U.S. Route 101
U. S. Route 101, or U. S. Highway 101 is a north–south United States Numbered Highway that runs through the states of California and Washington, on the West Coast of the United States. It is known as El Camino Real where its route along the southern and central California coast approximates the old trail which linked the Spanish missions, pueblos and it merges at some points with California State Route 1. US101 is a major parallel freeway or highway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, and is an alternative to the Interstate for most of its length, in 1964, California truncated US 101s southern terminus in Los Angeles, as I-5 replaced it. The old road is known as County Route S21 or Historic Route 101 in northern San Diego County, the southern terminus of US101 is in Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange, the worlds busiest freeway interchange. However, the principal routes were assigned numbers ending in 1. Thus, US101 is treated as a primary, two-digit route with a first digit of 10, rather than a spur of US1, thus US101, not US99, is the westernmost north-south route in the U. S.
Highway System. US101 is called the Oregon Coast Highway in Oregon, and it is called The 101 by Southern Californians or simply 101 by residents of Northern California and Washington. From north of San Francisco and continuing almost to Oregon it is signed as the Redwood Highway though not often spoken of as such outside organizations responsible for tourism marketing. Urban portions of the route in Southern California are named the Santa Ana Freeway, Hollywood Freeway, in 2003, the portion of US101 in Ventura County was named Screaming Eagles Highway in honor of the US Army 101st Airborne Division. Urban portions of the route in the Bay Area are called the James Lick Freeway, Bayshore Freeway, a portion of the route between Cochrane Road in Morgan Hill and SR85 in San Jose is named the Sig Sanchez Freeway. The section of highway between SR-85 in Mountain View and Embarcadero Road in Palo Alto is officially known as the Fredrick E. Terman Highway, Street routings in San Francisco are more commonly referred to by their street names rather than the route number.
Portions of the route between Southern California and the Bay Area are named El Camino Real or El Camino Real Freeway, but such names are used colloquially. In Northern California the section of US101 between Sonoma and Marin counties is referred to as the Novato Narrows because of the reduction from four lanes to two. The route is the Santa Ana Freeway from East Los Angeles to Downtown Los Angeles and it becomes the Hollywood Freeway north of Downtown Los Angeles through the Cahuenga Pass, before turning west and becoming the Ventura Freeway. It is one of two major routes connecting the South Bay and Silicon Valley with San Francisco and the North Bay. It serves as an urban alternative to the rural I-280, as US101 runs through Peninsula cities closer to the Bay and I-280 runs closer to the Santa Cruz Mountains. Through northern San Francisco, US101 remains routed on congested city streets due to freeway revolts and it departs the immediate coast and continues through wine country and Redwood forests until it re-emerges coast-side at Eureka.
In areas where US101 turns inland, SR1 branches off to serve the coastal communities, unlike Washington, California does not sign the long east–west section of US101 between Gaviota and its junction with SR134 and SR170 in North Hollywood as west and east
San Diego is a major city in California, United States. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,394,928 as of July 1,2015, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. San Diego has been called the birthplace of California, historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, the Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, in 1850, California became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War and the admission of California to the union.
The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diegos main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito, the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the flag of Castile, sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast, in May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California, in July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Junípero Serra.
By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in, Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks, in 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began attempting to extend its authority over the territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1833, the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote
For the 15th-century papal legate, see Onofrio de Santa Croce. But Paphnutius the Great, Alban Butler writes, had a number of stories to tell of visions and miraculous happenings in the desert, some of them in much the same vein as the story of Onuphrius. The name Onuphrius is thought to be a Hellenized form of a Coptic name Unnufer, ultimately from the Egyptian, wnn-nfr meaning perfect one, or he who is continually good, an epithet of the god Osiris. A tradition, not found in Paphnutius account, states that Onuphrius had studied jurisprudence and philosophy before becoming a monk near Thebes, according to Paphnutius’s account, Paphnutius undertook a pilgrimage to study the hermits’ way of life and to determine whether it was for him. Wandering in the desert for 16 days, on the 17th day, Paphnutius came across a wild figure covered in hair, wearing a loincloth of leaves. Frightened, Paphnutius ran away, up a mountain, but the figure called him back, shouting, “Come down to me, man of God, for I am a man and he said that it was his guardian angel who had brought him to this desolate place.
