Presidio of San Francisco
The Presidio of San Francisco is a park and former U. S. Army military fort on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Francisco, is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, it had been a fortified location since September 17, 1776, when New Spain established the presidio to gain a foothold in Alta California and the San Francisco Bay. It passed to Mexico, which in turn passed it to the United States in 1848; as part of a 1989 military reduction program under the Base Realignment and Closure process, Congress voted to end the Presidio's status as an active military installation of the U. S. Army. On October 1, 1994, it was transferred to the National Park Service, ending 219 years of military use and beginning its next phase of mixed commercial and public use. In 1996, the United States Congress created the Presidio Trust to oversee and manage the interior 80% of the park's lands, with the National Park Service managing the coastal 20%. In a first-of-its-kind structure, Congress mandated that the Presidio Trust make the Presidio financially self-sufficient by 2013.
The Presidio achieved the goal in 2005, eight years ahead of the scheduled deadline. The park is characterized by many wooded areas and scenic vistas overlooking the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay, the Pacific Ocean, it was recognized as a California Historical Landmark in 1933 and as a National Historic Landmark in 1962. The visitor centers are operated by the National Park Service: Presidio Visitor Center: offers changing exhibits about the Presidio, information about sights and activities in the park, a bookstore; the Presidio Transit Center is located adjacent to this visitor center and is served by the PresidiGo Shuttle and Muni bus routes. Battery Chamberlin: seacoast defense museum and artillery display at Baker Beach built in 1904. Fort Point: 1861 brick and granite fortification located under the Golden Gate Bridge; the visitor center, open on Friday and Sunday, offers video orientations, guided tours, self-guiding materials, a bookstore. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Center: This center offers hands-on marine-life exhibits, is located in a historic Coast Guard Station at the west end of Crissy Field.
The building was used by the Coast Guard from 1890 to 1990. Golden Gate Bridge Pavilion: opened May 2012 for the 75th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge, the Pavilion is the first visitor center in the history of the Golden Gate Bridge, it is located just east of the southern end of the bridge. Hidden Presidio Outdoor Track: begins at Julius Kahn Playground and encircles the valley just below it.75 miles of dirt trails, wooden stairs, various altitudes. To view track course see Crissy Field Center is an urban environmental education center with programs for schools, public workshops, after-school programs, summer camps, more; the Center is operated by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy and overlooks a restored tidal marsh. The facilities include interactive environmental exhibits, a media lab, resource library, arts workshop, science lab, gathering room, teaching kitchen, café and bookstore; the landscape of Crissy Field was designed by George Hargreaves. The project restored a functioning and sustaining tidal wetland as a habitat for flora and fauna, which were not in evidence on the site.
It restored a historic grass airfield that functioned as a culturally significant military airfield between 1919 and 1936. The park at Crissy Field expanded and widened the recreational opportunities of the existing 1 1⁄2-mile San Francisco shore to a broader number of Presidio residents and visitors. A major planned component of the Presidio's park attractions is the Tunnel Tops project, which would construct a 14-acre park on top of the tunneled portions of Doyle Drive; the park would contain several meadows and walking trails, along with viewpoints for major landmarks such as the Golden Gate Bridge. Negotiations between Caltrans, the San Francisco County Transportation Authority, the Presidio Trust to finalize the land transfer for the park lasted from 2015 to 2018; the budget for the park is $100 million, funded with public funds from the Presidio Trust along with private contributions. Construction for the park is planned to start in October 2018 and the park is slated to be open for public use in 2021.
1776: Spanish Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led 193 soldiers and children on a trek from present day Tubac, Arizona, to San Francisco Bay. September 17, 1776: The Presidio began as a Spanish garrison to defend Spain's claim to San Francisco Bay and to support Mission Dolores. 1794: Castillo de San Joaquin, an artillery emplacement was built above present-day Fort Point, San Francisco, complete with iron or bronze cannon. Six cannons may be seen in the Presidio today. 1776–1821: The Presidio was a simple fort made of adobe and wood. It was damaged by earthquakes or heavy rains. In 1783, its company was only 33 men. Presidio soldiers' duties were to support Mission Dolores by controlling Indian workers in the Mission, farming and hunting in order to supply themselves and their families. Support from Spanish authorities in Mexico was limited. 1821: Mexico became independent of Spain. The Presidio received less support from Mexico. Residents of Alta California, which include the Presidio, debated separating from Mexico.
