Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area.
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861.
The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the Cherokee
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, consisting of the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles. The island,10,990 square kilometres in area, lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, Jamaica is the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean, by area. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494, Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish imported African slaves as labourers. Named Santiago, the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy highly dependent on slaves imported from Africa. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British imported Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations, the island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962.
With 2.8 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, Kingston is the countrys capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans predominately have African ancestry, with significant European, Hakka, due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora around the world, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as the head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaica from March 2016, the indigenous people, the Taíno, called it Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the Land of Wood and Water or the Land of Springs. Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their island as the Rock. Slang names such as Jamrock, Jamdown, or briefly Ja, have derived from this, the Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC.
When Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques, the south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour. The Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655, the Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/Arawak. Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494 and his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, now called Discovery Bay, although there is some debate that it might have been St. Anns Bay. St. Anns Bay was named Saint Gloria by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land, the capital was moved to Spanish Town, called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean, the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In 1655, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, the English continued to import African slaves as labourers
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry
John Browns raid on Harpers Ferry was an effort by armed abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859 by taking over a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Browns party of 22 was defeated by a company of U. S. Marines, Colonel Robert E. Lee was in overall command of the operation to retake the arsenal. Brown came with a group of men minimally trained for military action. His group included 18 men besides himself, Northern abolitionist groups sent 198 breech-loading.52 caliber Sharps carbines and 950 pikes, in preparation for the raid. The United States Armory was a complex of buildings that manufactured small arms for the U. S. Army, with an Arsenal that was thought to contain 100,000 muskets. Brown attempted to more black recruits. He tried recruiting Frederick Douglass as an officer to the slaves in a meeting held in a quarry at Chambersburg. It was at this meeting that ex-slave Emperor Shields Green consented to join with John Brown on his attack on the United States Armory, Douglass declined, indicating to Brown that he believed the raid was a suicide mission.
The plan was an attack on the government that would array the whole country against us. You will never get out alive, he warned, the Kennedy Farmhouse served as barracks, supply depot, mess hall, debate club, and home. It was very crowded and life there was tedious, Brown was worried about arousing neighbors suspicions. As a result, the raiders had to stay indoors during the daytime, without much to do but study, argue politics, discuss religion, Browns daughter-in-law Martha served as cook and housekeeper. His daughter Annie served as lookout, Brown wanted women at the farm, to prevent suspicions of a large all-male group. The raiders went outside at night to drill and get fresh air, thunderstorms were welcome since they concealed noise from Browns neighbors. Brown did not plan to have a raid and escape to the mountains. He believed that on the first night of action, 200-500 black slaves would join his line and he ridiculed the militia and regular army that might oppose him. He planned to send agents to nearby plantations, rallying the slaves and he planned to hold Harpers Ferry for a short time, expecting that as many volunteers and black, would join him as would form against him.
He would move rapidly southward, sending out armed bands along the way and they would free more slaves, obtain food and hostages, and destroy slaveholders morale
The Santee River is a river in South Carolina in the United States,143 miles long. The Santee River is the second largest river on the eastern coast of the United States, second only to the Susquehanna River in drainage area, much of the upper river is impounded by the expansive, horn-shaped Lake Marion reservoir, formed by the 8-mile -long Santee Dam. It was built during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a Works Progress Administration project to provide a source of hydroelectric power for the state of South Carolina. The Santee is formed in central South Carolina 25 miles southeast of Columbia by the confluence of the Wateree and Congaree rivers. It flows southeast for 5 miles before entering the northwest corner of Lake Marion, a navigable diversion canal first built in the 1970s at the southern tip of the lake connects to Lake Moultrie, a reservoir on the nearby Cooper River. The modern canal is operated by Santee Cooper as part of the hydroelectric project on both rivers. The dam was finished in 1941, downstream from the reservoir it flows east, forming the northeast boundary of Francis Marion National Forest.
Approximately 10 miles from its mouth it bifurcates into two channels, called the North Santee and South Santee, that parallel and separated by approximately 2 miles. The two channels reach the ocean at Santee Point, approximately 15 miles south of Georgetown, the river was named by early English settlers after the Santee tribe, which inhabited areas on the middle part of the river. The first European contact was by a Spanish party led by Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526, the Spaniards called the river the Jordan in honor of the Jordan River. After suffering a defeat by the English and their allies during the Yamasee War in 1715–1716, many were shipped as slaves to the West Indies, opening up the river for British settlement as part of the Carolina Colony. Most of the Siouan peoples had migrated into the upper Midwest before European encounter, in the late 18th century, the upper river was the site of the homestead of Francis Marion, a patriot of the American Revolutionary War. The original site of his homestead has been flooded by Lake Marion, construction of the 22-mile -long Santee Canal, linking the river to the Cooper, was begun in 1793 and finished in 1800.