Onuphrius took Paphnutius to his cell, and they spoke until sunset and they spent the night in the prayer, and in the morning Paphnutius discovered that Onuphrius was near death. Paphnutius, asked the hermit if he should occupy Onuphrius’ cell after the hermit’s death, Onuphrius asked Paphnutius for there to be a memorial with incense in Egypt in remembrance of the hermit. He blessed the traveler and died, due to the hard and rocky ground, Paphnutius could not dig a hole for a grave, and therefore covered Onuphrius’ body in a cloak, leaving the hermit’s body in a cleft of the rocks. After the burial, Onuphrius’ cell crumbled, which Paphnutius took to be a sign that he should not stay, one scholar has written that Onuphrius’ life fits the mold of countless desert hermits or anchorites. Despite its predictability, Paphnutius Life of Onuphrius is marked by several unique details, the years of Onuphrius youth were passed in a monastery that observed the rule of strict silence, a hind instructed him in Christian rites and liturgy.
During his sixty years in the desert, Onuphrius only visitor was an angel who delivered a Host every Sunday, both the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches traditionally mark his feast day on 12 June. A Life of Onuphrius of Greek origin states that the saint died on June 11, Onuphrius way of life spread across the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Western Europe. The legend of Saint Onuphrius was depicted in Pisas camposanto, and in Rome, the archbishop of Novgorod, writing around 1200 AD, stated that Onuphrius’ head was conserved in the church of Saint Acindinus. For several decades Orthodox seminarians in Poland have begun their training in the monastery of St. Onuphrius in Jablechna. It is said that the saint himself chose the place for it, appearing nearly four hundred years ago to fishermen, there is a monastery in Jerusalem dedicated to him. The monastery marks the location of Hakeldama, the place where Judas Iscariot hanged himself. Onuphrius was depicted in a 1520 painting by Hans Schäufelein, images of Saint Onuphrius were conflated with those of the medieval “wild man
Escondido is a city located in San Diego Countys North County region,30 miles northeast of Downtown San Diego, California. The city occupies a valley ringed by rocky hills. Incorporated in 1888, it is one of the oldest cities in San Diego County, the city had a population of 143,911 in the 2010 census. Escondidos municipal government set itself an operating budget limit of $426,289,048 for the fiscal year 2010–2011, the city is known as Eskondiid in Diegueño. Escondido is a Spanish word meaning hidden, one source says the name originally referred to agua escondida or hidden water, another says it meant hidden treasure. The Escondido area was first settled by the Luiseño, who established campsites and villages along the running through the area. The Kumeyaay migrated from areas near the Colorado River, settling both in the San Pasqual Valley and near the San Dieguito River in the southwestern and western portions of what is now Escondido, most of the villages and campsites today have been destroyed by development and agriculture.
Spain controlled the land from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, when Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the local land was divided into large ranchos. Most of what is now Escondido occupies the former Rancho Rincon del Diablo, Alvarado was a Regidor of Los Angeles at the time, and the first Regidor of the pueblo of San Diego. The southern part of Escondido occupies the former Rancho San Bernardo, in 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the Battle of San Pasqual was fought southeast of Escondido. This battle pitted Mexican forces under Andrés Pico against Americans under Stephen W. Kearny, Archibald Gillespie, a park in Escondido is named for Carson. The city was home to a largely Spanish-speaking population in the first census, after statehood, non-Hispanic settlers came to Southern California in increasing numbers. The decade of the 1880s is known as the Southern California Land Boom because so many people moved to the state, in 1853, pro-Southern Copperheads proposed dividing the state of California to create a new Territory of Colorado.
