Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Fogliano Redipuglia is a comune in the Province of Gorizia in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 35 kilometres northwest of Trieste and about 13 kilometres southwest of Gorizia. Fogliano Redipuglia borders the following municipalities: Doberdò del Lago, Gradisca d'Isonzo, Ronchi dei Legionari, San Pier d'Isonzo, Villesse. Fogliano Redipuglia lies at the eastern end of the shifting front of the Italian Campaign against Austria-Hungary in World War I, today is home to Italy's largest war memorial on Monte Sei Busi in Redipuglia; the campaign overall featured the dozen or so Battles of the Isonzo including a number in this area but the Battle of Caporetto, a heavy defeat for the Italians with 11,000 killed, 20,000 wounded and 265,000 captured. As points of interest, famed World War II German officer Erwin Rommel fought in this battle as a junior officer, American author Ernest Hemingway drove an ambulance for the Italian Army. After Caporetto, the Austria-Hungarian advance was forced to stop anyway due to lack of supplies, after a year the Italians were able to reinforce and regain this territory by destroying the Austro-Hungarian Army in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which defeat led to the final end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The huge war memorial from 1938 contains the corpses of 39,857 identified Italian soldiers, 69,330 unidentified. In a nearby cemetery are buried another around 14,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers. Trench fortifications can be seen next to the war memorial, as well as a display of large World War I artillery pieces. Pope Francis visited Redipuglia's military memorial on 13 September 2014 to mark the centenary of World War I to pray for those who died in all wars. Virtual tour of the monument with 360° surround photography -
Ronchi dei Legionari
Ronchi dei Legionari is a comune in the Province of Gorizia in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, about 14 km southwest of Gorizia and 30 km northwest of Trieste. It is the location of Trieste – Friuli Venezia Giulia Airport, the major commercial airport serving the region. According to the Italian census of 1971, 4% of the population was of Slovene ethnicity. Air Dolomiti's executive headquarters were in Ronchi dei Legionari, while the airline's registered office was in Dossobuono, Villafranca di Verona. Wagna, Austria Metlika, Slovenia Official website
Friuli–Venezia Giulia is one of the 20 regions of Italy, one of five autonomous regions with special statute. The regional capital is Trieste; the city of Venice is not despite the name. Friuli–Venezia Giulia has an area of 7,924 km2 and about 1.2 million inhabitants. A natural opening to the sea for many Central European countries, the region is traversed by the major transport routes between the east and west of southern Europe, it encompasses the historical-geographical region of Friuli and a small portion of the historical region of Venezia Giulia – known in English as the Julian March – each with its own distinct history and identity. The name of the region was spelled Friuli–Venezia Giulia until 2001, when, in connection with a modification of article nr. 116 of the Italian constitution, the official spelling Friuli Venezia Giulia was adopted. The term "Venezia Giulia" was coined by Graziadio Isaia Ascoli. Names in other regional languages include Friulian: Friûl-Vignesie Julie. Friuli–Venezia Giulia is Italy's north-easternmost region.
It is the fifth smallest region of the country. It borders Austria to Slovenia to the east. To the south it faces the Adriatic Sea and to the west its internal border is with the Veneto region; the region spans a wide variety of climates and landscapes from the mild Oceanic in the south to Alpine continental in the north. The total area is subdivided into a 42.5% mountainous-alpine terrain in the north, 19.3% is hilly to the south-east, while the remaining 38.2% comprises the central and coastal plains. Morphologically the region can be subdivided into four main areas; the mountainous area in the north: this part of the region includes Carnia and the ending section of the Alps, of which the highest peaks exceed 2,700 m above sea level. Its landscapes are characterised by vast pine forests and pastures, mountain lakes and numerous streams and small rivers descending from the mountains; the area is known for its tourist destinations during the winter season. The hilly area, situated to the south of the mountains and along the central section of the border with Slovenia.