It allowed direct water transportation between the Upcountry of central South Carolina and Charleston, at the mouth of the Cooper, the canal operated for 50 years before being made obsolete by the introduction of railroads. During the Great Depression, the state of South Carolina created the Santee Cooper power utility, the main source of electric power for the utility came through federal construction during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt of a hydroelectric project inland from Charleston. Starting in 1939, the Santee River was dammed, forming lakes Marion and Moultrie, the WPA project was completed in 1941. Deprived of most its water flow, the Santee River became more saline, the Cooper River received more of the freshwater and sediment loads that used to flow into the Santee and carried them downstream. This has resulted in increasing the dredging costs to keep Charleston Harbor operating as a port
Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States. Approximately 782 square miles in area, the fresh water mixes for many miles with the salt water of the Atlantic Ocean. The bay is bordered inland by the States of New Jersey and Delaware, the Delaware Bay is bordered by six counties, Sussex and New Castle in Delaware, along with Cape May and Salem in New Jersey. The Cape May-Lewes Ferry crosses the Delaware Bay from Cape May, New Jersey, to Lewes, management of ports along the bay is the responsibility of the Delaware River and Bay Authority. The shores of the bay are composed of salt marshes and mudflats. Several of the rivers hold protected status for their unique salt marsh bordering the bay. The bay is a prime oystering ground, the Delaware Bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on May 20,1992. It was the first site classified in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, at the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the early 17th century, the area around the bay was inhabited by the Native American Lenape people.
They called the Delaware River Lenape Wihittuck, which means the stream of the Lenape. The Delaware Bay was called Poutaxat, which means near the falls, in 1523 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón had received from Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor a grant for the land explored in 1521 by Francisco Gordillo and slave trader Captain Pedro de Quejo. In 1525 Ayllón sent Quejo northward and received reports of the coastline from as far north as the Delaware Bay, in 1525 De Ayllon and Captain Quejo called Delaware Bay by the name Saint Christophers Bay. In the 1600s the bay was known as Niew Port May after Captain Cornelius May, another recorded European visit to the bay was by Henry Hudson, who claimed it for the Dutch East India Company in 1609. The Dutch called the estuary Godyns Bay, or Godins Bay after a director of the company, as part of the New Netherland colony, the Dutch established several settlements on the shores of the bay and explored its coast extensively. The resulting dispute with the Dutch colonial authorities in New Amsterdam was settled when Petrus Stuyvesant led a Dutch military force into the area in 1655, the Native American tribe living along the bay and river were called the Delaware by the Europeans due to their location.
The U. S. state takes its name from the bay, conflicting crown grants were made to the James, Duke of York and William Penn on the west bank of the bay and river. Settlement grew rapidly, leading Philadelphia, upriver on the Delaware, Penn viewed access to the Delaware Bay as being so critical to Pennsylvanias survival that he engaged in an eighty-year long legal boundary dispute with the Calvert family to secure it. In 1782 during the American Revolutionary War, Continental Navy Lieutenant Joshua Barney fought with a British squadron within the bay, barneys force of three sloops defeated a Royal Navy frigate, a sloop-of-war and a Loyalist privateer. Fort Delaware was constructed on Pea Patch Island, during the American Civil War it was used as a Union prison camp
Province of South Carolina
The Province of South Carolina was originally part of the Province of Carolina in British America, which was chartered by eight Lords Proprietor in 1663. The province became the U. S. state of South Carolina, the Carolinas were named for King Charles II of England. Derived from Latin Carolus, the colony was originally Carolana, the spelling changed to Carolina. Charles Towne was the first settlement, established in 1670, Charles II had given the land to a group of eight nobles called the Lords Proprietors, they planned for a Protestant Christian colony. Originally a single colony, the northern and southern sections grew apart over time. Dissent over governance of the led to the appointment of a deputy governor to administer the northern half of the Carolina colony in 1691. The division of the Carolina Province into North Carolina and South Carolina became complete in 1712, the Yamasee War ravaged the back-country of the colony. A rebellion broke out against the proprietors in 1719, acting on a petition of the residents of the colony, the British government appointed a royal governor for South Carolina in 1720.
