The giant panda known as panda bear or panda, is a bear native to south central China. It is recognized by the large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, over the ears, across its round body; the name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the unrelated red panda. Though it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda's diet is over 99% bamboo. Giant pandas in the wild will eat other grasses, wild tubers, or meat in the form of birds, rodents, or carrion. In captivity, they may receive honey, fish, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food; the giant panda lives in a few mountain ranges in central China in Sichuan, but in neighbouring Shaanxi and Gansu. As a result of farming and other development, the giant panda has been driven out of the lowland areas where it once lived; the giant panda is a conservation-reliant vulnerable species. A 2007 report showed 239 pandas living in another 27 outside the country; as of December 2014, 49 giant pandas lived in captivity outside China, living in 18 zoos in 13 different countries.
Wild population estimates vary. Some reports show that the number of giant pandas in the wild is on the rise. In March 2015, conservation news site Mongabay stated that the wild giant panda population had increased by 268, or 16.8%, to 1,864. In 2016, the IUCN reclassified the species from "endangered" to "vulnerable". While the dragon has served as China's national symbol, internationally the giant panda has filled this role; as such, it is becoming used within China in international contexts, for example, appearing since 1982 on gold panda bullion coins and as one of the five Fuwa mascots of the Beijing Olympics. For many decades, the precise taxonomic classification of the giant panda was under debate because it shares characteristics with both bears and raccoons. However, molecular studies indicate the giant panda is part of the family Ursidae; these studies show. The giant panda has been referred to as a living fossil. Despite the shared name, habitat type, diet, as well as a unique enlarged bone called the pseudo thumb the giant panda and red panda are only distantly related.
The word panda was borrowed into English from French, but no conclusive explanation of the origin of the French word panda has been found. The closest candidate is the Nepali word ponya referring to the adapted wrist bone of the red panda, native to Nepal; the Western world applied this name to the red panda. In many older sources, the name "panda" or "common panda" refers to the lesser-known red panda, thus necessitating the inclusion of "giant" and "lesser/red" prefixes in front of the names. In 2013, the Encyclopædia Britannica still used "giant panda" or "panda bear" for the bear, "panda" for the red panda, despite the popular usage of the word "panda" to refer to giant pandas. Since the earliest collection of Chinese writings, the Chinese language has given the bear 20 different names, such as huāxióng and zhúxióng; the most popular names in China today is dàxióngmāo, or xióngmāo. The name xióngmāo was used to describe the red panda, but since the giant panda was thought to be related to the red panda, dàxióngmāo was named relatively.
In Taiwan, another popular name for panda is the inverted dàmāoxióng, though many encyclopediae and dictionaries in Taiwan still use the "bear cat" form as the correct name. Some linguists argue, in this construction, "bear" instead of "cat" is the base noun, making this name more grammatically and logically correct, which may have led to the popular choice despite official writings; this name did not gain its popularity until 1988, when a private zoo in Tainan painted a sun bear black and white and created the Tainan fake panda incident. Two subspecies of giant panda have been recognized on the basis of distinct cranial measurements, colour patterns, population genetics; the nominate subspecies Ailuropoda m. melanoleuca consists of most extant populations of panda. These animals are principally found in Sichuan and display the typical stark black and white contrasting colours; the Qinling panda, A. m. qinlingensis is restricted to the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi at elevations of 1,300–3,000 m.
