Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
The Basilica is within Italian territory and not the territory of the Vatican City State. James Michael Harvey was named Archpriest of the Basilica in 2012, in the 5th century it was larger than the Old St. Peters Basilica. The Christian poet Prudentius, who saw it at the time of emperor Honorius, under Pope St. Gregory the Great the Basilica was extensively modified. The pavement was raised to place the altar directly over St. Pauls tomb, a confession permitted access to the Apostles sepulcher. In that period there were two monasteries near the Basilica, St. Aristuss for men and St. Stefanos for women, masses were celebrated by a special body of clerics instituted by Pope Simplicius. Over time the monasteries and the Basilicas clergy declined, Pope St. Gregory II restored the former, as it lay outside the Aurelian Walls, the Basilica was damaged in the 9th century during a Saracen raid. In 937, when Saint Odo of Cluny came to Rome, Alberic II of Spoleto, Patrician of Rome, entrusted the monastery and basilica to his congregation, Pope Martin V entrusted it to the monks of the Congregation of Monte Cassino.
It was made an abbey nullius, the abbots jurisdiction extended over the districts of Civitella San Paolo and Nazzano, all of which formed parishes. But the parish of San Paolo in Rome is under the jurisdiction of the cardinal vicar, the graceful cloister of the monastery was erected between 1220 and 1241. From 1215 until 1964 it was the seat of the Latin Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Leo XII issued a document Ad plurimas encouraging donations for reconstruction. It was re-opened in 1840, and reconsecrated in 1855 with the presence of Pope Pius IX, the complete decoration and reconstruction, in charge of Luigi Poletti, took longer and many countries made their contributions. The Viceroy of Egypt sent pillars of alabaster, the Emperor of Russia the precious malachite, the work on the principal façade, looking toward the Tiber, was completed by the Italian Government, which declared the church a national monument. On 23 April 1891 the explosion of the magazine at Forte Portuense destroyed the stained glass windows.
On 31 May 2005 Pope Benedict XVI ordered the Basilica to come under the control of an Archpriest, the covered portico that precedes the façade is a Neo-classicist addition of the 19th-century reconstruction. The 20th-century door includes the remains of the leaves from the portal, executed by Staurachius of Chios around 1070 in Constantinople, with scenes from the New. On the right is the Holy Door, which is opened only during the Jubilees, the new basilica has maintained the original structure with one nave and four aisles. It is 131.66 metres long,65 metres -wide, and 29.70 metres -high, the naves 80 columns and its stucco-decorated ceiling are from the 19th century. All that remains of the ancient basilica are the portion of the apse with the triumphal arch
Sant'Andrea delle Fratte
SantAndrea delle Fratte is a 17th-century basilica church in Rome, dedicated to St. Andrew. The Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Andreae Apostoli de Hortis is Ennio Antonelli. The current church was built over a one, erected in 1192. The church originally belonged to Augustinian nuns and it became the national church of the Scottish people in Rome, until Scotland became Protestant, when in 1585 Pope Sixtus V assigned it to the Minim friars of Saint Francis of Paola. The Scots College, the seminary for young men studying for the priesthood, was located nearby, on the Via del Tritone, until 1604, in 1942 Pope Pius XII elevated the church to a minor basilica. In 1604 the construction of the new church was begun, to the design of Gaspare Guerra. The project, halted eight years later, was revamped in 1653 by Francesco Borromini, who is responsible of the apse, the tambour of the cupola, after his death, the construction was continued by Mattia De Rossi. The late Renaissance-style façade, with two orders divided by pilasters, was completed in 1826, thanks to funds provided the Testament of Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, the interior has a single nave.
The decoration of the cupola is by Pasquale Marini, along the nave in the first chapel is a wooden ‘’tempietto’’ painted by Borgognone and on the wall is a “Baptism of Christ” of Ludovico Gimignani. In the third chapel is the monument of Cardinal Pierluigi Carafa sculpted by Pietro Bracci. In the cloister, the lunettes are frescoed with stories from the Life of Saint Francesco by Marini, Francesco Cozza, and Filippo Gherardi. In the transept, the altar was designed by Filippo Barigioni, the altarpiece of Saint Francis of Paola was painted by Paris Nogari, the presbytery dome has a fresco of the Multiplication of the loaves and fishes by Marini. Behind the altar, is a Crucifixion of Sant’Andrea by Giovanni Battista Lenardi, the Entombment of Sant’Andrea by Francesco Trevisani, and a Death of Saint Andrew by Lazzaro Baldi. The altar in the transept was designed by Luigi Vanvitelli and Giuseppe Valadier with an altarpiece of Saints Anne, Young John the Baptist. At the sides of the presbytery are two angels by Bernini, the Angel with the Crown of Thorns and the Angel with the Scroll.
