Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas, nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and the Argentine Confederation. Although born into a wealthy family, Rosas independently amassed a personal fortune, acquiring large tracts of land in the process. Rosas enlisted his workers in a private militia, as was common for rural proprietors, took part in the disputes that led to numerous civil wars in his country. Victorious in warfare influential, with vast landholdings and a loyal private army, Rosas became a caudillo, as provincial warlords in the region were known, he reached the rank of brigadier general, the highest in the Argentine Army, became the undisputed leader of the Federalist Party. In December 1829, Rosas became governor of the province of Buenos Aires and established a dictatorship backed by state terrorism. In 1831, he signed the Federal Pact, recognising provincial autonomy and creating the Argentine Confederation; when his term of office ended in 1832, Rosas departed to the frontier to wage war on the indigenous peoples.
After his supporters launched a coup in Buenos Aires, Rosas was asked to return and once again took office as governor. Rosas reestablished his dictatorship and formed the repressive Mazorca, an armed parapolice that killed thousands of citizens. Elections became a farce, the legislature and judiciary became docile instruments of his will. Rosas created a cult of personality and his regime became totalitarian in nature, with all aspects of society rigidly controlled. Rosas faced many threats to his power during early 1840s, he fought a war against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, endured a blockade by France, faced a revolt in his own province and battled a major rebellion that lasted for years and spread to several Argentine provinces. Rosas persevered and extended his influence in the provinces, exercising effective control over them through direct and indirect means. By 1848, he had extended his power beyond the borders of Buenos Aires and was ruler of all of Argentina. Rosas attempted to annex the neighbouring nations of Uruguay and Paraguay.
France and Great Britain jointly retaliated against Argentine expansionism, blockading Buenos Aires for most of the late 1840s, but were unable to halt Rosas, whose prestige was enhanced by his string of successes. When the Empire of Brazil began aiding Uruguay in its struggle against Argentina, Rosas declared war in August 1851, starting the Platine War; this short conflict ended with Rosas absconding to Britain. His last years were spent in exile living as a tenant farmer until his death in 1877. Rosas garnered an enduring public perception among Argentines as a brutal tyrant. Since the 1930s, an authoritarian, anti-Semitic, racist political movement in Argentina called Revisionism has tried to improve Rosas's reputation and establish a new dictatorship in the model of his regime. In 1989, his remains were repatriated by the government in an attempt to promote national unity, seeking forgiveness for him and for the 1970s military dictatorship. Rosas remains a controversial figure in Argentina in the 21st century.
Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rosas was born on 30 March 1793 at his family's town house in Buenos Aires, the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was the first child of Agustina López de Osornio. León Ortiz was the son of an immigrant from the Spanish Province of Burgos. A military officer with an undistinguished career, León Ortiz had married into a wealthy Criollo family; the young Juan Manuel de Rosas's character was influenced by his mother Agustina, a strong-willed and domineering woman who derived these character traits from her father Clemente López de Osornio, a landowner who died defending his estate from an Indian attack in 1783. As was common practice at the time, Rosas was schooled at home until the age of 8, enrolled in what was regarded the best private school in Buenos Aires. Though befitting the son of a wealthy landowner, his education was unremarkable. According to historian John Lynch, Rosas' education "was supplemented by his own efforts in the years that followed.
Rosas was not unread, though the time, the place, his own bias limited the choice of authors. He appears to have had a sympathetic, if superficial, acquaintance with minor political thinkers of French absolutism."In 1806, a British expeditionary force invaded Buenos Aires. A 13-year-old Rosas served distributing ammunition to troops in a force organised by Viceroy Santiago Liniers to counter the invasion; the British returned a year later. Rosas was assigned to the Caballería de los Migueletes, although he was barred from active duty during this time due to illness. After the British invasions had been repelled and his family moved from Buenos Aires to their estancia, his work there further shaped his character and outlook as part of the Platine region's social establishment. In the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, owners of large landholdings provided food and protection for families living in areas under their control, their private defense forces consisted of laborers who were drafted as soldiers.
