Sinton is a city in and the county seat of San Patricio County, United States. The population was 5,665 at the 2010 census, it is named in honor of David Sinton. Sinton is located at 28°2′5″N 97°30′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.2 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. Sinton has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa according to the Köppen climate classification system; as of the census of 2010, 5,723 people, 1,845 households, 1,409 families resided in the city. The population density was 2,582.0 people per square mile. The 2,026 housing units averaged 921.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.47% White, 3.63% African American, 0.93% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 18.48% from other races, 3.37% from two or more races. Hispanics of any race were 71.04% of the population. Of the 1,845 households, 39.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 18.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.6% were not families.
About 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.35. In the city, the population was distributed as 30.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,911, for a family was $32,266. Males had a median income of $25,331 versus $17,163 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,881. About 22.4% of families and 28.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.3% of those under age 18 and 21.8% of those age 65 or over. Sinton was established in 1855 as a station on the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railroad and became the county seat of San Patricio. In 1954 the Welder Wildlife Refuge was established on 7800 acres seven miles north-west of Sinton.
The City of Sinton is served by the Sinton Independent School District. From 1948 to 1958, Sinton was the home to the Plymouth Oilers, a semiprofessional baseball team sponsored by Plymouth Oil Company, which had extensive drilling operations on the Welder Ranch, north of the city; the team hired star college players for the summer and gave them jobs in the field, gas plant, office. Experienced players were hired on a permanent basis. By 1950, the Oilers were playing a 46-game schedule, going 33-13 and placing fourth in the National Baseball Congress national, semipro tournament. In 1951, the Oilers returned to the national championship after winning the state title in Oiler Park before a record crowd of 2,304. At the national tournament in Wichita against the Camp Pickett Red Wings, Oiler pitcher Mike Blyzka turned in a no-hit, no-run game, the second in tournament history; the Oilers defeated Atwater 3–0 to win the national championship, the first Texas team to do so, They returned to nationals in'52,'54,'55,'56, and'57, placing second in'55.
In'57, the National Baseball Congress declared Sinton, the premier city in the nation, per capita, for promoting semipro baseball for nearly a decade. In the spring of 1958, the Plymouth Oil Company, citing economic conditions, ended its support of the Oilers, the team disbanded. Dyhouse, Janie. "Texas Post Honored After'Wild and Crazy' Year". VFW Magazine. Vol. 106 no. 1. Kansas City, Mo.: Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States. P. 46. ISSN 0161-8598. For its hurricane relief efforts, Sinton's Post 12160 earned VFW's Fred C. Hall Memorial Outstanding Post Special Project Award
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Saint Patrick was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Known as the "Apostle of Ireland", he is the primary patron saint of Ireland, the other patron saints being Brigit of Kildare and Columba, he is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Churches, the Old Catholic Church, in the Eastern Orthodox Church as equal-to-the-apostles and Enlightener of Ireland. The dates of Patrick's life cannot be fixed with certainty, but there is broad agreement that he was active as a missionary in Ireland during the fifth century; as the most recent biography on Patrick shows, a late fourth-century date for the saint is not impossible. Early medieval tradition credits him with being the first bishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland, they regard him as the founder of Christianity in Ireland, converting a society practising a form of Celtic polytheism, he has been so regarded since, despite evidence of some earlier Christian presence in Ireland.
According to the autobiographical Confessio of Patrick, when he was about 16, he was captured by Irish pirates from his home in Britain and taken as a slave to Ireland, looking after animals. After becoming a cleric, he returned to western Ireland. In life, he served as a bishop, but little is known about the places where he worked. By the seventh century, he had come to be revered as the patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patrick's Day is observed on the supposed date of his death, it is celebrated outside Ireland as a religious and cultural holiday. In the dioceses of Ireland, it is a holy day of obligation. Two Latin works survive which are accepted as having been written by St. Patrick; these are the Declaration and the Letter to the soldiers of Coroticus, from which come the only accepted details of his life. The Declaration is the more biographical of the two. In it, Patrick gives a short account of his mission. Most available details of his life are from subsequent hagiographies and annals, which have considerable value but lack the empiricism scholars depend on today.