The typical black and white pattern of Sichuan giant pandas is replaced with a dark brown versus light brown pattern. The skull of A. m. qinlingensis is smaller than its relatives, it has larger molars. A detailed study of the giant panda's genetic history from 2012 confirms that the separation of the Qinlin population occurred about 300,000 years ago, reveals that the non-Qinlin population further diverged into two groups, named the Minshan and the Qionglai-Daxiangling-Xiaoxiangling-Liangshan group about 2,800 years ago; the giant panda has luxuriant black-and-white fur. Adults measure around 1.2 to 1.9 m long, including a tail of about 10–15 cm, 60 to 90 cm tall at the shoulder. Males can weigh up to 160 kg. Females can weigh as little as 70 kg, but can weigh up t
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education. The exact ages vary by country. In the United States, elementary schools have 6 grades with pupils aged between 6 and 13 years old, but the age can be up to 10 or 14 years old as well. In Japan, the age of pupils in elementary school ranges from 6 to 12, after which the pupils enter junior high school. Elementary school is only one part of compulsory education in Western countries. Elementary school were first established in 1870. Most of these schools were converted into Primary schools during the late 1940s. Elementary school: were first promoted in 1647 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Today, there are approximately 92,858 elementary schools Elementary schools in Japan were first established by 1875. National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics Educational stage Primary school Grammar school Virtual reality in primary education
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
Bruce Almighty is a 2003 American fantasy comedy film directed by Tom Shadyac and written by Steve Koren, Mark O'Keefe and Steve Oedekerk. The film stars Jim Carrey as Bruce Nolan, a down-on-his-luck TV reporter who complains to God that he is not doing his job and is offered the chance to try being God himself for one week; the film is Shadyac and Carrey's third collaboration, having worked together on Ace Ventura: Pet Detective in 1994 and Liar Liar in 1997. It co-stars Jennifer Aniston, Lisa Ann Walter, Philip Baker Hall and Steve Carell, received mixed reviews from critics; when released in American theaters in May 2003, Bruce Almighty opened to $85.9 million, making it the top Memorial Day opening weekend of any film in history at the time. The film surprised film pundits. By the end of its theatrical run, it made $242 million domestically and a total $484 million worldwide, making it the fifth highest-grossing film of 2003. Evan Almighty, a spin-off sequel focusing on Carell's character, with Shadyac and Oedekerk returning to direct and write, Freeman reprising his role, was released in 2007.
Bruce Nolan is a television field reporter for Eyewitness News at WKBW-TV in Buffalo, New York, but he desires to be the news anchorman instead. Bruce is in a relationship with his girlfriend, Grace Connelly, but he has a mild crush on his co-worker, Susan Ortega. However, Bruce suffers from constant bad luck and reaches his breaking point when he is passed over for the promotion by his rival, Evan Baxter, who plagiarizes his dialogue from an unaired segment by Bruce while he was accepting the promotion on air; this causes Bruce himself to aggressively and insanely criticize the station during his first live report at Niagara Falls, he is promptly fired. Following a series of other misfortunes including an altercation with a street gang while attempting to help a homeless man, Bruce takes out his frustration on God, blaming Him and claiming that He is "the one who should be fired." Bruce receives persistent messages on his pager which he tries to ignore before he listens and follows it to a deserted warehouse, where he meets God, who offers to give him his job to see if Bruce can do it better.
God gives Bruce two rules that he must follow: Bruce cannot tell anyone else that he is God, Bruce cannot use his powers to interfere with free will. Skeptical until discovering his powers in a local diner, Bruce soon becomes jubilant with the powers, using them for personal gain such as getting revenge on the street gang that assaulted him earlier. Bruce finds ways of using the powers to cause miraculous events to occur at otherwise mundane events that he covers, earning him his job back. Still wanting the anchor position as well as wanting to get revenge on Evan for taunting him, Bruce uses his powers to make Evan humiliate himself on air, causing Evan to be replaced in favor of Bruce as the new anchor. After taking Grace to a fancy dinner and telling her about his promotion, Bruce begins to hear voices in his head, he re-encounters God, who explains that the voices are prayers to God, that Bruce must deal with them. Bruce creates an e-mail system to receive prayers and respond to them - but finds that the influx is far too great for him to handle with the use of his powers.
So he sets the program to automatically answer "Yes" to every prayer, thinking this will make everyone happy. During a party to celebrate Bruce's promotion, Susan kisses him; when Grace arrives and sees this, she angrily storms out. He can not influence her free will; as Bruce looks around, he realizes that automatically granting everyone's prayers has plunged the world into chaos. Bruce returns to God, who explains that despite how chaotic things seem, there is always a way to make things right, that Bruce must figure out a way to solve it himself. Bruce begins to solve his problems in life including allowing Evan to have his job back. Bruce returns to his computer system, having unplugged it, he finds many prayers from Grace about him; as he reads them, another prayer from Grace arrives, this one wishing not to be in love with Bruce anymore. A despondent Bruce walks alone on a highway, asking God to take back his powers and letting his fate be in His hands. Bruce is struck by a truck and regains consciousness in a white void.
God appears and tells Bruce to pray for what he wants. God agrees, Bruce awakens in the hospital, shortly after being miraculously revived by his doctors. Grace arrives and she and Bruce reconcile. After his recovery, Bruce returns to his field of reporting, now taking more pleasure in simple news stories. Bruce and Grace announce their engagement on live television; the homeless man from earlier, holding a sign with philosophical messages that Bruce had run into on previous occasions reveals himself to be God. Bruce Almighty received mixed reviews from critics; the film has a score of 49% on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 188 reviews, with an average rating of 5.7/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Carrey is hilarious in the slapstick scenes, but Bruce Almighty gets bogged down in treacle"; the film has a score of 46 out of 100 on Metacritic, based on 35 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". The film was released in the United Kingdom on June 27, 2003, topped the country's box office that weekend.
