San Antonio Springs
San Antonio Springs is a cluster of springs in Bexar County, Texas. These springs provide a large portion of the water for the San Antonio River, which flows from San Antonio to the Gulf of Mexico; the San Pedro Springs feed into the San Antonio River. The San Antonio Springs are located about three miles north of Downtown San Antonio; the springs are fed by water from the Edwards Aquifer. There have been more than 100 individual springs identified, but many of these are no longer active due to pumping demands on the Edwards Aquifer and sedimentation from the upstream Olmos Creek. During periods of drought, the springs sometimes stop flowing only to resume when water levels rise in the aquifer; the mean flow from the springs is 20 ft³/s. Artifacts from Paleo-Indian cultures have been found at the site of the San Antonio Springs; the earliest Europeans found up to 200 sub-bands of Coahuiltecan Indians in the vicinity of the springs. Spanish missionaries built a system of aqueducts and ditches to carry water from the springs to the local missions, including The Alamo.
By the Civil War, the springs had become contaminated. In the 1880s, artesian wells were drilled to provide clean water for the city. Information from EdwardsAquifer.net South Central Texas Regional Water Plan San Antonio Springs from the Handbook of Texas Online
Tower Life Building
The Tower Life Building is a landmark and historic building in Downtown San Antonio, Texas, USA. Construction of the tower began in 1927 and the building rises 403 feet and has 30 floors; the building, which opened in 1929, was named the Smith-Young Tower and is the central component of a completed development called the Bowen Island Skyscrapers. The eight sided, neo-gothic brick and terra-cotta tower was designed by noted local architectural firm Ayres & Ayres; the building housed San Antonio's first Sears and Company store in its lowest 6 levels. The other completed building in the development is the former Plaza Hotel, which opened in 1927; the property became the local outlet of Hilton Hotels in 1956 and was converted into the Granada Apartments in 1966. Subsequent structures in the development were never built as a direct result of the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. In the 1940s the building was renamed the Transit Tower for the San Antonio Transit Company, which the Smith Brothers purchased in 1943.
In 1953 a television transmission tower was added to the structure. Renovations in 2010 removed the obsolete television mast in favor of the tower's original design, a copper tophouse with a 100 ft tall flagpole; the building is now named for Tower Life Insurance Company. In 1991 the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Tower of the Americas Menger Hotel Emily D. West National Register nomination, Smith Young Tower, prepared by Stephanie Hetos Cocke, 1991. Stephanie Hetos Cocke, "Atlee B. and Robert M. Ayres," Texas Architect, November–December 1989
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Basilica of the National Shrine of the Little Flower
See the National Shrine of the Little Flower Catholic Church in Royal Oak, Michigan. The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Little Flower called Our Lady of Mount Carmel and St. Thérèse Church is a historic Roman Catholic church, located in San Antonio, Texas, USA; the church is distinguished as one of 84 in the United States bearing the papal designation of "minor basilica." Despite its religious importance it is not the cathedral of the local diocese. The Basilica is dedicated to Ste. Thérèse de Lisieux of the Child Jesus, bearing her nickname, "The Little Flower" of Jesus; the cornerstone of her basilica "was solemnly blessed and laid" on October 15, 1929. Its remarkable edifice and accompanying works of religious art are uniquely uncharacteristic of its recent construction; the Basilica is a treasury of art, master craftsmanship, relics. The Discalced Carmelite Friars began serving the surrounding parish community in San Antonio in 1926; the Basilica was thus constructed during the Great Depression and today stands as a monument to the great faith of devotees of St. Thérèse from throughout the United States and the world.
The most treasured work of art at the basilica is a painting of Ste. Thérèse, a gift from the Carmel of Lisieux to the friars of San Antonio in 1927; the saint’s blood sister Céline Martin a nun in the Carmel of Lisieux, created the model for this painting, referred to as the "Apotheosis," at the request of the Vatican during the canonization process for Thérèse, according to the Archives of Carmel in Lisieux. Another artist, Pascal Blanchard, painted several large canvases based on Celine’s model. Céline and another nun, Sr. Marie of the Holy Spirit retouched the face on each copy. One of these paintings was the standard carried in the procession to St. Peter's during the canonization ceremony on May 17, 1925; the Basilica’s painting is one of the several others that were loaned out by the Convent of Lisieux to Carmels in France for the canonization events. The painting was acquired for the friars of San Antonio by Fr. Raymon Gomez, one of the four original friars who arrived in San Antonio in 1926.