San Diego Judge Oliver S. Witherby suggested placing the capitol of the new territory in Rancho Rincon del Diablo and he envisioned a railroad connecting San Diego to Fort Yuma through an area about two miles south of the current Escondido site, heading east through San Pasqual. With a series of deeds in 1855 and 1856, the rancho was transferred from the heirs of Juan Bautista Alvarado to Witherby and he planned to profit from the town that he believed would be established from the dividing point on the railroad below the eastern hills. The proposal for splitting the state and creating the new territory passed in the California legislature and it was effectively killed in 1861 when Congress organized the Territory of Colorado in the area previously occupied by the Jefferson Territory. With Witherbys vision of owning a bustling state capitol unrealized, he set up an operation on the rancho instead. In 1868, Witherby sold the rancho for $8000 to Edward McGeary and John, Josiah, McGeary owned half the rancho, while the three Wolfskill brothers each owned an equal share of the other half
Encinitas is a beach city in the North County area of San Diego County, California. Located within Southern California, it is approximately 25 miles north of San Diego, as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 59,518, up from 58,014 at the 2000 census. Encinitas is a Spanish name meaning little oaks, the city was incorporated by 69. 3% of the voters in 1986 from the communities of historic Encinitas, new Encinitas, Cardiff-by-the-Sea, and Olivenhain. The communities retain their identities and distinctive flavors, Encinitas can be divided into five areas, Old Encinitas, a small beachside area featuring a mix of businesses and housing styles. Sitting along the coastal 101 highway, the Encinitas welcome arch, the surf break Swamis. Old Encinitas is divided from New Encinitas by a low coastal ridge, New Encinitas, a newer region which features a golf course, many shopping centers, and is composed of larger tract homes. Olivenhain, a region in eastern Encinitas, composed of mostly single family homes, an active 4-H Club.
Olivenhain connects to Rancho Santa Fe via Encinitas Blvd, Leucadia, a coastal community of the city. Leucadia features tree-lined streets and boulevards, the community features art galleries, unusual stores, and restaurants, along with single family homes. This contains beaches such as Beacons and Grandview, Encinitas is located at 33°2′40″N 117°16′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 20.0 square miles. 18.8 square miles of it is land and 1.2 square miles of it is water, the citys elevation ranges between sea level and 180 feet above sea level. Encinitas lies on rugged coastal terrain, the city is bisected by a low-lying coastal ridge that separates New and Old Encinitas. In the north of the city, the coast rises in elevation, the city is surrounded by Batiquitos Lagoon and San Elijo Lagoon to the north and south, respectively. Encinitas has a mild, Mediterranean climate. Average daily high temperature is 72 °F, temperatures below 40 °F and above 85 °F are rare.
Average rainfall is about 10 inches per year, the wet season lasts during the winter and spring, when temperatures are usually cool. Average daytime temperatures hit 65F in winter and spring, when rain, the dry season lasts from summer through fall, with average daytime temperatures ranging from 75-85F, and nighttime lows being from the upper 50s–60sF
El Cajon, California
El Cajon is a city in San Diego County, United States. In a valley surrounded by mountains, the city has acquired the nickname of The Big Box and its name originated similarly, from the Spanish phrase el cajón, which means the box or the drawer. El Cajon, Spanish for the big box, was first recorded on September 10,1821, the name appeared on maps in 1873 and 1875, shortened to Cajon, until the modern town developed in which the post office was named Elcajon. In 1905, the name was again expanded to El Cajon under the insistence of California banker and historian. El Cajon is located at 32°47′54″N 116°57′36″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles, all land. It is bordered by San Diego and La Mesa on the west, Spring Valley on the south, Santee on the north and it includes the neighborhoods of Fletcher Hills and Rancho San Diego. Under the Köppen climate classification system, El Cajon straddles areas of Mediterranean climate, as a result, it is often described as arid Mediterranean and semi-arid Steppe.