Most of these peons, as such workers were called, were gauchos. The landed aristocracy of Spanish descent considered the illiterate, mixed-race gauchos, who comprised the majority of the population, to be ungovernable and untrustworthy; the gauchos were tolerated because there was no other labor force available, but were treated with contempt by the landowners. Rosas got along well with the gauchos in his service, despite his harsh and authorit
Justo José de Urquiza
Justo José de Urquiza y García was an Argentine general and politician. He was president of the Argentine Confederation from 1854 to 1860. Justo José de Urquiza y García was born in Entre Ríos, the son of José Narciso de Urquiza Álzaga, born in Castro Urdiales and María Cándida García González, a Creole of Buenos Aires, he was governor of Entre Ríos during the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, governor of Buenos Aires with powers delegated from the other provinces. Rosas presented a resignation to his charge but only as a political gesture, counting that the other governments would reject it. However, in 1851, resentful of the economic and political dominance of Buenos Aires, Urquiza accepted Rosas' resignation and resumed for Entre Rios the powers delegated in Buenos Aires. Along with the resuming of international commerce without passing through the port of Buenos Aires, Urquiza replaced the "Death to the savage unitarians!" Slogan with "Death to the enemies of national organization!", requesting the making of a national constitution that Rosas had long rejected.
Corrientes supported Urquiza's action, but Rosas and the other provinces condemned the "crazy, savage, unitarian" Urquiza. Supported by Brazil and the Uruguayan liberals, he created the "Big Army" and forced Manuel Oribe to capitulate, ending the long siege of Montevideo in October 1851, defeating Rosas on 3 February 1852 at the Battle of Caseros; the other provinces that supported Rosas against Urquiza's pronunciation changed sides and supported his project of creating a National Constitution. Urquiza began the task of national organization, he became provisional director of the Argentine Confederation in May 1852. In 1853, a constituent assembly adopted a constitution based on the ideas of Juan Bautista Alberdi, Urquiza was inaugurated president in March 1854. During his administration, foreign relations were improved, public education was encouraged, colonization was promoted, plans for railroad construction was initiated, his work of national organization was, hindered by the opposition of Buenos Aires, which seceded from the Confederation.
Open war broke out in 1859. Urquiza defeated the provincial army led by Bartolomé Mitre in October 1859, at the Battle of Cepeda, Buenos Aires agreed to re-enter the Confederation. Constitutional amendments proposed by Buenos Aires were adopted in 1860 but the settlement was short-lived, further difficulties culminated in civil war. Urquiza met the army of Buenos Aires, again led by Mitre, in September 1861; the battle was indecisive. He retired to San José Palace, his residence in Entre Ríos, where he ruled until he was assassinated at age 69 by followers of dissident and political rival Ricardo López Jordán. Like many other nineteenth century Argentine patriots, Urquiza was a freemason, his imposing Palacio San José has been interpreted as containing many masonic symbols, created "to symbolize and reflect the construction of his other work: the Argentine State". There are many streets and squares all over Argentina that are named after Justo José de Urquiza, such as the Urquiza park in Rosario or the Urquiza park in Parana city.
There is a central street in Rosario called Urquiza, there is a commuter railway line in Buenos Aires named after him, the Urquiza Line
Corrientes is a province in northeast Argentina, in the Mesopotamia region. It is surrounded by: Paraguay, the province of Misiones, Brazil and the provinces of Entre Rios, Santa Fe and Chaco. Before the arrival of the Spanish conquest, the Kaingang and Guaraní lived in a big area that covered most of the current province of Corrientes; the city of Corrientes was founded on April 3, 1588 by Juan Torres de Vera y Aragón as a mid-stop between Asunción and Buenos Aires. Jesuits erected missions in the north of the province, where they dedicated themselves to the expansion of the faith. In the wars of independence from Spain, Corrientes joined Artigas' Liga de los Pueblos Libres; the attack of Paraguayan forces on the province in 1865 marked the start of the War of the Triple Alliance. In 1919 the National University of the Littoral was founded, which in 1956 became the National University of the Northeast. Corrientes is legendary in the world of philately for the postage stamps it issued from 1856 to 1880.
These are among the early or "classic" postage stamps of the world. The Corrientes stamps were close copies of the first issue of stamps from France, which depicted the profile head of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture, were individually crudely engraved by hand, so that each die is noticeably different, were printed in small sheets; the first issues, from 1856 to 1860, bore the denomination in the lower panel. As locally produced "primitives", the early Corrientes stamps have long been prized by collectors. After 1880, stamps of Argentina were used. For much of the 19th and 20th centuries, politics in Corrientes were dominated by the Romero Feris family, prominent local landowners who still control most of the province's tobacco output. During most of this time, the Romero Ferises created one of Argentina's most bloated government payrolls and suppressed dissent and efforts at modest land reform. Following contentious election results in 1991, public protest forced President Carlos Menem to remove Governor Raúl "Tato" Romero Feris from office and, though he was elected mayor of the province's capital in 1997, Romero Feris was indicted for embezzlement of public funds in 1999.