The main product of agriculture in this area is wine, whose quality the white, is known worldwide. The easternmost part of the hilly area is known as Slavia Friulana, as it is inhabited by ethnic Slovenes; the central plains are characterised by poor and permeable soil. The soil has been made fertile with an extensive irrigation system and through the adoption of modern intensive farming techniques. In this part of the region most of the agricultural activities are concentrated; the coastal area can be further subdivided in two, western-eastern, subsections separated by the river Isonzo's estuary. To the west, the coast is shallow and sandy, with numerous tourist resorts and the lagoons of Grado and Marano Lagunare. To the east, the coastline rises into cliffs, where the Kras plateau meets the Adriatic, all the way to Trieste and Muggia on the border with Slovenia; the Carso has geological features and phenomena such as hollows, cave networks and underground rivers, which extend inland in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia, with an altitude ranging between 300m and 600m.
The rivers of the region flow from Slovenia into the Adriatic. The two main rivers are the Tagliamento, which flows west-east in its upper part in the Carnic Alps and bends into a north-south flow that separates the Julian Alps from Alpine foothills and the Isonzo which flows from Slovenia into Italy; the Timavo is an underground river that flows for 38 km from Slovenia and resurfaces near its mouth north-west of Duino. The region Friuli–Venezia Giulia has a temperate climate. However, due to the terrain's diversity, it varies from one area to another. Walled by the Alps on its northern flank, the region is exposed to air masses from the East and the West; the region receives the southerly Sirocco from the Adriatic sea, which brings in heavy rainfall. Along the coast the climate is pleasant. Trieste records the smallest temperature differences between winter and summer and between day and night; the climate is Alpine-continental in the mountainous areas, where, in some locations, the coldest winter temperatures in Italy can be found.
The Kras plateau has its own weather and climate, influenced during autumn and winter, by masses of cold air coming from the north-east. These generate a special feature of the local climate: the north-easterly wind Bora, which descends onto the Gulf of Trieste with gusts exceeding speeds of 150 km/h. In Roman times, modern Friuli–Venezia Giulia was located within Regio X Venetia et Histria of Roman Italy; the traces of its Roman origin are visible over all the territory. In fact, the city of Aquileia, founded in 181 BC, served as capital of the region and rose to prominence in the Augustan period. Starting from the Lombard settlements, the historical paths of Friuli and Venezia Giulia begin to diverge. In 568, Cividale del Friuli became the capital of the first Lombard dukedom in Italy. In 774, the Franks, favoured the growth of the church of Aquileia and established Cividale as a March. In 1077, Patriarchate of Aquileia was given temporal power by the Holy Roman Emperors and this power was extended temporarily even
Cormons is a comune in the Province of Gorizia in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 45 kilometres northwest of Trieste and about 12 kilometres west of Gorizia, on the border with Slovenia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 7,639 and an area of 34.6 square kilometres. The municipality of Cormons contains the frazioni Angoris, Brazzano, San Rocco di Brazzano, Castelletto, Povia, Fornaci and Monticello di Cormons. Cormons borders the following municipalities: Brda, Capriva del Friuli, Chiopris-Viscone, Corno di Rosazzo, Dolegna del Collio, Mariano del Friuli, Moraro, San Floriano del Collio, San Giovanni al Natisone. According to the Italian census of 1971, 4,4% of the population was of Slovene ethnicity. Denis Godeas Sergio Marcon Valentino Pittoni Peter Cormons Stephan Villavicencio Marco Gribaudo - Guitar Player, Doobies & Cheesecake Cormons railway station is served by trains to Trieste, Udine and Venice. Media related to Cormons at Wikimedia Commons Cormons official website Cormons live streaming webcam
Medea, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Medea is a comune in the Province of Gorizia in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 45 kilometres northwest of Trieste and about 15 kilometres west of Gorizia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 918 and an area of 7.3 square kilometres. The municipality of Medea contains the frazioni Ara Pacis, Monte di Medea, Sant’Antonio. Medea borders the following municipalities: Chiopris-Viscone, Mariano del Friuli, Romans d'Isonzo, San Vito al Torre
Doberdò del Lago
Doberdò del Lago is a comune in the Province of Gorizia in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 30 kilometres northwest of Trieste and about 11 kilometres southwest of Gorizia, borders the following municipalities: Duino-Aurisina, Fogliano Redipuglia, Miren-Kostanjevica, Ronchi dei Legionari and Savogna d'Isonzo. It is located in the westernmost part of the Karst Plateau, it is inhabited by Slovenes. Before World War One, Slovene-speakers comprised the totality of the population. In the 1971 census, 96% of the inhabitants were Slovene-speaking. Since the number of Slovenes has fallen due to the increased immigration of Italian speakers from neighboring towns of Monfalcone and Ronchi dei Legionari. Today, an estimated 86% of the inhabitants belong to the Slovene ethnic minority. Doberdò localities include Devetachi, Jamiano and Visintini. Doberdò is the only municipality in the Province of Gorizia that lies on the Karst Plateau; as a consequence, the municipality area contains about two hundred caves, in particular Abisso Bonetti and Grotta dell'Artiglieria.