After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, lord Charles Montagu was Royal Governor of the Province of South Carolina from 1766 to 1773 until he escaped to Nova Scotia as with fellow United Empire Loyalists. The Court of Kings Bench and Common Pleas was founded c.1725, “Global Perspectives on the Early Economic History of South Carolina, ” South Carolina Historical Magazine,106, 130–46. The Southern Frontier, 1670-1732 Edgar, South Carolina, A History, the standard scholarly history Edgar, Walter, ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia, ISBN 1-57003-598-9, the most comprehensive scholarly guide Feeser, white Servitude in Colonial South Carolina Tuten, James H. Lowcountry Time and Tide, The Fall of the South Carolina Rice Kingdom 178 pp. Wallace, David Duncan. South Carolina, A Short History, 1520-1948 online standard scholarly history Wright, South Carolina, A Bicentennial History online, popular survey Wood, Peter H. Black Majority, Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion
The Haitian Revolution, was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection that took place in the former French colony of Saint-Domingue that lasted from 1791 until 1804. It affected the institution of slavery throughout the Americas, self-liberated slaves destroyed slavery at home, fought to preserve their freedom, and with the collaboration of mulattoes, founded the sovereign state of Haiti. It led to the greatest slave uprising since Spartacuss unsuccessful revolt against the Roman Republic nearly 1,900 years prior, the Haitian Revolution was the only slave uprising that led to the founding of a state free from slavery and ruled by non-whites and former captives. With the increasing number of Haitian Revolutionary Studies in the last few decades, the legacy of the Revolution was that it challenged long-held beliefs about black inferiority and of the enslaved persons capacity to achieve and maintain freedom. The rebels organizational capacity and tenacity under pressure became the source of stories that shocked and frightened slave owners, while acknowledging the cross-influences, most contemporary historians distinguish the Haitian Revolution from the French Revolution.
Some even separate it from the mulattoes earlier armed conflicts, which at first sought political rights for themselves and these scholars show that if the agency of the enslaved blacks becomes the focus of studies, the Revolutions opening and closing dates are certain. From this premise, the narrative began with the enslaved blacks bid for freedom through armed struggle and concluded with their victory over slaving powers, in April 1791, a massive black insurgency turned violently against the plantation system, setting a precedent of resistance to racial slavery. In cooperation with their former rivals, blacks ended the Revolution in November 1803 when they decidedly defeated the French army at the Battle of Vertières. The chief concern flutters around the question if the victorious Haitians were intrinsically revolutionary force, one thing is sure, Haiti became an independent country on January 1,1804, when the council of generals chose Jean-Jacques Dessalines to assume the office of governor-general.
One of the states first significant documents was Dessaliness Liberty or Death speech, in it, the new head of state made the case for the new nations coherent objective, the permanent abolition of slavery in Haiti. An independent government was created in Haiti, but the society remained deeply affected by patterns established under French colonial rule. Many of them had used their capital to acquire wealth. Some had identified more with the French colonists than the slaves, mulatto domination of politics and economics after the revolution created another two-caste society, as most Haitians were rural subsistence farmers. Much of the Caribbean economic development was contingent to Europeans demand for sugar, Saint Domingue had extensive coffee and indigo plantations, but these were smaller and less profitable than the wealthy sugar plantations. Starting in the 1730s, French engineers constructed complex irrigation systems to increase sugarcane production, by the 1740s Saint-Domingue, together with Jamaica, had become the main supplier of the worlds sugar.
Sugar production depended on extensive manual labor provided by enslaved Africans in the harsh Saint-Domingue colonial plantation economy, the economic importance of St. Domingue, and several million indirectly depended upon trade from Frances richest colony to maintain their standard of living. To sustain the sugar production amid the climate of the Caribbean with malaria. In one year alone, namely 1787, the French imported about 20,000 slaves from Africa into Saint-Domingue while the British imported about 38,000 slaves to all of their Caribbean colonies
French First Republic
In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, under the Legislative Assembly, which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with Prussia and Austria. The foreign threat exacerbated Frances political turmoil amid the French Revolution and deepened the passion, in the violence of 10 August 1792, citizens stormed the Tuileries Palace, killing six hundred of the Kings Swiss guards and insisting on the removal of the king. A renewed fear of action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the citys prisons. This included nobles and political prisoners, but numerous common criminals, such as prostitutes and petty thieves, many murdered in their cells—raped and this became known as the September Massacres. The resulting Convention was founded with the purpose of abolishing the monarchy.