He was instrumental in bringing to fruition the friars’ dream of building a National Shrine to be dedicated to the newly canonized St. Thérèse. It’s recorded in Basilica archives that he went to France in 1927 to visit the sisters of St. Therese's Discalced Carmelite Convent in Lisieux to ask for their blessing on the project; the nuns, including St. Thérèse’s sister Pauline, prioress of Lisieux, were delighted with the idea and pledged their support. Along with their blessings, the nuns sent gifts, including autographed books and photos, printed collection cards, relics of all degrees, this beautiful portrait to grace the Shrine upon its opening; the original painting was restored with the support of the Strake Foundation of Houston and reinstalled in a place of honor in the Basilica in 2007. It is 7 ft wide by 10 ft tall, is located in the undercroft of the church. Now that the National Shrine of the Little Flower has joined the ranks of a minor basilica, the church's ecclesiastical throne has become, symbolically, a papal throne.
The throne is original to the Basilica and has been used by various visiting prelates for over 70 years. Most it has been used by the Archbishop and auxiliary bishops of the Archdiocese of San Antonio during special liturgies, such as feast day Masses and ordinations at the Basilica. List of basilicas Official website
HemisFair'68 was the official 1968 World's Fair held in San Antonio, from April 6 through October 6, 1968. The theme of the fair was "The Confluence of Civilizations in the Americas", celebrating the many nations which settled the region; the fair was held in 1968 to coincide with the 250th anniversary of the founding of San Antonio in 1718. More than thirty nations and fifteen corporations hosted pavilions at the fair; the Bureau International des Expositions which oversees World's Fairs and Expositions, awarded HemisFair'68 with official Fair status on November 17, 1965. The theme character of the fair was a dragon named Luther created by Sid and Marty Krofft, renamed and starred in the Kroffts' Saturday morning television show H. R. Pufnstuf; the main premise of the show was taken from their production for the Coca-Cola pavilion at the fair. The venture, which had an announced cost of $156 million, was financed by a combination of public and private funds. Public funding included $12.2 million from the U.
S. Housing and Home Finance Agency for acquiring and clearing the site, $11 million in publicly approved city bonds for construction of the convention center and arena, $5.5 million in general revenues from the City of San Antonio for construction of the Tower of the Americas, $10 million from the State of Texas for the construction of the Texas State Pavilion, $7.5 million from the United States Congress for the construction of the United States pavilion. Although HemisFair'68 attracted 6.3 million visitors and brought international attention to San Antonio and Texas, attendance never matched predictions, the fair lost $7.5 million. The fair was built on a 96.2-acre site on the southeastern edge of Downtown San Antonio. The site was acquired through eminent domain. Many structures in what was considered a blighted area were demolished and moved to make room for the fair; the project was developed with federal urban renewal funds. The San Antonio Conservation Society recommended. Overall, only 24 structures were saved.
In addition, as a part of the overall HemisFair project, the city extended its River Walk one-quarter of a mile into the site in order to link the River Walk and the HemisFair grounds in 1968. In 2001, the River Walk was extended again under the new Convention Center Expansion and is now connected to a small lagoon inside HemisFair Park. HemisFair began on April 6, 1968, with the gates opening at 9:00am and official ceremonies beginning at 10:00am in the new Convention Center Arena. However, with the opening just two days after Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated, VIPs including U. S. First Lady Lady Bird Johnson and Texas Governor John Connally, both of whom received death threats, were escorted around the site under heavy security. National pavilions at the fair included: Canada, Italy, France, Belgium, Republic of China, West Germany, Panama, Switzerland and Venezuela. There were shared pavilions such as a five-nation Central American pavilion, representing Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica and the special pavilions of the Organization of American States, which represented eleven more Latin American countries, including Brazil and Peru.
Corporate pavilions at the fair included: Eastman Kodak, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, General Motors, Humble Oil, IBM, RCA, Southwestern Bell, Frito Lay, Pepsi-Cola, Coca-Cola, American Express, 3M. Other pavilions at the fair included: the LDS Church, the Southern Baptist pavilion, the Women's Pavilion and Project Y. A monorail, named Mini-Monorail, connected pavilions together; the monorail was manufactured by Universal Design Limited and constructed by H. C. P. Enterprises. After HemisFair, much of the land ownership was transferred to the State of Texas and the U. S. Federal Government. Today, the City of San Antonio owns 50 acres of the site, 30 of which the Convention Center occupies. In 1986, many unused remaining structures built for the fair were removed and in celebration of the 20th Anniversary of HemisFair'68 15 acres of the site were redeveloped with cascading waterfalls, fountains and lush landscaping. Many of the improvements were concentrated near the base of the Tower of the Americas.
At the site's re-dedication in April 1988, the site was re-christened "HemisFair Park". This urban park is a gift from the city to its citizens. In 2008 Hyatt Hotels completed construction of the Grand Hyatt San Antonio on the north and eastern sides of the convention center theater built for HemisFair'68, it features guest rooms on the first 24 floors and condos on the last 10, all rooms on the south side have an unobstructed view of HemisFair Park and the Tower of the Americas. As of spring 2013, only a handful of structures built/renovated for the HemisFair remain on the former fairgrounds and are still open to the public. Convention Center Theater - The theater was built as one of a three-building complex during the buildup for HemisFair'68 and leased to San Antonio Fair, Inc. for use during the fair. Sometime after the fair it was renamed in honor of the city's former three-term mayor Lila Cockrell. After decades of limited upgrades, the building received a 26 million dollar renovation in 2010.