1827, January: Minor earthquake in San Francisco, some buildings were damaged extensively. 1835
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
San Andreas Fault
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends 1,200 kilometers through California. It forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, its motion is right-lateral strike-slip; the fault divides into three segments, each with different characteristics and a different degree of earthquake risk. The slip rate along the fault ranges from 20 to 35 mm /yr; the fault was identified in 1895 by Professor Andrew Lawson of UC Berkeley, who discovered the northern zone. It is described as having been named after San Andreas Lake, a small body of water, formed in a valley between the two plates. However, according to some of his reports from 1895 and 1908, Lawson named it after the surrounding San Andreas Valley. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Lawson concluded that the fault extended all the way into southern California. In 1953, geologist Thomas Dibblee concluded that hundreds of miles of lateral movement could occur along the fault. A project called the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth near Parkfield, Monterey County, was drilled through the fault during 2004 – 2007 to collect material and make physical and chemical observations to better understand fault behavior.
The northern segment of the fault runs from Hollister, through the Santa Cruz Mountains, epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake up the San Francisco Peninsula, where it was first identified by Professor Lawson in 1895 offshore at Daly City near Mussel Rock. This is the approximate location of the epicenter of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake; the fault returns onshore at Bolinas Lagoon just north of Stinson Beach in Marin County. It returns underwater through the linear trough of Tomales Bay which separates the Point Reyes Peninsula from the mainland, runs just east of Bodega Head through Bodega Bay and back underwater, returning onshore at Fort Ross. From Fort Ross, the northern segment continues overland, forming in part a linear valley through which the Gualala River flows, it goes back offshore at Point Arena. After that, it runs underwater along the coast until it nears Cape Mendocino, where it begins to bend to the west, terminating at the Mendocino Triple Junction; the central segment of the San Andreas Fault runs in a northwestern direction from Parkfield to Hollister.
While the southern section of the fault and the parts through Parkfield experience earthquakes, the rest of the central section of the fault exhibits a phenomenon called aseismic creep, where the fault slips continuously without causing earthquakes. The southern segment begins near California. Box Canyon, near the Salton Sea, contains upturned strata associated with that section of the fault; the fault runs along the southern base of the San Bernardino Mountains, crosses through the Cajon Pass and continues northwest along the northern base of the San Gabriel Mountains. These mountains are a result of movement along the San Andreas Fault and are called the Transverse Range. In Palmdale, a portion of the fault is examined at a roadcut for the Antelope Valley Freeway; the fault continues northwest alongside the Elizabeth Lake Road to the town of Elizabeth Lake. As it passes the towns of Gorman, Tejon Pass and Frazier Park, the fault begins to bend northward, forming the "Big Bend"; this restraining bend is thought to be where the fault locks up in Southern California, with an earthquake-recurrence interval of 140–160 years.
Northwest of Frazier Park, the fault runs through the Carrizo Plain, a long, treeless plain where much of the fault is plainly visible. The Elkhorn Scarp defines the fault trace along much of its length within the plain; the southern segment, which stretches from Parkfield in Monterey County all the way to the Salton Sea, is capable of an 8.1-magnitude earthquake. At its closest, this fault passes about 35 miles to the northeast of Los Angeles; such a large earthquake on this southern segment would kill thousands of people in Los Angeles, San Bernardino and surrounding areas, cause hundreds of billions of dollars in damage. The Pacific Plate, to the west of the fault, is moving in a northwest direction while the North American Plate to the east is moving toward the southwest, but southeast under the influence of plate tectonics; the rate of slippage averages about 33 to 37 millimeters a year across California. The southwestward motion of the North American Plate towards the Pacific is creating compressional forces along the eastern side of the fault.
The effect is expressed as the Coast Ranges. The northwest movement of the Pacific Plate is creating significant compressional forces which are pronounced where the North American Plate has forced the San Andreas to jog westward; this has led to the formation of the Transverse Ranges in Southern California, to a lesser but still significant extent, the Santa Cruz Mountains. Studies of the relative motions of the Pacific and North American plates have shown that only about 75 percent of the motion can be accounted for in the movements of the San Andreas and its various branch faults; the rest of the motion has been found in an area east of the Sierra Nevada mountains called the Walker Lane or Eastern California Shear Zone. The reason for this is not clear. Several hypotheses have been offered and research is ongoing. One hypothesis – which gained interest following the Landers earthquake in 1992 – suggests the plate boundary may be shifting eastward aw
Wildcat Creek (California)
Wildcat Creek is a 13.4-mile-long creek which flows through Wildcat Canyon situated between the Berkeley Hills and the San Pablo Ridge, emptying into San Pablo Bay in Contra Costa County, northern California. In 1772, the first recorded Spanish expedition crossed Wildcat Creek, although the Spaniards may have traveled this far north as early as 1769; the 1772 Fages and 1776 de Anza expeditions received festive greetings at two villages along Wildcat Creek, one of, estimated at 100 – 200 people in size. Within three decades, nearly all the native Huchiun had been forced to move to Mission Dolores and convert to Christianity. On an 1830 diseño of the Rancho San Pablo Wildcat Creek appears as Arroyo Seco, it was known as Arroyo Chiquito. An 1861 map indicates. "Big" San Pablo Creek is located in the next drainage east of the drainage of Wildcat Creek. There are over fifty geographic place names in California with the word "wildcat", which either refers to the historic presence of bobcats or to its meaning as an "unsound scheme".