The Conventions first act, on 10 August 1792, was to establish the French First Republic, the King, by a private citizen bearing his family name of Capet, was subsequently put on trial for crimes of high treason starting in December 1792. On 16 January 1793 he was convicted, and on 21 January, throughout the winter of 1792 and spring of 1793, Paris was plagued by food riots and mass hunger. The new Convention did little to remedy the problem until late spring of 1793, despite growing discontent with the National Convention as a ruling body, in June the Convention drafted the Constitution of 1793, which was ratified by popular vote in early August. The Committees laws and policies took the revolution to unprecedented heights, after the arrest and execution of Robespierre in July 1794, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated. A year later, the National Convention adopted the Constitution of the Year III and they reestablished freedom of worship, began releasing large numbers of prisoners, and most importantly, initiated elections for a new legislative body.
On 3 November 1795, the Directory was established, the period known as the French Consulate began with the coup of 18 Brumaire in 1799. Members of the Directory itself planned the coup, indicating clearly the failing power of the Directory, Napoleon Bonaparte was a co-conspirator in the coup, and became head of the government as the First Consul. He would proclaim himself Emperor of the French, ending the First French Republic and ushering in the French First Empire
Province of New York
The majority of this land was soon reassigned by the Crown, leaving territory that included the valleys of the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers, and Vermont. The territory of western New York was Iroquois land, disputed between the English colonies and New France, and that of Vermont was disputed with the Province of New Hampshire, the province resulted from the Dutch Republic surrender of Provincie Nieuw-Nederland to the Kingdom of England in 1664. Immediately after, the province was renamed for James, Duke of York, the colony was one of the Middle Colonies, and ruled at first directly from England. British claims on any part of New York ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1783, after the American Revolution, the former colony became the State of New York. This British crown colony was established upon the former Dutch colony of New Netherland, with its core being York Shire, in what today is typically known as Downstate New York. The Province of New York was divided into counties on November 1,1683, by New York Governor Thomas Dongan, Albany County.
Also claimed the area, that is now Vermont, in addition, as there was no fixed western border to the colony, Albany County technically extended to the Pacific Ocean. Most of this land, which was Indian land for most of the history, has now been ceded to other states. Cornwall County, that part of Maine between the Kennebec River and the St. Croix River from the Atlantic Ocean to the St. Lawrence River, ceded to the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1692. Dukes County, the Elizabeth Islands, Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket Island east of Long Island, Dutchess County, now Dutchess and Putnam counties. Kings County, the current Kings County, New York County, the current New York County, Manhattan. Orange County, now Orange and Rockland counties, Queens County, now Queens and Nassau counties. Richmond County, the current Richmond County, Staten Island, Suffolk County, the current Suffolk County. Ulster County, now Ulster and Sullivan counties and part of what is now Delaware, Westchester County, now Bronx and Westchester counties.
On March 24,1772, Tryon County was formed out of Albany County and it was renamed Montgomery County in 1784, with a division to Herkimer County around Little Falls. Charlotte County was formed out of Albany County and it was renamed Washington County in 1784. In 1617 officials of the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland created a settlement at present-day Albany, New Amsterdam surrendered to Colonel Richard Nicholls on August 27,1664, he renamed it New York. On September 24 Sir George Carteret accepted the capitulation of the garrison at Fort Orange, the capture was confirmed by the Treaty of Breda in July 1667
Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands
Saint John is one of the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea and a constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands, an unincorporated territory of the United States. At 50 km2 the smallest of the three main US Virgin Islands, Saint John is located four miles east of Saint Thomas. It is four miles southwest of Tortola, part of the British Virgin Islands and its largest settlement is Cruz Bay with a population of 2,700. St. Johns nickname is Love City, since 1956, approximately 60% of the island is protected as Virgin Islands National Park, administered by the United States National Park Service. The economy is based on tourism, Saint John is 50.8 km² in area with a population of 4,170. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population of the US Virgin Islands territory was 106,405. Saint John was first settled by the Taíno Indians who migrated north from coastal areas of present-day Colombia, the Arawak inhabited the island until around the year AD1300, when they were driven off by the more aggressive and warlike Carib.