He was sentenced to seven years in prison in May, 2002. Corrientes had a significant impact in national politics in subsequent years. A UCR-led alliance defeated the Romero Feris machine in the 2001 governor's race, but the Corrientes UCR's continued support for President Néstor Kirchner led to a rebuke from the national committee of the UCR itself, this triggered a revolt from the Corrientes chapter of the party, as well as a number of others'; these differences led to the appearance that year of "K" Radicals – UCR governors and other lawmakers allied to President Kirchner. The northeastern tip of Corrientes Province was chosen as the site for Yacyretá Dam following an agreement between President Juan Perón and Paraguayan President Alfredo Stroessner in 1974. Yacyretá, whose 20-year-long construction and US$11 billion cost far exceeded initial estimates, is one of the largest hydroelectric dams in the world. An agreement is being pursued with Paraguay which would allow reservoir expansion works that could double the facility's current installed electric capacity of 4,050 MW.
Culture in Corrientes has been informed and influenced by its European and Guarani roots. Famous correntinos were independence hero General Don José de San Martín and Juan Bautista Cabral, who gave his life for the general in the Battle of San Lorenzo. Tourist destinations in the Corrientes Province include the Iberá Wetlands and the Mburucuyá National Park. On 22 October 2004, Provincial Law No. 5598 declared Guaraní to be an official language of Corrientes, alongside Spanish. It was the first Argentine province to officialize a language other than Spanish, followed in 2010 by Chaco. Corrientes is surrounded by two rivers – the Uruguay River to the east, the Paraná River to the northwest – that contour the shape of the province; the low shore of the Paraná produces frequent floodings. After a specially destructive one in 1982, a protective system has been started with the construction of barriers; the province is for the most part a plain, with the highest points in the east. To the west, a series of descending platforms go down to the Paraná River.
The Iberá Wetlands, an area of lagoons and swamps, is a vast depression from volcanic flow, covered with fluvial and eolic sediments. The climate is predominantly subtropical with no dry season. Temperatures are hot for most of the year while precipitation is abundant and evenly distributed throughout the year. There are four seasons: winter, spring and autumn. Winters are short although occasional incursions of cold, polar air from the south can produce frosts. In contrast, temperatures during summer can reach to 35 to 40 °C. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 1,100 to 1,900 millimetres which decreases from northeast to southwest. Corrientes, like much of the Argentine north, has long had a underdeveloped economy, its 2006 output was estimated at US$4.2 billion (which shall be around US$6.7 billion in 2011, according to Argentina's economic growth
Santa Fe, Argentina
Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz is the capital city of the province of Santa Fe, Argentina. It is situated near the junction of the Paraná and Salado rivers, it lies 15 kilometres from the Hernandarias Subfluvial Tunnel that connects it to the city of Paraná. The city is connected by canal with the port of Colastiné on the Paraná River. Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz has about 391,164 inhabitants as per the 2010 census; the metropolitan area has a population of 653,073, making it the eighth largest in Argentina. The third largest city in Argentina is Rosario located in Santa Fe Province. Rosario has a population of 1.24 million and it is the largest city in Argentina not to be a provincial capital. Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz is linked to Rosario, the largest city in the province, by the Brigadier Estanislao López Highway and by National Route 11, which continues south towards Buenos Aires, it is home to Sauce Viejo Airport with daily direct flights to Rosario and Aeroparque Jorge Newbery in Buenos Aires. Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz was founded by Captain Juan de Garay in the nearby site of Cayastá in 1573.
The site is today a historical park containing the grave of Hernandarias, the first American-born governor in South America. The settlement was moved to the present site in 1653 due to the constant flooding of the Cayastá River; the city became the provincial capital in 1814, when the territory of the province of Santa Fe was separated from the province of Buenos Aires by the National Constituent Assembly, held in the city in 1853. Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz is the commercial and transportation center for a rich agricultural area that produces grain, vegetable oils, meats; the city is the site of the National Technological University – Santa Fe Regional Faculty, Catholic University of Santa Fe, the National University of the Littoral. A suspension bridge was completed in 1924, though severe flooding destroyed it in 1983; the cities location is still not immune to flooding, however. On April 29, 2003, the Salado, which empties into the Paraná near Santa Fe, rose 2 m in a few hours following heavy rainfall, caused a catastrophic flood.