The Wildcat Creek watershed drains 11.1 square miles. The creek originates on Vollmer Peak in Tilden Regional Park just east of the city of Berkeley, it feeds the artificial Lake Anza as well as the smaller reservoir Jewel Lake along its course. In its lower course, it passes through portions of the city of Richmond. Where it exits the hills, it passes through Alvarado Park, which includes a WPA-constructed stone arch bridge over the creek, it courses through San Pablo's civic center and Davis Park. Wildcat Creek culminates thence to San Pablo Bay; the Wildcat San Pablo Creeks Watershed Council won the Governors Environmental and Economic Leadership award in 2003. Founded in 1985, it is the oldest, continuing running urban watershed council in California. In 2004, the Wildcat San Pablo Watershed Council began work on the Wildcat Creek Watershed Restoration Plan, to address recurring flood damages within the City of San Pablo. In April, 2010, the plan was published and addressed three goals: 1. Reduce flood risk based on Wildcat Creek's 100-year flood flows and improve stormwater management in low-lying neighborhoods.
2. Enhance riparian habitat focused on stream resident coastal rainbow trout and the potential restoration of anadromous steelhead migration. 3. Develop recreational resources for the community a connected two-mile Wildcat Creek Trail through the city. In September 2010 the City of San Pablo announced that it had received a $1.8 million grant from the state Department of Water Resources to clean up Wildcat Creek. Wildcat Creek supported a steelhead run but degradation of habitat and construction of passage barriers from urbanization resulted in their extirpation sometime after 1915; the dams that form both of these artificial lakes Lake Anza and Jewel Lake are impassable barriers to spawning steelhead. In September 1983, the East Bay Regional Park District planted 615 steelhead from Redwood Creek into Wildcat Creek between Alvarado Park and the Regional Parks Botanic Garden; the EBPRD reported that no trout were present in Wildcat Creek prior to this stocking, so that the newly established population would provide a second and separate source for a "precarious" and "unique" genetic stock.
This re-introduction has been successful with steelhead reproducing in the creek below Jewel Lake. According to CEMAR's San Francisco Estuary Watersheds Evaluation of 2007, only 5.1 miles of the watershed's total 22.22 miles of stream channel is suitable and available to steelhead. The East Bay has seen a renaissance of the native coastal rainbow trout in the watershed, some have been spotted in the creek in Downtown Richmond nesting in submerged shopping carts and other garbage; the fish have been spotted in Tilden Regional Park in the Berkeley Hills near the park's merry-go-round and a potamodromous population makes its way up the creek from Lake Anza every spring to spawn. A second native fish, the three-spined stickleback thrives in its tributaries; the recovering 387-acre Wildcat Marsh supports a diversity of endangered and threatened species, including the California clapper rail, the black rail, the salt marsh harvest mouse, the San Pablo vole. In April 1991, a student at the University California, Berkeley electrofished the two perennial reaches of Wildcat Creek to determine the condition of O. mykiss populations.
The upper reach was located above Lake Anza, while the lower reach was at the northwest edge of Wildcat Canyon Regional Park. The upper reach produced 46 O. mykiss. In the lower reach, 71 O. mykiss were caught. The resulting study reported that the presence of multiple age classes in both the upper and lower reaches indicated successful spawning in the two areas; the study noted age 3+ O. mykiss from Lake Anza spawning in upper reaches of Wildcat Creek. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Guide to San Francisco Bay Area Creeks: Wildcat Creek Watershed Urban Creeks Council Pictures from the entire length of Wildcat Creek History of Wildcat Creek Watershed
Mark James DeSaulnier is an American politician serving as the U. S. Representative for California's 11th congressional district since 2015; the district includes most of a suburban county in the East Bay. A member of the Democratic Party, he served in the California State Legislature, representing the 7th State Senate district from 2008 to 2015 and 11th State Assembly district from 2006 to 2008, he served as a Contra Costa County Supervisor and on the Concord City Council. In 2009, DeSaulnier announced his candidacy for the United States House of Representatives in the special election in California's 10th congressional district after the resignation of the incumbent Ellen Tauscher, who endorsed him. In the September 1 primary election, DeSaulnier came after John Garamendi. Born in Lowell, Massachusetts, DeSaulnier was raised in a Roman Catholic family, he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in History from the College of the Holy Cross. He traveled cross-country to California in the early 1970s and settled in Concord.