The film was ban
Liar Liar is a 1997 American fantasy comedy film directed by Tom Shadyac, written by Paul Guay and Stephen Mazur and starring Jim Carrey, nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in Comedy. The film is the second of three collaborations between Carrey and Shadyac, the first being Ace Ventura: Pet Detective and the third being Bruce Almighty, it is the second of three collaborations between Guay and Mazur, the others being The Little Rascals and Heartbreakers. It has been unofficially remade in Bollywood as Kyo Kii... Main Jhuth Nahin Bolta. In Los Angeles, career-focused lawyer Fletcher Reede loves his son Max, but the constant lying he engages in for his career cause problems between them and with his ex-wife Audrey, who has become involved with another man named Jerry. In court, Fletcher is willing to exaggerate the stories of his clients, his current client, the self-centered, money-grabbing Samantha Cole has garnered the attention of Mr. Allen, a partner at the law firm in which Fletcher works.
If Fletcher wins this case, it will boost his career. Fletcher calls and lies to Audrey about missing Max's birthday due to work, when he is having sex with his boss, Miranda, in order to get a promotion. Dejected, Max makes; the wish comes true, Fletcher unwittingly tells Miranda he has "had better" sex, which leads to her throwing him out of the office. The following day, Fletcher realizes that he is unable to do anything dishonest, he cannot lie to people or mislead by withholding a true answer, uncontrollably blurts out vulgar and painful truths that anger his co-workers, which includes him getting slapped across the face by a lady inside the elevator, after he accidentally makes a vulgar statement about her breasts. His Mercedes SL500 convertible is impounded after he admits his many moving violations and unpaid parking tickets to a police officer; this comes to a head when he realizes that he is unable to ask questions when he knows the answer will be a lie, which hinders them as Samantha and her affair partner Kenneth Falk are willing to commit perjury to win the high-profile case and he cannot ask him the questions they have been given answers for.
Realizing that Max had wished for this to happen, Fletcher tries to convince him that adults need to lie, but he cannot give any type of answer as to why he should continue to lie to his son. Fletcher figures out that since Max wished for him to tell the truth for only one day, he tries to do what he can to delay Samantha's case since the magic wish will expire at 8:15 p.m. 24 hours after Max made the wish. Things only get worse for Fletcher as he loses his loyal assistant Greta after admitting he had lied about the miserly reasons for denying her pay raises and the "expensive" gifts he gave her, Audrey tells Fletcher that she and Max are moving to Boston with Jerry in order to prevent any more heartbreaks from Fletcher's broken promises. Fletcher's erratic behavior in court leads to several questions of his sanity as he objects to himself and badgers and provokes his own witnesses into admitting they had an affair against Samantha and her husband's prenuptial agreement, he goes so far as to beat himself up in a bathroom and claim that someone attacked him in order to try and avoid the case, but when asked if he feels like he can continue, he cannot deny it and says yes.
During the case, Fletcher finds a technicality that Samantha lied about her age and was under 18 when she signed the prenup prior to her marriage, rendering it void and entitling her to half of Mr. Cole's estate, allowing him to win the case truthfully. However, when Samantha decides to contest full custody of their children, who Mr. Cole dearly loves, just because she wants more money from the child support payments, Fletcher regrets mentioning the technicality after seeing Samantha pull the children out of their father's arms, telling him that he needs to "pay for them." Realizing now that winning the case has punished the kind, loving husband and rewarded the abusive, gold-digging wife, Fletcher has a crisis of conscience and tries to reverse the decision, but he talks back to the judge and words his demand the wrong way, resulting in the judge having him arrested for contempt of court. He calls Audrey from the prison's phone and begs her to bail him out and give him another chance, but she hangs up on him.
Greta bails Fletcher from jail revealing she has forgiven him. Wanting to improve his relationship with his son as a more honest man, he rushes to the airport to stop Audrey and Max from leaving forever, he misses their flight, but sneaks onto the tarmac by hiding in a piece of luggage, steals a motorized staircase, manages to gain the pilot's attention by throwing his shoe at the cockpit window, forcing him to abort the flight. However, Fletcher's victory is cut short when he crashes into a barrier and is sent flying into a baggage tug, which causes a chain reaction that leaves Fletcher unconscious and with both of his legs broken. After waking up, he tells Max how much he cares about him and how sorry he was for breaking his promises. Despite no longer being under the wish's influence, Fletcher means what he says and adds that Max is his priority, Max convinces Audrey to stay in Los Angeles. One year Fletcher is healed and is running his own law firm with Greta as his continued assistant. Max makes a wish with his birthday cake and the lights come on to reveal Fletcher and Audrey kissing, but explains he wished for rollerblades instead of them reconciling.