Like most inland areas in Southern California, the climate varies dramatically within a short distance, El Cajons climate has greater extremes compared to coastal San Diego. The farther east from the coast, the more arid the climate gets, until one reaches the mountains, El Cajons climate is warm during summer with mean temperatures averaging 70.1 °F or higher and cool during winter with mean temperatures averaging 55.4 °F or higher. The warmest month of the year is August with an maximum temperature of 88.1 °F. Temperature variations between night and day tend to be moderate with a difference of 24 °F during the summer. The annual average precipitation at El Cajon is 11.96 inches, rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the winter months, but rare in summer. The wettest month of the year is December with a rainfall of 3.80 inches. The record high temperature was 113 °F on June 14,1917, September 1,1955, July 22,2006, the record low temperature was 19 °F on January 8,1913. The wettest year was 1941 with 28.14 inches and the dryest year was 1989 with 1.51 inches, the most rainfall in one month was 11.43 inches in January 1993.
The most rainfall in 24 hours was 5.60 inches on January 27,1916, a rare snowfall in November 1992 totaled 0.3 inches. 3 inches of snow covered the ground in January 1882, during Spanish rule, the government encouraged settlement of territory now known as California by the establishment of large land grants called ranchos, from which the English word ranch is derived. Land grants were made to the Roman Catholic Church which set up numerous missions throughout the region, in the early nineteenth century, mission padres search for pasture land led them to the El Cajon Valley
Del Mar, California
Del Mar is a beach city in San Diego County, California. The population was estimated at 4,311 in 2014, up from 4,161 at the 2010 census, the Del Mar Horse Races are hosted on the Del Mar racetrack every summer. Del Mar is Spanish for of the sea or by the sea, in 1885, Colonel Jacob Taylor purchased 338 acres from Enoch Talbert, with visions of building a seaside resort for the rich and famous. The United States Navy operated a Naval Auxiliary Air Facility for blimps at Del Mar during World War II. In 1966, winners of a KHJ radio station contest rode with members of The Monkees band on a train from Del Mar, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.8 square miles. 1.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water, at the southern edge of Del Mar is the Los Peñasquitos Lagoon. Del Mars climate is considered mediterranean-subtropical with warm, dry summers and mild, humid winters, temperatures exceed 85 °F only on a few occasions throughout the year and rarely drop below 41 °F.
The average yearly temperature in Del Mar is approximately 65 °F. Del Mar is one of few locations in which the Torrey Pine tree grows, the Torrey Pine is the rarest pine in the United States and only two populations of this endangered species exist. The Soledad Valley at the south of Del Mar severs two colony segments of the Pinus torreyana, the 2010 United States Census reported that Del Mar had a population of 4,161. The population density was 2,341.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Del Mar was 3,912 White,10 African American, eight Native American,118 Asian, hispanic or Latino of any race were 175 people. The Census reported that 4,161 people lived in households, zero lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 124 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 19 same-sex married couples or partnerships. Seven hundred seven households were made up of individuals and 209 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.02. There were 1,098 families, the family size was 2.57.
The median age was 48.6 years, for every 100 females there were 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.1 males, there were 2,596 housing units at an average density of 1,461.1 per square mile, of which 1,113 were owner-occupied, and 951 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2. 6%, the vacancy rate was 7. 9%. Of the population,2,398 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,763 people lived in housing units
Imperial Beach, California
Imperial Beach is a residential beach city in San Diego County, with a population of 26,324 at the 2010 census. The city is the southernmost beach city in Southern California and the West Coast of the United States and it is in the South Bay area of San Diego County,14.1 miles south of downtown San Diego and 5 miles northwest of downtown Tijuana, Mexico. Imperial Beach is located at 32°34′42″N 117°7′2″W making it the most southwesterly city in the continental United States, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.5 square miles. 4.2 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water and it is part of the San Diego – Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest bi-national metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico with over 5 million people. Founded in June 1887, the city takes its name from Imperial County, California and land owners from the Imperial Valley came to the area in the late 1880s seeking cooler weather during summer months.