Above the windows on the exterior is a mural titled "Confluence of Civili
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was a Spanish explorer of the New World, one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition. During eight years of traveling across the US Southwest, he became a trader and faith healer to various Native American tribes before reconnecting with Spanish civilization in Mexico in 1536. After returning to Spain in 1537, he wrote an account, first published in 1542 as La relación y comentarios, which in editions was retitled Naufragios. Cabeza de Vaca is sometimes considered a proto-anthropologist for his detailed accounts of the many tribes of Native Americans that he encountered. In 1540, Cabeza de Vaca was appointed adelantado of what is now Argentina, where he was governor and captain general of New Andalusia, he worked to build up the population of Buenos Aires, where settlement had declined due to poor administration. Cabeza de Vaca was transported to Spain for trial in 1545. Although his sentence was commuted, he never returned to the Americas, he died in Seville.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was born around 1490 into a hidalgo family, the son of Francisco Núñez de Vera and Teresa Cabeza de Vaca y de Zurita, in the town of Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Spain. Despite the family's status as minor nobility, they possessed modest economic resources. In 16th-century documents, his name appears as "Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca". Álvar Núñez's maternal surname, Cabeza de Vaca was said to be associated with a maternal ancestor, Martín Alhaja. He had shown the Spanish king a secret mountain pass, marked by a cow’s skull, enabling the king to win the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa against the Muslim Moors in 1212; some sources indicate that after his parents died when he was young, the boy Álvar was taken in by relatives. Evidence suggests that he had a moderately comfortable early life, he was appointed chamberlain for the house of a noble family in his teen years participated in the conquest of the Canary Islands where he was appointed a governor. In 1511, he enlisted in the Spanish army, serving in Italy and Navarre.
Cabeza de Vaca was wounded at the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, served as lieutenant in the Italian city of Gaeta, married María Marmolejo, who came from a prominent converso family, supported King Charles during the Revolt of the Comuneros. He became more of a political figure in Spain. In 1527, Núñez joined the Florida expedition of conquistador Pánfilo de Narváez during which he served as treasurer and marshal. In 1527, Pánfilo de Narváez was sent by Spain’s King Charles V to explore the unknown territory which the Spanish called La Florida, including not only present-day Florida but a large, poorly-defined section of what today is the southeastern United States. Cabeza de Vaca was attached to this expedition as the expedition’s treasurer. Records indicate that he had a military role as one of the chief officers on the Narváez expedition, noted as sheriff or marshal. On June 17, 1527, the fleet of five ships set sail towards the province of Pánuco; when they stopped in Hispaniola for supplies, Narváez lost 150 of his men, who chose to stay on the island rather than continue with the expedition.
The expedition continued to Cuba, where Cabeza de Vaca took two ships to recruit more men and buy supplies. Their fleet was battered by a hurricane, resulting in the destruction of both ships and loss of most of Cabeza de Vaca’s men. Narváez arrived days to pick up the survivors. By February 1528, the remaining ships and men resumed their expedition, they anchored near what is now known as the Jungle Prada Site in St. Petersburg, claiming this land as a possession of the Spanish crown. After communicating with the Native Americans, the Spanish heard rumours that a city named Apalachen was full of food and gold. Against the advice of Cabeza de Vaca, Narváez decided to split up his men; some 300 were to go on foot to Apalachen and the other would sail to Pánuco. Apalachen had no gold but had only corn, but the explorers were told a village known as Aute, about 5 or 9 days away, was rich, they harassed by the Native Americans. A few Spanish men were more wounded; when they arrived in Aute, they left.
But the fields had not been harvested, so at least the Spanish scavenged food there. After several months of fighting native inhabitants through wilderness and swamp, the party decided to abandon the interior and try to reach Pánuco. Slaughtering and eating their remaining horses, they gathered the stirrups, spurs and other metal items, they fashioned a bellows from deer hide to make a fire hot enough to forge nails. They used these in making five primitive boats to use to get to Mexico. Cabeza de Vaca commanded one of these vessels. Depleted of food and water, the men followed the coast westward, but when they reached the mouth of the Mississippi River, the powerful current swept them out into the Gulf, where the five rafts were separated by a hurricane. Some lives were lost forever, including that of Narváez. Two crafts with about 40 survivors each, including Cabeza de Vaca, wrecked on or near Galveston Island. Out of the 80 or so survivors, only 15 lived past that winter; the explorers called the Island of Doom.