As a young man, DeSaulnier worked as a probation officer, a truck driver and a hotel services employee. DeSaulnier was a member of both the Teamsters International Union and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees International Union, his jobs allowed his early exposure to the challenges of working families and the power of organized labor to create equity among employers and employees. A small businessman, DeSaulnier owned and operated several restaurants in the greater Bay Area before taking office in the Legislature in 2006. A member of the Concord Chamber of Commerce and the Contra Costa Council, DeSaulnier lives in Concord, where he raised his two sons, he has completed twenty-one marathons. DeSaulnier was appointed to the Concord Planning Commission in 1988. In 1991, he was elected to the Concord City Council and served as mayor of Concord in 1993, he was a member of the University of California Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program Advisory Committee. In early 1994, Republican Governor Pete Wilson appointed DeSaulnier a fellow Republican, to the Contra Costa County Board of Supervisors district 4, filling a vacancy caused by the resignation of Supervisor Sunne McPeak.
DeSaulnier served on the Board of Supervisors until 2006. He was elected in 1994 and re-elected in 1998 and 2002. In June 1998, he received 98.4 percent of the vote against write-in candidates. In March 2002, he retained his seat with 79 percent of the vote against challenger Dione Mustard. Although the Board of Supervisors is a non-partisan office, DeSaulnier was active in Republican party affairs during much of his tenure as county supervisor. In September 1998, for example, he donated $200.00 to the United Republican Finance Committee of the Contra Costa County Republican Central Committee. During DeSaulnier's tenure on the Board of Supervisors, he sponsored the Industrial Safety Ordinance and the Refinery Flare Rule for local refineries and chemical facilities. DeSaulnier served on the executive boards of the Association of Bay Area Governments, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, he was appointed to represent the Bay Area on the California Air Resources Board by the Air District.
As a member of the Air Resources Board, DeSaulnier supported strong environmental regulations, including cleaner-burning gasoline, lower-emission vehicles, the identification of diesel exhaust as a toxic air contaminant, dioxin monitoring in the Bay Area, the banning of methyl tertiary-butyl ether in gasoline, the identification of secondhand smoke as a carcinogen, the reduction of emissions from dairy farms, the phase-out of rice straw in the central valley and the reduction of emissions from cruise ships. On a county level, DeSaulnier introduced a Women's Health Program to serve the health-care needs of all women in Contra Costa County, he established the annual Children and Families' Budget, a separate County budget that reviews and measures the effectiveness of County programs in these areas. His other projects for children include AfterSchool4All, the Future Fund and the Children and Families Committee of the Board of Supervisors; the Contra Costa Times editorial board was critical of DeSaulnier's record as county supervisor.
An editorial published in 2009 stated, "Many of the financial problems that afflict Contra Costa County today stem directly from decisions DeSaulnier championed while he was supervisor. Most notably, in 2002, at a time when the county faced a $31.5 million shortfall, was laying off workers and was experiencing increased public employee pension costs, DeSaulnier supported unsustainable pension increases that hiked benefits for public safety workers by as much as 50 percent. The plan allowed public safety workers to retire at age 50 with a pension worth 3 percent of their salary for each year served; such excessive public employee union benefits have strained some local jurisdictions to the brink of bankruptcy." In the June 2006 Democratic primary, DeSaulnier carried 52 percent of the vote against Laura Canciamilla and two other opponents. DeSaulnier was endorsed by the San Francisco Chronicle, the Contra Costa Times, U. S. Senator Barbara Boxer and California Senator Tom Torlakson. DeSaulnier won a decisive victory in the 2006 general election against Republican Arne Simonsen and Libertarian Cory Nott with 66% of all votes cast.
In the Assembly, DeSaulnier chaired the Committee on Transportation and the Select Committees on Growth Management and Air Quality. He was a member of the Assembly Committees on Appropriations, Human Services and Labor and Employment, he authored or co-authored over 40 bills during the 2007–2008 legisl