In March 1887, over 2,000 laborers descended upon nearby Coronado, California to construct the Hotel del Coronado, a large number of the workers stayed in Imperial Beach and some would make it their permanent homestead. The city would incorporate in 1956, operating its own Mayor-council government providing city fire department service, the city has a warm semi-arid climate, with summer temperatures often in the upper 70s and winter temperatures in the 60s. Because of the year round temperatures many homes in Imperial Beach are built without air conditioning. Imperial Beach often remains 10 degrees cooler than areas of San Diego County in the summer. The city is mostly or partly sunny 323 days of the year, the Farmers Almanac consistently ranks the area within the Top 10 Best Weather Cities in America. Imperial Beach encompasses nearly 4 miles of beach and employs a year-round lifeguard staff, San Diego Magazine identifies the Boca Rio beach break as the second best surfing location in the county, second only to Blacks Beach and the Scripps Canyon area near La Jolla.
The area around Imperial Beach Pier known as Pier Plaza showcases plaques placed on surfboard benches that tell the story of how the big waves influenced surfing from 1937 to the 1950s. The city connects to nearby Coronado, California by way of the Silver Strand, Silver Strand State Beach, a popular beach for camping, bird watching, and bicycling, is located in the middle of the isthmus and includes both bay and ocean beaches. The San Diego County summer tourist season brings many visitors to the citys beaches each year. For 31 years, Imperial Beach played home to the U. S. Open Sandcastle competition, the city held the final sand castle competition in August 2011, bringing an end to the annual event and tradition. The city holds the beach front classic car show every summer, the Imperial Beach Farmers Market, the only beachfront farmers market in San Diego County, operates from Pier Plaza every Friday afternoon and offering local fruits and community art. The South Bay Drive-in, the only ocean view drive-in theatre, is located just outside Imperial Beach off Coronado Avenue.
Imperial Beach is home to Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve, a National Estuarine Research Reserve, the estuary, located off Seacoast Drive and Imperial Beach Boulevard, is home to many endangered birds and wildlife
San Clemente, California
San Clemente is a city in Orange County, California. The population was 63,522 at the 2010 census, San Clementes city slogan is Spanish Village by the Sea. The official city flower is the Bougainvillea, the city tree. Prior to colonization by Spaniards, the area was inhabited by the Juaneño native people, after the founding of Mission San Juan Capistrano, the local natives were conscripted to work for the mission. Hanson believed the areas pleasant climate, beautiful beaches, and fertile soil would serve as a haven to Californians tired of the big city, Hanson envisioned it as a Mediterranean-style coastal resort town, his San Clemente by the Sea. But this proved to be short-lived, in the oldest parts of town you find a mix of building styles. Hanson succeeded in promoting the new area and selling property and he built public structures such as the Beach Club, the Community Center, the pier and San Clemente Plaza, now known as Max Berg Plaza Park, which were donated to the city. The area was incorporated as a City on February 27,1928 with a council-manager government.
Referring to the way he would develop the city, Hanson proclaimed, I have a clean canvas, think of it--a canvas five miles long and one and one-half miles wide. My San Clemente by the Sea, soon after San Clemente was incorporated, the need for a Fire House was realized. Individual subscriptions were received in the amounts from $6.00 to $1500.00 from the citizenry, in 1969, President Richard Nixon bought part of the H. H. Cotton estate, one of the homes built by one of Hansons partners. Nixon called it La Casa Pacifica, but it was nicknamed the Western White House and it sits above one of the West Coasts premier surfing spots and just north of historic surfing beach San Onofre. Following his resignation, Nixon retired to San Clemente to write his memoirs and he sold the home in 1980 and moved to New York City, to Saddle River, New Jersey, and eventually to Park Ridge, New Jersey. The property has ties to the Democratic side of the aisle, prior to Nixons tenure at the estate. Cotton was known to host Franklin D.