The only name that Patrick uses for himself in his own writings is Pātricius, which gives Old Irish Pátraic and Modern Irish Pádraig. Hagiography records other names. Tírechán's seventh-century Collectanea gives: "Magonus, famous. "Magonus" appears in the ninth century Historia Brittonum as Maun, descending from British *Magunos, meaning "servant-lad". "Succetus", which appears in Muirchú moccu Machtheni's seventh century Life as Sochet, is identified by Mac Neill as "a word of British origin meaning swineherd". Cothirthiacus appears as Cothraige in the 8th century biographical poem known as Fiacc's Hymn and a variety of other spellings elsewhere, is taken to represent a Primitive Irish *Qatrikias, although this is disputed. Harvey argues that Cothraige "has the form of a classic Old Irish tribal name", noting that Ail Coithrigi is a name for the Rock of Cashel, the place-names Cothrugu and Catrige are attested in Counties Antrim and Carlow; the dates of Patrick's life are uncertain. His own writings provide no evidence for any dating more precise than the 5th century generally.
His Biblical quotations are a mixture of the Old Latin version and the Vulgate, completed in the early 5th century, suggesting he was writing "at the point of transition from Old Latin to Vulgate", although it is possible the Vulgate readings may have been added replacing earlier readings. The Letter to Coroticus implies that the Franks were still pagans at the time of writing: their conversion to Christianity is dated to the period 496–508; the Irish annals for the fifth century date Patrick's arrival in Ireland at 432, but they were compiled in the mid 6th century at the earliest. The date 432 was chosen to minimise the contribution of Palladius, known to have been sent to Ireland in 431, maximise that of Patrick. A variety of dates are given for his death. In 457 "the elder Patrick" is said to have died: this may refer to the death of Palladius, who according to the Book of Armagh was called Patrick. In 461/2 the annals say that "Here some record the repose of Patrick". While some modern historians accept the earlier date of c. 460 for Patrick's death, scholars of early Irish history tend to prefer a date, c.
493. Supporting the date, the annals record that in 553 "the relics of Patrick were placed sixty years after his death in a shrine by Colum Cille"; the death of Patrick's disciple Mochta is dated in the annals to 535 or 537, the early hagiographies "all bring Patrick into contact with persons whose obits occur at the end of the fifth century or the beginning of the sixth". However, E. A. Thompson argues that none of the dates given for Patrick's death in the Annals are reliable. A recent biography argues. Irish academic T. F. O'Rahilly proposed the "Two Patricks" theory, which suggests that many of the traditions attached to Saint Patrick act
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Jim Wells County, Texas
Jim Wells County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,838, its county seat is Alice. The county was founded in 1911 and is named for James B. Wells, Jr. for three decades a judge and Democratic Party political boss in South Texas. Jim Wells County comprises the Alice, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Corpus Christi-Kingsville-Alice, TX Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 868 square miles, of which 865 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water. Live Oak County San Patricio County Nueces County Kleberg County Brooks County Duval County At the 2000 census, there were 39,326 people, 12,961 households and 10,096 families residing in the county; the population density was 46 per square mile. There were 14,819 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.90% White, 0.60% Black or African American, 0.62% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 17.93% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races.
75.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,961 households of which 40.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 15.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.10% were non-families. 19.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.45. Age distribution was 31.40% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median household income was $28,843, the median family income was $32,616. Males had a median income of $30,266 versus $17,190 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,252. About 20.10% of families and 24.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.80% of those under age 18 and 21.30% of those age 65 or over.
Being in South Texas, Jim Wells County is part of the oldest Democratic stronghold in the entire United States – a region that has voted for Democrats since the days of Woodrow Wilson. The Jim Wells County Democratic Party has maintained control of the county despite massive demographic changes due to Civil Rights, the collapse of Jim Crow and poll taxes, mass immigration from Mexico; the only Republicans to win the county since it was created have been Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956 and Richard Nixon in his 1972 landslide. Since 2004 Jim Wells County has become somewhat less Democratic the during the late twentieth century, but nonetheless the Democratic candidate has won at least 53.77 percent of the county’s vote in every election since 1976. In the 2016 election, Hillary Clinton won 54.08 percent of Jim Wells County’s vote to Donald Trump’s 43.78 percent. In the 2018 gubernatorial election, Republican Greg Abbott won 52.04% of the vote in Jim Wells County, becoming the first member of his party to win the county in a statewide race.