He founded the Congregation of Notre-Dame de Sion, a group of Catholic priests, lay brothers, in honor of this apparition, the pews of the church are oriented to this altar. In 1950 the chapel was renovated by the architect Marcello Piacentini. This Basilica is the seat of the title of Sancti Andreæ Apostoli de Hortis
Scipione Borghese was an Italian Cardinal, art collector and patron of the arts. A member of the Borghese family, he was the patron of the painter Caravaggio and his legacy is the establishment of the art collection at the Villa Borghese in Rome. Originally named Scipione Caffarelli, he was born in Artena, the son of Francisco Caffarelli and his father ran into financial difficulties, so Scipiones education was paid for by his maternal uncle Camillo Borghese. Upon Camillos election to the papacy as Pope Paul V in 1605, he conferred a cardinalship on Scipione and gave him the right to use the Borghese name. In the classic pattern of papal nepotism, Cardinal Borghese wielded enormous power as the Popes secretary, on his own and the Popes behalf he amassed an enormous fortune through papal fees and taxes, and acquired vast land holdings for the Borghese family. Scipione received many honours from his uncle, in each of these offices the cardinal received stipends. His income in 1609 was about 90,000 scudi, with his enormous wealth, he bought the villages of Montefortino and Olevano Romano from Pier Francesco Colonna, Duke of Zagarolo for 280,000 scudi.
As Cardinal Nephew, Borghese was placed in charge of both the internal and external affairs of the Papal States. In addition, Paul V entrusted his nephew with the management of the finances of both the papacy and the Borghese family, Borghese aroused a great deal of controversy and resentment by utilizing numerous gifts from the papal government to fund Borghese family investments. Exploiting his authority as Cardinal Nephew, he often compelled owners to sell their holdings to him at substantial discounts, Borghese thus ensured that the fortunes of the family were not permanently dependent on ecclesiastical office. Cardinal Scipione Borghese died in Rome in 1633 and is buried in the Borghese chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore, contemporaries commented on the near-public scandals that resulted on occasions from Scipiones possible homosexuality, reflected in his taste for collecting art with strong homoerotic overtones. In 1605, Scipione allegedly angered his uncle the pope by bringing Stefano Pignatelli, to whom Scipione was closely attached, Scipione subsequently fell into a long and serious sickness, and only recovered when Pignatelli was allowed to come.
The pope decided to keep a check on Pignatelli and had him ordained, the Italian historian Lorenzo Cardella notes that Pignatelli was cleared twice by the Roman Inquisition of having improper influence on Cardinal Borghese. Borghese took special interest in the development of the extensive gardens undertaken by artists at his Roman residences, the Palazzo Borghese on the Quirinal. Both these influential gardens featured innovative elements such as waterfalls, and they incorporated dense groves of trees, during the Ludovisi papacy the major focus of Borghese’s ecclesiastical patronage was on commemorative projects. The first was the embellishment of the Caffarelli chapel in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, the second was the massive timber catafalque decorated with life-size plaster figures designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, erected in Santa Maria Maggiore. Borghese’s first work after entering the Sacred College where he studied was the building and decoration of the chapels of St. Andrew. For Borghese to complete such a project declared his devotion to the city’s Christian heritage, the restoration of San Sebastiano fuori le mura, a church built under Constantine housing the greatest collection of relics known at the time
Filippo Barigioni was an Italian sculptor and architect working in the Late Baroque tradition. His career was spent largely on papal commissions, including aqueducts and fountains, in, as a professor of architecture at the Accademia di San Luca, his most important pupil was Carlo Marchionni. Luigi Amici carved the four dolphins at the base of the pedestal, the ensemble was adapted in 1880. Palazzo Testa-Piccolomini Aqueduct and municipal fountain at Nepi, the spectacular buttressed piers of the aqueducts high arches are still a monumental sight in Nepi. Barigioni designed the fountain, set into a niche in the façade of the Palazzo Communale. Fountain in Corneto, celebrating the Conti pope Innocent XIII, façade for church of San Gregorio della Divina Pietà. Barigioni designed the façade for the church in Piazza Monte Savello, near the Theater of Marcellus, right transept altar with the bronze and marble image of S. Francesco di Paola. The altarpiece is by Paris Nogari, the stucco angels by Giovanni Battista Maini, the town hall, begun in 1572 by Giacomo della Porta to a design by Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola, was completed by Barigioni.