Fletcher clutches his hands into "The Claw"—a game he likes to play with Max by
Mad Men is an American period drama television series created by Matthew Weiner and produced by Lionsgate Television. The series premiered on July 19, 2007, on the cable network AMC. After seven seasons and 92 episodes, Mad Men's final episode aired on May 17, 2015. Mad Men is set in the 1960s–initially at the fictional Sterling Cooper advertising agency on Madison Avenue in New York City. According to the pilot episode, the phrase "Mad men" was a slang term coined in the 1950s by advertisers working on Madison Avenue to refer to themselves, a claim that has since been disputed; the plot focuses on the business of the agencies as well as the personal lives of the characters depicting the changing moods and social mores of the United States in the 1960s. The series ends November 1970 with the conclusion of season seven. Don Draper is the focus in the series as the talented creative director at Sterling Cooper and a founding partner at Sterling Cooper Draper Pryce, as are the people in his personal and professional lives.
Mad Men won critical acclaim for its writing, directing, visual style and historical authenticity. The show was the first basic cable series to receive the Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series, winning in each of its first four seasons, it is regarded as one of the greatest television series of all-time. In 2000, while working as a staff writer for Becker, Matthew Weiner wrote the first draft as a spec script for the pilot of what would be called Mad Men. Television producer David Chase recruited Weiner to work as a writer on his HBO series The Sopranos after reading the pilot script in 2002. "It was lively, it had something new to say," Chase said. "Here was someone who had written a story about advertising in the 1960s, was looking at recent American history through that prism."Weiner and his representatives at Industry Entertainment and ICM tried to sell the pilot script to HBO, which expressed an interest, but insisted that David Chase be named executive producer which Chase declined, despite his enthusiasm for Weiner's writing and the pilot script.
HBO CEO Richard Plepler, who became a fan of the show and congratulated AMC on their success with it named passing on Mad Men as his biggest regret from his time at HBO, calling it "inexcusable" and attributing their doing so to "hubris". Weiner moved on to Showtime, which passed. Lacking a suitable network buyer, they tabled sales efforts until years when a talent manager on Weiner's team, Ira Liss, pitched the series to AMC's Vice President of Development, Christina Wayne; the Sopranos was completing its final season and the cable network happened to be getting into the market for new series programming. "The network was looking for distinction in launching its first original series," according to AMC Networks president Ed Carroll, "and we took a bet that quality would win out over formulaic mass appeal." Weiner listed Alfred Hitchcock as a major influence on the visual style of the series the film North by Northwest. He was influenced by director Wong Kar-wai in the music, mise en scène, editorial style.
Weiner noted in an interview that M*A*S*H and Happy Days, two television shows produced in the 1970s about the 1950s, provided a "touchstone for culture" and a way to "remind people that they have a misconception about the past, any past." He said that "Mad Men would have been some sort of crisp, soapy version of The West Wing if not for The Sopranos." Peggy's "psychic scar for the entire show, after giving away that baby", Weiner said, is "the kind of thing that would have never occurred to me before I was on The Sopranos". Tim Hunter, the director of a half-dozen episodes from the show's first two seasons, called Mad Men a "very well-run show", he said: They have a lot of production meetings during pre-production. The day the script comes in we all meet for a first page turn, Matt starts telling us how he envisions it. There's a "tone" meeting a few days where Matt tells us how he envisions it, and there's a final full crew production meeting where Matt again tells us how he envisions it...
The pilot episode was shot at Silvercup Studios in New York City and various locations around the city. It is available in high definition for showing on AMC HD and on video-on-demand services available from various cable affiliates; the writers, including Weiner, amassed volumes of research on the period in which Mad Men takes place so as to make most aspects of the series—including detailed set design, costume design, props—historically accurate, producing an authentic visual style that garnered critical praise. On the scenes featuring smoking, Weiner stated: "Doing this show without smoking would've been a joke, it would've been sanitary and it would've been phony." Each episode had a budget between US$2–2.5 million. Robert Morse was cast in the role of senior partner Bertram Cooper. Weiner collaborated with cinematographer Phil Abraham and production designers Robert Shaw and Dan Bis