No fewer than 100,000 people had to be evacuated, large sections of the city remained under water more than a week later. That year, the suspension bridge was reopened, in 2008, the city's historic grain silos were converted into the Los Silos Hotel and Casino, San Martín Street was converted to pedestrian use; the city's historical role in the Argentine Constitution led national lawmakers to choose it as the site of Constitutional Conventions in 1949, 1957, 1994. The city has a climate considered as "Humid subtropical" or "Cfa" by Köppen classification. Winters are mild, though minimum temperatures can fall below 0 °C on cold nights during the winter. Summers are hot and humid. During the most extreme heat waves, temperatures have exceeded 45 °C. Temperatures have exceeded 35 °C in every season). Rainfall can be expected throughout the year though summer is the wettest season. Thunderstorms can be intense with frequent lightning, powerful downdraughts and intense precipitation; the lowest record temperature was −7.0 °C on June 13, 1967 while the highest recorded temperature was 45.6 °C on January 25, 1986.
Santa Fe has a lot of important commercial centres, busy cultural life, interesting options in sports and tourism, numerous artistic and musical events, an exciting nightlife. There is important infrastructure for tourism, developed: river side bars and nightclubs, chic restaurants, the improvement of the major highways and a subfluvial tunnel and, combine that with the beauty of the landscape and the various attractions that tourists enjoy make this a popular region to spend holidays. Hunting, excursions, walks by the river, practising water sports on the River Paraná, visiting the Space Observation Centre or the Zoo- Experimental Station of "La Esmeralda" Farm, make the tourist feel amazed and eager to know more about the region. In a nutshell, Santa Fe offers a complete and varied shade of attractions that make one dive into history when visiting monuments, museums or find oneself in the beautiful parks and streams surrounded by wild flora and fauna. Despite of having had four railway stations, nowadays the city Santa Fe is not served by rail transport.
The Mitre Railway station is no longer used since 2007, when defunct company Trenes de Buenos Aires cancelled its services to Santa Fe. The Santa Fe Belgrano and Guadalupe stations had been entered into disuse in 1993 when the railway privatisation in Argentina ceased all the long-distance services in the country. In the 2010s, the local municipality remodelled both stations as Guadalupe would be terminus for a new urban train; the original project was not carried out. On the other hand, the Santa Fe Belgrano station was re-opened as a convention center; the fourth station had been built by French company Province of Santa Fe Railway in 1885. It was replaced by a bus station. Railway stations in the city of Santa Fe are: Notes: 1 No longer active since TBA cancelled its services. 2 Granted in concession to the Municipality of Santa Fe that remodelled it completely. The station re-opened as a convention center. 3 Refurbished in 2011 by the Municipality to be term
Argentine Constitution of 1853
The Argentine Constitution of 1853 is the current constitution of Argentina approved by provincial governments except Buenos Aires Province, who remained separate from the Argentine Confederation until 1859. After several modifications to the original constitution and the return of power to Buenos Aires' Unitarian Party, it was sanctioned in May 1853 by the Constitutional Convention gathered in Santa Fe, was promulgated by the provisional Director of the national executive government Justo José de Urquiza, a member of the Federals Party. Following the short-lived constitutions of 1819 and 1826, it was the third constitution in the history of the country. In spite of a number of reforms of varying importance, the 1853 constitution is still the base of the current Argentine juridical system, it was inspired by the juridical and political doctrines of the United States Federal Constitution, establishing for instance a Republican division of powers, a high level of independence for the provinces, a federal power controlled by a strong executive government yet limited by a bicameral national congress to equilibrate the population's representation with equity among the provinces.
The model, elaborated by the constitutional deputies from the precedent constitutional attempts and the pioneer work of Juan Bautista Alberdi, has been the target of repeated critics. The historical importance of the constitutional project has been unquestionable, all disputes regarding the political theory and practice in modern Argentina include an either positive or negative reference on the political consequences of the 1853 constitution. For the Generation of'80, the settlers of the first liberal conventions on Argentine historiography, the constitution represented a true foundational act that broke the long government of Juan Manuel de Rosas; the members of the Generation of'80 praised the fact that the Constitution had established a European-style liberal political regime. However, at the time when it was sanctioned, it had been opposed by some of them. For the UCR, of social-democrat tendencies, the constitution represented an unfulfilled political ideal against the oligarchic government Generation of the 1880s, perpetuated in power through electoral fraud.