Exedra in the courtyard of the Palazzo Nuovo of the Campidoglio, with the arms of Clement XII, monument to Queen Maria Clementina Sobieska, St Peters, Rome. Chapel of S. Sergius and Bacchus, marco Chris Nyborg, Churches of Rome, S. Maria della Pietà
Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome
The Via Francigena was an ancient pilgrim route between England and Rome. It was customary to end the pilgrimage with a visit to the tombs of Sts Peter, some were moved to travel to Rome for the spiritual benefits accrued during a Jubilee. These indulgences sometimes required a visit to a church or churches. Pilgrims need not visit each church and he and a few friends and acquaintances would gather before dawn and set out on their walk. At each church, there would be prayer, hymn singing, a simple meal was pre-arranged at the gardens of the Villa Mattei. The Mattei family opened their grounds for pilgrims to rest in and provided them bread, cheese, apples. During these “picnics”, musicians would play and singers would perform and these pilgrimages were designed to be a counterpoint to the raucous behavior of Carnival. St. Peters Basilica and the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls were designated as pilgrim churches by Pope Boniface VIII for the first Holy Year in 1300. Pope Clement VI added the Basilica of St.
John Lateran in 1350 and these are the four major Papal Basilicas in Rome. Each contains a Holy Door, opened only during official Jubilee years, sanctuary of Our Lady of Divine Love was added by Pope John Paul II for the Great Jubilee of 2000, replacing St. Sebastian Outside-the-Walls. However, many still prefer the pre-2000 seven basilicas and so attend St. Sebastians in addition to the ones required for the indulgence. The Seven Church Walk is traditionally done on Wednesday of Holy Week, there is a Seven Churches tour in Turkey that visits all seven of the Christian churches mentioned in the Book of Revelations, including the church at Ephesus. Guidebooks have existed since Ancient times, a periplus was a manuscript listing ports and coastal landmarks, in order and with approximate intervening distances, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a shore. An itinerarium was an Ancient Roman road map in the form of a showing cities and other stops, the first such guidebooks for Medieval Rome were compiled in the 12th century to address the needs of travelers to Rome.
Early proponents included Richard Lassels in his 1670 book on a Voyage to Italy and these writings now serve a role in scholarship about the history of Rome and past. Among the pre-modern guides or itineraries to Rome, Mirabilia Urbis Romae, descriptio urbis Romae, Leon Battista Alberti Roma Instaurata, Flavio Biondo Franzini, Girolamo. Le cose Maravigliose dellalma citta de Roma, le cose Maravigliose dellalma citta de Roma. Guida Angelica Perpetua per visitar le chise, che sono dentro e fuori di Roma. il Moneta, studio di Pittura scoltura et architettura nelle Chiese di Roma, Abate Filippo Titi
The Palatine Hill is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, from the time of Augustus Imperial palaces were built here and hence it became the etymological origin of the word palace and its cognates in other languages. According to Livy the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium, more likely, it is derived from the noun palātum palate, Ennius uses it once for the heaven, and it may be connected with the Etruscan word for sky, falad. The term palace itself stems from Palatium, according to Roman mythology, the Palatine Hill was the location of the cave, known as the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf Lupa that kept them alive. Another legend occuring on the Palatine is Hercules defeat of Cacus after the monster had stolen some cattle. Hercules struck Cacus with his characteristic club so hard that it formed a cleft on the southeast corner of the hill, Rome has its origins on the Palatine.
Excavations show that people have lived in the area since the 10th century BC, according to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine. The Palatine Hill was the site of the ancient festival of the Lupercalia, many affluent Romans of the Republican period had their residences there. Augustus built a temple to Apollo here, the Palace of Domitian which dominates the site and looks out over the Circus Maximus was rebuilt largely during the reign of Domitian over earlier buildings of Nero. Later emperors particularly the Severans made significant additions to the buildings, the House of Livia, the wife of Augustus, is conventially attributed to her based only on the generic name on a clay pipe and circumstantial factors such as proximity to the House of Augustus. The building is located near the Temple of Magna Mater at the end of the hill. It is notable for its beautiful frescoes, the House of Tiberius is located next to the Temple of Cybele, on the platform built by Nero and in the current Farnese Gardens.