They tried to repair the rafts, using what remained of their own clothes as o
Antonio de Olivares
Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares or Fray Antonio de Olivares was a Spanish Franciscan who officiated at the first Catholic Mass celebrated in Texas, he was known for contributing to the founding of San Antonio and to the prior exploration of the area. He founded, among other missions, the famous Alamo Mission in San Antonio, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the Acequia Madre de Valero. Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares was born in Moguer, Spain, in 1630 and studied at the Franciscan convent of San Francisco de Moguer. In 1665, at the age of thirty-five years old, he went on a religious expedition to the Americas, along with 19 other religious. Once in Americas, in the Convent of Querétaro, he received the training he needed to engage with the natives, in their work of evangelization, it was this monastery from which they went on various expeditions in Texas, since this was a strategically important place for the crown. In 1675 Fray Antonio de Olivares, Fray Francisco Hidalgo, Fray Juan Larios and Fernando del Bosque were sent to explore the region beyond the Rio Grande, to assess the possibility for new settlements in the area.
On January 1, 1699, Olivares was chosen to go along with Marcos de Guereña of the College of Santa Cruz de Querétaro to work in northern Coahuila, in present-day Mexico. There in San Juan Bautista, located in those times on the Río de Sabinas, the priests joined Father Francisco Hidalgo and on January 1, 1700, participated in the founding of Mission San Juan Bautista, located in the present Guerrero, Coahuila. On March 1, 1700, Olivares founded in the valley of the Circumcision the mission of San Bernardo and Mission San Francisco Solano, 5 miles from the Rio Grande in Coahuila, Mexico. Today's municipality of Guerrero is the approximate location of the mission. In 1706 he was appointed guardian of the College of Santa Cruz de Querétaro, where he remained three years. In 1709, he participated in the expedition headed by Pedro de Aguirre. Together with Fray Isidro de Espinosa, they explored the territory from the modern-day city of San Antonio to the Colorado River; the same year he traveled to Spain to convince the authorities of the importance of maintaining and establishing new missions on the banks of the San Antonio River, in present San Antonio.
He remained in Spain six years. In 1716, Fray Antonio wrote to the Viceroy of New Spain, Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán, telling him their hopes and plans for the future mission, urged him to send families of settlers to found a town. In the same letter he stressed that it was necessary that some of these families be skilled in the useful arts and industries, "to teach the Indians all that should be required to be useful and capable citizens." The perseverance of Fray Antonio was answered, as the Viceroyalty gave formal approval for the mission in late 1716, assigning responsibility for its establishment to Martín de Alarcón, the governor of Coahuila y Tejas. Fray Antonio de Olivares organized the founding of the new mission from the adjacent Mission San Francisco Solano meeting with the Indians of the area in his travels earning their love and respect, he remained at the site of the mission for some time, organizing everything with the Indians, they constructed a straw structure with branches and mud near the head of the San Antonio River.
This mission was called San Antonio de Valero, a name derived from "San Antonio de Padua" and Viceroy of New Spain, Marquess of Valero. The mission was located near a community of Coahuiltecan and was inhabited by about four indigenous tribes people converted from Mission San Francisco Solano, his work was suspended for some time from an accident he had while crossing a bridge. The foot of the animal he was riding slipped into a hole, causing him to fall violently to the ground and break his leg; when he could walk again, the mission had changed its location to the west bank of the river, where floods were less likely. On orders of his religious order, Fray Antonio de Olivares transferred the Mission San Francisco Solano to the new mission of San Antonio de Valero, he built the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, on the west side of the San Antonio River 1 mile from the mission. It was designed to protect the system of missions and civilian settlements in central Texas and to ensure the ascendency of Spain in the region against the aggression of the French and Americans.
The presidium consisted of an adobe building, thatched with grass, with soldiers quartered in brush huts. Settlers concentrated around the complex and mission began to form the town of Bexar; as the bulwark of Spanish Texas, located in the center of several operating missions, Bejar escaped the anxieties of other settlements. Resisting occasional Indian attacks, it became the main unit of walled defense; the operational complex was completed with the construction of the first canal in Texas, 6 miles long, built to irrigate 400 hectares and supply of the inhabitants of the new facilities. It was vital to the missions to be able to divert and control water from the San Antonio River, in order to grow crops and to supply water to the people in the area; this particular aqueduct was the beginning of a much wider water system. Acequia Madre de Valero ran from the area known as Brackenridge Park southward to what is now Hemisfair Plaza and South Alamo Street. Part of it, not viewable by the public runs beneath the Menger Hotel.
The aqueduct was restored in 1968 and that year was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark. Fray Antonio de Olivares was aided by Payaya Indians to build the bridge that connected the Misión de San Antonio de Valero and Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the Acequia Madre de Valero. On May