Roosevelt, who would visit to play cards in a small outbuilding overlooking the Pacific Ocean, the Old City Plaza at one time had a small Nixon museum when the city occupied the premises. San Clemente is located at 33°26′16″N 117°37′13″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.5 square miles. 18.7 square miles of it is land and 0.8 square miles of it is water, San Clemente has a Mediterranean climate where temperatures tend to average in the 70s
Carlsbad is an affluent seaside resort city occupying a 7-mile stretch of Pacific coastline in northern San Diego County, California. The city is 87 miles south of Los Angeles and 35 miles north of downtown San Diego and is part of the San Diego-Carlsbad and it is bordered by Oceanside to the north and San Marcos to the east and Encinitas to the south. Referred to as The Village by the Sea by locals, Carlsbad is a tourist destination, the citys estimated 2014 population was 112,299. Nearly every reliable fresh water creek had at least one native village, the site is located just south of todays Agua Hedionda Lagoon. The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition of 1769, during the Mexican period, in 1842, the southern portion of Carlsbad, was granted as Rancho Agua Hedionda to Juan María Marrón. In the 1880s a former sailor named John Frazier dug a well in the area and he began offering his water at the train station and soon the whistle-stop became known as Fraziers Station.
The naming of the town followed soon after, along with a marketing campaign to attract visitors. The area experienced a period of growth, with homes and businesses sprouting up in the 1880s, agricultural development of citrus fruits and olives soon changed the landscape. By the end of 1887, land prices fell throughout San Diego County, the community survived on the back of its fertile agricultural lands. The site of John Fraziers original well can still be found at Alt Karlsbad, in 1952, Carlsbad was incorporated to avoid annexation by its neighbor, Oceanside. The single-runway Palomar Airport opened in 1959 after County of San Diego officials decided to replace the Del Mar Airport, the airport was annexed to the City of Carlsbad in 1978 and renamed McClellan-Palomar Airport in 1982 after a local civic leader, Gerald McClellan. The first modern skateboard park, Carlsbad Skatepark, was built in March 1976 and it was located on the grounds of Carlsbad Raceway and was designed and built by inventors Jack Graham and John OMalley.
The site of the original Carlsbad Skatepark and Carlsbad Raceway was demolished in 2005 and is now an Industrial Park, two skateparks have since been developed. In March 1999, Legoland California was opened and it was the first Legoland theme park outside of Europe and is currently operated by Merlin Entertainments. Merlin Entertainments owns 70 percent of the shares, and the remaining 30 percent is owned by the LEGO group, Carlsbad is home to the nations largest desalination plant. Construction of the $1 billion Carlsbad Desalination Plant at the Encina Power Plant was completed in December 2015, the northern area of the city is part of a tri-city area consisting of northern Carlsbad, southern Oceanside and western Vista. Carlsbad has a semi-arid Mediterranean climate and averages 263 sunny days per year, winters are mild with periodic rain. Frost is rare along the coast, but sometimes occurs in valleys in December
Trestles is a collection of surfing spots at San Onofre State Beach in San Diego County, California. Trestles consists of, from north to south, Upper Trestles, Lower Trestles, north of Upper Trestles is the surf spot called Cottons. South of Middles is the spot called The Church. It is named after Trestles Bridge, a trestle bridge that surfers must walk under to reach the beach. Lower Trestles consistently has the best waves of the group, there is an WSL World Tour surfing competition held at Lowers every year, as well as the NSSA Nationals. Uppers is less consistent, but it has the potential to be a wave with a long ride. North of Uppers is Cottons Point, the location of former President Richard Nixons home, La Casa Pacifica, aka The Western White House, getting to Trestles is a trek. Visitors can park and walk down a trail to Trestles from the trailhead at Cristianitos Road. Visitors can expect to see surf graffiti on the sidewalk, with such phrases as no kooks, surf hard, youre going the wrong way, and duckbutter.