At the same time, for the nationalist movements of the 20th century, who criticised the liberal conventions and praised Rosas' figure, the constitution had represented the renouncement of the national identity towards the ruin of liberalism. In different fronts, the discussion remains open, has inspired several of the most important works of the Argentine thinking; the legal system that would be accepted by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata formed after the May Revolution from the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, was one of the main concerns after the resignation of the last viceroy. The formation of the First Junta and its continuation in the Junta Grande, which included provincial delegates, gave testimony of the division of interests between the city of Buenos Aires and the other landlocked provinces. In part, such division existed during colonial times, when the port of Buenos Aires gave the city commercial interest far different from the artisanal and agricultural countryside.
Buenos Aires was benefited from the traffic of goods brought by ships from the United Kingdom, to which it paid with the taxes collected from the exportation of the country's agricultural production —mainly raw leather and minerals— the discrepancies between the merchants that brought industrialised goods from the United Kingdom and the producers of the provinces that couldn't compete with the European industrial power, raised diverse conflicts during the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. With the Declaration of Independence in 1816, the first juridical bases had a marked Unitarian characteristic; the first project to converge the successive attempts that defined the different organs of the national executive power in the first years of organization was the convocation in 1812 of the General Constituent Assembly with the purpose of dictating the fundamental law for the national organization. The Assembly of the 1813 gathered on January 31 of that year, worked for over 2 years until 1815.
It dictated the regulations for the administration, the statute for the executive power, promulgated several norms regulation for the legislature that would be in use the following years. But the assembly was unable to dictate the national constitution. This, added to the absence of some provincial deputies, prevented an agreement on the subject; the lack of definitions from the Assembly after two years of deliberations was one of the arguments for which Carlos María de Alvear proposed the creation of a temporal one-man regime, known as Directorio. The Assembly voted favourably, but since it had no support from the e
The Federal Pact was a treaty first signed by the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos and Santa Fe on 4 January 1831, for which a Federal military alliance was created to confront the Unitarian League. Other provinces would join the treaty. After the demise of the Liga Federal and inspired by José Gervasio Artigas, the first meeting between the Provinces of Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Corrientes and Buenos Aires, with the purpose of an alliance, took place on July 20, 1830, in Santa Fe, it had the following representatives: Domingo Cullen for Santa Fe, Diego Miranda for Entre Ríos, Pedro Ferré for Corrientes and José María Roxas y Patrón for Buenos Aires. The treaty was to be written by Roxas. Ferré insisted in the organization of the state at the international level. Roxas y Patrón opposed to such ideas claiming that they did not have the attributions to decide over all those topics; the conflict grew around the topic of the centralism of the Buenos Aires port, with Ferré supporting the creation of other port for international commerce, such as in Santa Fe, the distribution among the provinces of customs taxes.
Seeing Roxas y Patrón remained inflexible about those topics, he decided to quit the negotiations for the treaty. Thus the treaty was signed by the remaining three provinces on January 4, 1831 in the city of Santa Fe. Corrientes Province joined the treaty on August 19 of the same year; the main topics of the pact were: It obligated the signer provinces to resist any foreign invasion to an Argentine province, whether this was a member of the treaty or not. It formed a defensive and offensive alliance against the integrity and independence of the signing parties against attacks from other provinces; the signing provinces were not to sign other treaties without the previous acceptance of the rest of the provinces. It forbade, it allowed the unrestricted circulation of people and fruits between provinces by road or river free of any kind of taxes. All inhabitants of the provinces were granted the same rights, except the right to be governors. Other provinces could join the treaty under the same terms, given the acceptance of the founding members.
If one of the signing provinces were attacked, it would be helped by the others, with their forces under the control of the local government. Mendoza: August 9, 1831 Córdoba: August 21, 1831 Santiago del Estero: March 12, 1832 La Rioja: August 12, 1832 Tucumán: October 18, 1832 Salta: July 4, 1832 San Luis: July 12, 1832 Catamarca: September 1, 1832 San Juan: May 3, 1832 In several ways, the Federal Pact acted as a constitution. In fact, the Argentine Constitution of 1853 starts by justifying its creation "with the purpose of fulfilling pre-existent pacts", which refers to this and other agreements; the creation of a Constitutional Assembly was planned long before 1853, but the negative of Juan Manuel de Rosas, governor of Buenos Aires and strong member of the treaty, delayed it. The members of the Pacto Federal joined the United Provinces of the River Plate in the founding of the modern state of Argentina. Confederación Argentina Juan Manuel de Rosas Liga Federal List of treaties Historical analysis
The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. It borders to the north with San Juan, the south with La Pampa and Neuquén, the east with San Luis, to the west with the republic of Chile, its capital city is the homonymous city of Mendoza. Covering an area of 148.827 km², it is the seventh biggest province of Argentina with 5.35% of the country's total area. The population for 2010 is 1,741,610 inhabitants, which makes it the fourth most populated province of the country, or 4.35% of the total national population. Archeological studies have determined that the first inhabitants in the area date from the Holocene, but there are few remains of those people to know their habits; the earliest sites of human occupation in Mendoza Province, Agua de la Cueva and Gruta del Indio, are 12-13,000 years old. In the basins of the Atuel River, in 300 BC lived a group of people that lived via hunting and the cultivation of maize and beans.