During the same election, Democrat Beto O'Rourke won the county in the Senate contest with 53.85% of the vote. Jim Wells County is known as the home of “Box 13”, the infamous ballot box which gave Lyndon Baines Johnson an 86-vote edge over popular former governor Coke Stevenson in the Democratic primary election, it was demonstrated that these 200 votes were "stuffed" into the ballot box after the polls had closed. Johnson went on to win the election. Alice Orange Grove Premont San Diego Pernitas Point List of museums in South Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Jim Wells County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Jim Wells County Jim Wells County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Interstate 37 is a 143.0-mile Interstate Highway located within the southern portion of the U. S. state of Texas. The highway was first designated in 1959 as a route between San Antonio. Construction in the urban areas of Corpus Christi and San Antonio began in the 1960s and the segments of the Interstate Highway in rural areas were completed by the 1980s. Prior to I-37, the route between Corpus Christi and San Antonio was served by a combination of State Highway 9 from Corpus Christi to Three Rivers and U. S. Route 281 from Three Rivers to San Antonio; as a result of the construction of I-37, SH 9 was removed from the State Highway System. The highway begins in Corpus Christi at US 181 and SH 35 and heads north to San Antonio, where it ends at I-35. Beyond I-35, the freeway continues as US 281 to northern San Antonio as a major freeway. In Corpus Christi, the highway provides access to the downtown area, the Port of Corpus Christi, the Corpus Christi International Airport. In San Antonio, it provides access to Downtown, Brooks City-Base, the Alamodome, the Tower of the Americas, the River Walk, the Alamo, by extension via US 281, the San Antonio International Airport.
The route provides an important connection between I-35 and the Texas Gulf Coast as well as one of the few limited-access hurricane evacuation routes away from the southern Texas coast. Interstate 37 heads northwest toward San Antonio, it links South Texas to the northern parts of the state via I-69E, US 77, US 281. The highway functions as one of the few freeway hurricane evacuation routes for the southern Texas coast, it parallels US 181, which both begins and ends at I-37, US 281. Unofficially, I-37 begins at an intersection with Shoreline Boulevard on the edge of Corpus Christi Bay, it heads west as a surface street for three blocks where it becomes entrance and exit ramps which connect to the freeway. I-37 begins at the gore point for these ramps, part of an interchange complex that represents the southern ends of US 181 and SH 35, it heads west from US 181 through Corpus Christi and intersects two freeways, SH 286 and SH 358. The highway turns towards the northwest after the SH 358 interchange parallel to the south of the Nueces River.
Just prior to leaving the Corpus Christi city limits, it intersects and has a short concurrency with US 77. US 77 merges with I-37 as a freeway from the south; the Interstate continues to the northwest. I-37 transitions to a rural setting once outside of the Corpus Christi city limits on its way to Mathis and Lake Corpus Christi, it intersects US 59 east of George West. It begins paralleling US 281 to the east before the two intersect and have a concurrency north of Three Rivers near Choke Canyon Reservoir. U. S. Highway 281 Alternate splits off from I-37 near Sunniland and parallels I-37 before rejoining north of Campbellton; the two routes remain concurrent until US 281 splits off to head to Pleasanton, while I-37 bypasses the city to the east. After US 281 leaves towards the northwest, I-37 turns to the north towards San Antonio; as I-37 enters the San Antonio city limits, it intersects the northern terminus of US 181. Continuing to the north, it intersects I-410, the inner loop around San Antonio, at a stack interchange.
At this junction, the Interstate once again runs concurrently with US 281, concurrent with I-410. Heading north through the south side of San Antonio, I-37 provides access to Brooks City-Base. After a cloverleaf interchange at Loop 13, the freeway turns towards the northwest; the highway intersects I-10, concurrent with US 90 and US 87, at a stack interchange on the southeastern corner of Downtown. After the interchange, it once again heads north on the east side of Downtown, it passes near the Tower of the Americas, the River Walk and the Alamo. I-37 ends at the northeastern corner of Downtown at a junction with I-35. US 281 continues to the north as a freeway and provides access to the San Antonio International Airport and far north central Texas. From I-410 to I-10 in San Antonio, I-37 is designated the Lucian Adams Freeway, after the World War II veteran. Adams is a native of Port Arthur, received the Medal of Honor for his service in France, along with the Bronze Star and Purple Heart for his gallantry during the Cassino Campaign.
From I-10 to its northern terminus at I-35, it is designated the Staff Sergeant William J. Bordelon Freeway. Bordelon was the first San Antonio native to receive the Medal of Honor after being killed in action during World War II. Prior to I-37, the routing between Corpus Christi and San Antonio was covered by SH 9 from Corpus Christi to Three Rivers and US 281 from Three Rivers to San Antonio. Beginning in 1971, sections of SH 9 were removed from the State Highway System as I-37 was completed. No sections of US 281 were removed from the State Highway System as a result of the construction of I-37, but the two do share the same alignment at two different points between San Antonio and Three Rivers. US 281 was rerouted onto I-37 in San Antonio in 1978. I-37 was first designated in 1959 to provide a route between Corpus Christi. Construction began in the 1960s and the route was completed by the 1980s; the first sections of the freeway completed were in Corpus Christi. The freeway was completed from its southern terminus to 1.2 miles to the west at the Port Avenue overpass to include the SH 286 i