began building houses in Guadalajara, a number of which became featured in publications in the United States and Italy. In 1936, he moved to Mexico City. Here he worked in real estate development including area. During his career, he developed projects in Mexico City, Guadalajara, Acapulco, La Jolla, CA but his best known work is that on Ciudad Satélite, his architecture work is confined to houses with his abilities self-taught.
In 1976, the Museum of Modern Art in New York held an exhibition of his work and he received the Premio Nacional de Ciencias y Artes. In 1980, he received the Pritzker Prize