During Augustus reign, an area of the Palatine Hill was roped off for a sort of archaeological expedition and he declared this site the original town of Rome. Modern archaeology has identified evidence of Bronze Age settlement in the area which predates Romes founding, there is a museum on the Palatine in which artifacts dating from before the official foundation of the City are displayed. The museum contains Roman statuary, an altar to an unknown deity, once thought to be Aius Locutius, was discovered here in 1820. In July 2006, archaeologists announced the discovery of the Palatine House, head archaeologist Clementina Panella uncovered a section of corridor and other fragments under Romes Palatine Hill, which she described on July 20 as a very ancient aristocratic house. On the ground floor, three shops opened onto the Via Sacra, the location of the domus is important because of its potential proximity to the Curiae Veteres, the earliest shrine of the curies of Rome. In January 2007, Italian archeologist Irene Iacopi announced that she had found the legendary Lupercal cave beneath the remains of Augustus residence
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Carlo Fontana was an Italian architect originating from todays Canton Ticino, who was in part responsible for the classicizing direction taken by Late Baroque Roman architecture. There seems to be no proof that he belonged to the family of architects of the same name. Born in Brusato, near Como, Fontana went to Rome before 1655 and he became a draughtsman for the architectural plans of Pietro da Cortona, Carlo Rainaldi, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini employed him for nearly a decade in diverse projects and his first independent project may be the church of San Biagio in Campitelli, completed by 1665. His façade at San Marcello al Corso is described as one of his most successful works. Among his other works were the designs for a Jesuit complex in Azpeitia, Spain, in the village of Loyola where Saint Ignatius of Loyola. This grandiose basilica was an influence upon baroque architecture of the New World. Fontana was an able artist and a designer, but lacked the innovation that characterized early Baroque architects like Cortona.
In addition, he was successful as an architect than as a writer. By order of Innocent XI he wrote a historical description of the Templum Vaticanum. Fontana made a calculation of the expense of St. Peters from the beginning to 1694. He published works on the Colosseum, the Aqueducts, the inundation of the Tiber, twenty seven manuscript volumes of his writings and sketches are preserved in the Royal Library at Windsor. Fontana was principe of the Accademia di San Luca in 1686, fontanas studio was one of the most prolific in Europe, its designs for fountains and altars were often imitated or reproduced abroad. Other Fontana pupils include Giovan Battista Contini and Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri and refurbishing, with Francesco Borromini and others Palazzo Montecitorio, the headquarters of the Camera dei Deputati of the Italian government since 1871. Façade of the church of San Marcello al Corso, the conventional scrolls that ordinarily flank the upper central section are appropriately replaced with the martyrs palms.
Church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli, in collaboration with Gian Lorenzo Bernini, church of San Biagio in Campitelli. Interior of Basilica dei Santi Apostoli, the fountain in the left of the Piazza San Pietro. The fountain in front of Santa Maria in Trastevere, one of the oldest fountains of Rome, was restored by Fontana The Cybo Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo, sistine Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle, commonly known as Saint Paul, and known by his native name Saul of Tarsus was an apostle who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age, in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD, he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. Paul took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences, according to writings in the New Testament, Paul was dedicated to the persecution of the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem. He was struck blind but, after three days, his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus, and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah, approximately half of the book of Acts deals with Pauls life and works. Fourteen of the books in the New Testament have traditionally been attributed to Paul. Seven of the epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle itself and was already doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
It was almost unquestioningly accepted from the 5th to the 16th centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews, but that view is now almost universally rejected by scholars. The other six are believed by scholars to have come from followers writing in his name. Other scholars argue that the idea of an author for the disputed epistles raises many problems. Today, Pauls epistles continue to be roots of the theology and pastoral life in the Catholic and Protestant traditions of the West. Augustine of Hippo developed Pauls idea that salvation is based on faith, martin Luthers interpretation of Pauls writings influenced Luthers doctrine of sola fide. The main source for information about Pauls life is the material found in his epistles, the epistles contain little information about Pauls past. The book of Acts recounts more information but leaves several parts of Pauls life out of its narrative, such as his probable, some scholars believe Acts contradicts Pauls epistles on multiple accounts, in particular concerning the frequency of Pauls visits to the church in Jerusalem.