The Doberdò area has a crucial strategic position. A wide and flat canyon runs right through the middle of the municipality from north to south, connecting the Vipava Valley to the Adriatic sea; the canyon is called Dol. The main road between Gorizia and Trieste runs through this canyon, the most direct connection between the Goriška region and the seaside. At its southern edge, the Dol Canyon widens into a typical karst polje, dominated by Lake Doberdò; the village of Doberdò is located west of Dol Canyon, on an elevated section of the Carso Plateau known as the Doberdò Karst. On the east side of the Dol Canyon rises the plateau known as the Trieste and Komen Karst, which continues eastward and southward into neighboring Slovenia. Dol Canyon ends in the narrow Timavo Valley, located in the neighboring municipality of Duino. See also: Gorizia and Gradisca, Italian Front, Julian March, Operational Zone Adriatic Coast The Slavic ancestors of the present-day Slovenes settled the Karst Plateau in the 7th century AD.
In the Middle Ages, the village belonged to the Lombard kingdom, the Frankish Kingdom, to the Patriarchate of Aquileia, to the Counts of Gorizia which acquired it in the 15th century. The village was first mentioned in 1179 as Dobradan; this was as misspelling of the Slovene name Doberdob. Together with the rest of the County of Gorizia, Doberdob came under Habsburg rule in 1500, remained part of the Habsburg Monarchy until 1918, when it was occupied and annexed to Italy; the whole area was the scene of fierce fighting between the Austro-Hungarian and the Italian Armies during World War I. The village was destroyed during the Battles of the Isonzo. More than a fifth of the population lost their lives as a consequence of the war. Between 1922 and 1943, Doberdob was subjected to a policy of violent Fascist Italianization. During this period, the village was part of the Province of Trieste. During World War II, the Communist-lead Liberation Front of the Slovenian People organized anti-Fascist resistance in the area starting from late 1942.
Many locals died in the Yugoslav partisan units. The village was liberated by the Yugoslav People's Army on 1 May 1945; the Yugoslavs withdrew in June of the same year, were replaced by the Anglo-American Military administration. In September 1947, the village was reincorporated into Italy, was included in the Province of Gorizia. Between the mid 1950s and the late 1980s, Doberdob was one of the electoral strongholds of the Italian Communist Party, although a significant proportion of the electorate supported the Slovene Union, the democratic party of the Slovenes in Italy. Since the 1990s, the vast majority of the population has supported one of the left-wing political parties; the village has a state-run preschool, elementary school, high school, all of them with Slovene as the language of instruction. The elementary school is named after the Slovenian writer Prežihov Voranc, while the high school is named after Ivan Trinko, a Slovene bishop and minority rights activist from Friulian Slovenia.
Most locals speak the Karst dialect of Slovene. There are many civic associations in the municipality. During World War I, the village was the scene of the Battle of Doberdò. Since many Slovene soldiers fought in the battle as soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian Army. A popular war song Doberdob with the verse "Doberdob, slovenskih fantov grob", made the name of the village known all across the Slovene Lands. In 1940, the Slovene writer Prežihov Voranc chose the name of the village as the title for one of his best-known novels, Doberdob. With this novel, Doberdò became the central symbolic place of the Slovene victims in World War I. Doberdò is a symbolic place for the Hungarians, since many of them died in the battle fighting in the Austro-Hungarian Army. In Hungary, there is a popular war song with the name reminiscent of the battle. In May 2009, a chapel commemorating the Hungarian victims of the Battles of the Isonzo was inaugurated in the hamlet of Visintini with a trilingual, Italian-Hungarian-Slovene inscription.
Notable people that were born or lived in Doberdò del Lago include: Milko Brezigar and Yugoslav liberal economist Josip Ferfolja, Slovene lawyer and Social Democratic po