Those valleys saw the rise of ancestor of the Huarpes. They were influenced by the Inca empire during the 15th century. Oral tradition sets the arrival of the Inca Túpac Yupanqui to Coquimbo in 1470. Puelches and other groups received a strong influence of the Mapuches; the first Spanish conquerors came around 1550 from the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1561 Mendoza was founded by the conquistador Pedro del Castillo; until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, the area of what is now Mendoza Province belonged to the Captaincy General of Chile. With the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, its 30,000 inhabitants became part of the intendency of Cuyo de Córdoba del Tucumán, but in 1813 the intendency was separated and the Province of Cuyo created, with José de San Martín as its first Governor, he received important support from Mendoza when he led his Army of the Andes from Plumerillo to the 1817 crossing of the Andes, in his campaign to end Spanish rule in Chile.
The Province of Cuyo was divided in 1820, Mendoza parted ways with San Luis and San Juan Provinces. The 1861 earthquake nearly destroyed the city of Mendoza, which had to be entirely reconstructed. In 1885 railways were built to the province, allowing for easy transport of the region's wines to the country's trade hub of Buenos Aires. Following the development of the wine industry in the province around 1900, Mendoza began to grow attracting tens of thousands of European immigrants Spaniards. In 1939 the National University of Cuyo, one of the more important universities of the country, was founded in the province. In reaction to President Juan Perón's populist policies, some of which taxed agriculture to finance urban development and public works, Mendoza landowners formed the conservative Democratic Party, which secured the Vice Governor's post in 1958. Increasing their presence in the Mendoza Legislature, the Democrats became an obstacle to progressive Governor Ernesto Ueltschi, an ally of president Arturo Frondizi's.
With majorities in both houses by 1961, they had Gov. Ueltschi removed and Democrat Vice-governor Francisco Gabrielli appointed in his stead. Elected governor in his own right in 1963, Gov. Gabrielli was deposed following the June 1966 coup against President Arturo Illia. In contrast to the pragmatism that had distinguished his 1963–66 term, Gabrielli governed with a hard line, freezing state salaries and ordering large utility rate increases, used the Mendoza police to repress dissent and took foreign policy prerogatives like collaborating with Chilean saboteurs opposed to their country's new Marxist president, Salvador Allende; these events came to a head in April, 1972, when violent protests forced the newly unpopular Gabrielli to resign. Upon the return to democracy in March 1973, Mendoza voters turned to a left-leaning Peronist, Alberto Martínez Baca. Enacting needed labor and land reforms, Martínez Baca, made the mistake of appointing affiliates of the extreme-left Montoneros movement, an organization whose armed wing had perpetrated a string of violent crimes since 1970.
Alarmed by this move from the otherwise pragmatic Martínez Baca, President Perón had him removed in June 1974. Becoming more politically independent-minded following these two disappointments, Mendoza voters elected centrist Radical Civic Union as well as populist Justicialist Party lawmakers since Argentina's return to democracy in 1983. Though Mendoza has prospered since its critical wine industry was left reeling from the 1983 collapse of state-owned vintner Bodegas GIOL, whose dictatorship-era receivers had run the wine conglomerate, accumulated over US$6 billion of debt. Elected in 2003, Radical Civic Union Governor Julio Cobos highlighted this independent sentiment by parting ways with many in his party and endorsing newly elected Peronist President Néstor Kirchner's policies in 2004. Over the opposition of his party, Julio Cobos accepted the post of running mate to first lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of the ruling Front for Victory, in the presidential elections of October 2007.
Fernández and Cobos won in the first round, Cobos became Vice President of Argentina. The province is represented by three senators in the Argentine Senate María Perceval, Ernesto Sanz and Mónica Troadello. Mendoza is represented by 10 deputies in the Argentine