It has been assumed that Sauls name was changed when he converted from Judaism to Christianity. His Jewish name was Saul, perhaps after the biblical King Saul, a fellow Benjamite, according to the Book of Acts, he inherited Roman citizenship from his father. As a Roman citizen, he bore the Latin name of Paul—in biblical Greek, Παῦλος. It was quite usual for the Jews of that time to have two names, one Hebrew, the other Latin or Greek. Jesus called him Saul, Saul in the Hebrew tongue in the book of Acts, later, in a vision to Ananias of Damascus, the Lord referred to him as Saul, of Tarsus
Minor basilica is a title given to some Roman Catholic church buildings. According to canon law, no church building can be honoured with the title of basilica unless by apostolic grant or from immemorial custom, the authorising decree is granted by the Pope through the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. In relation to churches, writers on architecture use the term basilica to describe a church built in a particular style, in the 18th century, the term took on a canonical sense, unrelated to this architectural style. Basilicas in this sense are divided into major and minor basilicas. Today only four, all in Rome, are classified as major basilicas. These external signs, except that of the cappa magna, are still seen in basilicas. It should be large and with an ample sanctuary. It should be renowned for history, relics or sacred images, many basilicas are notable churches, and often receive significant pilgrimages. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico set a record with 6.1 million pilgrims in two days for the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
As of June 30,2013, there were four major basilicas and 1,748 minor basilicas in the world, of these 1,748 minor basilicas, three have the title of papal minor basilica and four the title of pontifical minor basilica. The three papal minor basilicas are Saint Lawrence outside the Walls and the Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi, All four pontifical minor basilicas now have individual pontifical delegates. For the Bari basilica, which is a dependency of the Secretariat of State, for the basilicas of Loreto and Pompei, which are within their own territorial prelatures, the pontifical delegate is the local territorial prelate. Only for the Paduan basilica is the pontifical delegate distinct from the local bishop, the remaining 1,741 minor basilicas are all classified merely as such. Another such Italian church, recognized as a basilica. This name, qualifying it as both pontifical and royal, is confirmed by other sources. Others are the Pontifical Basilica of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Bitonto, one patriarchal basilica, namely the Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of St Mark in Venice, called patriarchal because it is the cathedral of the Patriarch of Venice, is a minor basilica.
The minor basilicas form the vast majority, including cathedrals, many technically parish churches, some shrines. Some oratories and semi-private places of worship, have raised to the status of a minor basilica
Carlo Maratta or Maratti was an Italian painter, active mostly in Rome, and known principally for his classicizing paintings executed in a Late Baroque Classical manner. Although he is part of the classical tradition stemming from Raphael, he was not exempt from the influence of Baroque painting and his contemporary and friend, Giovanni Bellori, wrote an early biography on Maratta. Born in Camerano, part of the Papal States, he went to Rome in 1636, accompanied by, Don Corintio Benicampi and he became an apprentice in the studio of Andrea Sacchi. It was at time that the debate between Sacchi and Pietro da Cortona took place at the Accademia di San Luca, the artists academy in Rome. Sacchi argued that paintings should only have a few figures which should express the narrative whereas Cortona countered that a number of figures allowed for the development of sub themes. Marattas painting at this time was allied with the classicism of Sacchi and was far more restrained and composed than the Baroque exuberance of Pietro da Cortona’s paintings.
Like Sacchi, his paintings were inspired by the works of the painters from Parma and Bologna, Annibale Carracci, Guido Reni. He developed a relationship with Sacchi till the death of his master in 1661. Another major work from this period was The Mystery of the Trinity Revealed to St. Augustine painted for the church of Santa Maria dei Sette Dolori and his pictures of the late 1650s exhibit light and movement derived from Roman Baroque painting, combined with classical idealism. In 1664, Maratta became the director of the Accademia di San Luca and, concerned with elevating the status of artists, promoted the study and drawing of the art of Classical Antiquity. During the 1670s he was commissioned by Pope Clement X to fresco the ceiling of the salone in the Palazzo Altieri and his major works of this period included, The Appearance of the Virgin to St. Other works included an altarpiece, ‘The Death of St Francis Xavier’ in the San Francesco Xavier Chapel in the transept of the Church of the Gesu.
Maratta was a portrait painter. He painted Sacchi, Cardinal Antonio Barberini, Pope Clement IX and he painted numerous English sitters during their visits to Rome on the Grand Tour, having sketched antiquities for John Evelyn as early as 1645. In 1679 or 1680, a daughter, was born to Maratta by his mistress and he legally recognized her as his daughter in 1698 and upon becoming a widower in 1700, Maratta married the girls mother. His daughter’s features were incorporated into a number of Maratta’s late paintings, in 1704 Maratta was knighted by Pope Clement XI. His sculptural designs included figures of the Apostles for San Giovanni in Laterano and he continued to run his studio into old age even when he could no longer paint. Maratta died in 1713 in Rome, and was buried there in Santa Maria degli Angeli, list of Carlo Maratta pupils and assistants Birth of the Virgin, 1643–45, Church of Saint Clare, Nocera Umbra