There is a pay parking lot near the Carl’s Jr. restaurant on Coast Highway at Cristianitos, there is no fee to walk, skateboard, or bike into Trestles by means of this trail. Most visitors enter Trestle by this trail and its about a 15-minute walk from the parking lot to the beach. The hike northwest to Trestles from Surf Beach at San Onofre State Beach is considerably longer than the hike southwest from the Cristianitos Road bridge, there is a fee to drive into the State Park at Surf Beach. Trestles park is home to a variety of plant and animal life, the most common plant is the coastal sage scrub, which is native to the coast of California and thrives in the areas Mediterranean climate. Trestles park is home to quite a lot of animal life. These animals used to be endangered species, but the populations recovered so well that the species was removed from the species list in 2009. During times of heavy rains, there is usually a river flowing into the ocean where there are often tadpoles. One plant which grows out of the sand is the beach evening primrose.
Each plants creates a large mat of roots and foliage which is an important aspect of the ecosystem
Chula Vista, California
The population was 243,916 as of the 2010 census. Chula Vista is so named because of its location between the San Diego Bay and coastal mountain foothills. Founded in the early 19th century, fast population growth has recently observed in the city. In the year 3000 BCE, people speaking the Yuman language began movement into the region from the Lower Colorado River Valley, the Kumeyaay tribe came to populate the land, on which the city sits today, who lived in the area for hundreds of years. In the year 1542 CE, a fleet of three Spanish Empire ships commanded by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailed into San Diego Harbor, early explorations by Spanish conquistadors, such as these, led to Spanish claims of the land. The historic land on which Chula Vista sits became part of the 1795 land grant known as Rancho del Rey or The Kings Ranch, the land eventually was renamed Rancho de la Nación. During the Mexican-American War, California was claimed by the United States, though California was now under the jurisdiction of the United States, land grants were allowed to continue in the form of private property.
The San Diego Land and Town Company developed lands of the Rancho de la Nación for new settlement, the town began as a five thousand acre development, with the first house being erected in 1887, by 1889, ten houses had been completed. Around this time, the lemon was introduced to the city, Chula Vista can be roughly translated from Spanish as beautiful view. The 1888 completion of the Sweetwater Dam allowed for irrigation of Chula Vista farming lands, Chula Vista eventually became the largest lemon-growing center in the world for a period of time. The citizens of Chula Vista voted to incorporate on October 17,1911, although the Great Depression affected Chula Vista significantly, agriculture still provided considerable income for the residents. In 1931, the lemon orchards produced $1 million in revenue, the relocation of Rohr Aircraft Corporation to Chula Vista in early 1941, just months before the attack on Pearl Harbor, changed Chula Vista. The land never returned to being orchard groves again, the population of post-World War II Chula Vista tripled from 5,000 residents in 1940 to more than 16,000 in 1950.
After the war, many of the workers and thousands of servicemen stayed in the area resulting in the huge growth in population. The last of the groves and produce fields disappeared as Chula Vista became one of the largest communities in San Diego County. From 1960 to 2013, the South Bay Power Plant, a 700 megawatt four boiler plant, in 1944, the state of California attempted to seize land in Chula Vista owned by Kajiro Oyama, a legal Japanese resident who was interned in Utah. Oyama was correctly charged with putting the property in his son Freds name with the intent to evade the Alien Land Law because Fred was a native-born citizen. The case went to the U. S. Supreme Court as Oyama v. California where the court found that Kajiros equal protection rights had been violated, in January 1986, Chula Vista annexed the unincorporated community of Montgomery, which had previously rejected annexation in 1979 and 1982