Extensive archaeological work started in 1996 at Cinnamon Bay, the artifacts from this dig are being studied and are expected to yield more detailed information on pre-Columbian civilization in the US Virgin Islands. Explorer Christopher Columbus, traveling on behalf of the Spanish Crown, is credited with being the first European to see the Virgin Islands in 1493, during his second voyage to the New World. A Catholic, he named the group of islands as Once Mil Virgenes, in honor of the feast day of Saint Ursula. The Danish West India and Guinea Company represented the first Europeans to settle the island in 1718 and they are credited with naming the island Saint John. The Danish crown took control of this and nearby colonies in 1754, including those founded on the similarly named islands of Saint Thomas. Sugar cane plantations, such as the famous Annaberg Sugar Plantation, were established in great numbers on Saint John, the establishment of sugarcane plantations created a high demand for labor.
The indigenous Carib and Arawak were initially used as slave labor, the planters imported many slaves from Africa in an established slave trade dominated by Portugal in the early years, but which Britain entered. In 1733 Saint John was the site of one of the first significant slave rebellions in the New World, enslaved Akwamu from the Gold Coast rebelled and took control of the island for six months before being defeated by a combination of better armed forces. The Danish defeated the enslaved Africans with help from French colonists of Martinique, instead of submitting to captivity and slavery, more than a dozen men and women shot and killed themselves before the French forces reached them. It is estimated that by 1775, slaves outnumbered the Danish settlers on Saint John by a ratio of 5,1, denmark finally abolished slavery in Saint John and its other islands on July 3,1848. In 1917, during the First World War, the United States purchased the U. S. Virgin Islands for $25 million from the Danish government in order to establish a naval base and it was intended to prevent expansion of the German Empire into the Western Hemisphere
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556, through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four square kilometers and were the first to be described as the empire on which the sun never sets. Charles was the heir of three of Europes leading dynasties, the Houses of Valois-Burgundy and Trastámara and he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From his own dynasty, the Habsburgs, he inherited Austria and he was elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, the personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious.
France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charless reign, enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean, after seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, in the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by religious and political opposition to him. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule, Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed.
In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec, Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery. Upon Charles’s abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles’s son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century, Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life and he was tutored by William de Croÿ, and by Adrian of Utrecht.
He gained a decent command of German, though he never spoke it as well as French, a witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is, I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse
1733 slave insurrection on St. John
The 1733 slave insurrection on St. John in the Danish West Indies started on November 23,1733, when 150 African slaves from Akwamu revolted against the owners and managers of the islands plantations. Lasting several months into August 1734, the rebellion was one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the Americas. The Akwamu slaves captured the fort in Coral Bay and took control of most of the island and they intended to resume crop production under their own control and use Africans of other tribes as slave labor. Planters regained control by the end of May 1734, after the Akwamu were defeated by several hundred better-armed French and Swiss troops sent in April from Martinique, colony militia continued to hunt down maroons and finally declared the rebellion at an end in late August 1734. When the Spanish first occupied the West Indies, they used the people as slave labor but most died as a result of infectious disease, overwork. In the late 17th century, the British and Dutch competed for the island after settling it together for a period, the British won out before the Danes claimed Saint John in 1718, but numerous Dutch planters stayed on the island.
While some plantations had been started, there was not a supply of laborers among the settlers. Young Danish people could not be persuaded to emigrate to the West Indies in great enough number to provide a source of labor. Attempts to use indentured servants from Danish prisons as plantation workers were not successful, failure to procure plantation labor from other sources made importing slaves from Africa the main supply of labor on the Danish West Indies islands. Danish ships carried about 85,000 African slaves to the New World from 1660 to 1806, the Danes embarked in the African slave trade in 1657. By the beginning of the 18th century, the Danish West India, the Akwamu had conquered the Accra and established dominance on trading routes into the interior. After the Akwamu king died, rival tribes in the area attacked the weakened Akwamu nation, and by 1730 they defeated the people. In retaliation for years of oppression, their enemies sold many Akwamu people into slavery to the Danes, they were transported to plantations in the West Indies, including estates on St.
John. At the time of the 1733 slave rebellion on St. John, approximately 150 Akwamu were involved in the insurrection, other African ethnic groups did not support it, and some were loyal to planters. In 1718 the Danish claimed the island of St. John to develop sugar plantations and crops such as indigo and cotton, there was great demand for sugar. Dutch planters were still important on the island, by mid-1733, planters had developed 109 plantations, and slaveholders owned more than 1,000 African slaves on St. John. One-fifth of the plantations were devoted to sugar, by the end of the century, most would be. In 1733 the population of African slaves on St. John was more than five times larger than that of the European inhabitants,1087 slaves and 206 whites, many of St. Johns plantations were owned by people residing on St. Thomas