Basilica of San Domenico, Siena
The Basilica of San Domenico, known as Basilica Cateriniana, is a basilica church in Siena, Italy, one of the most important in the city. The church was begun in 1226-1265, but was enlarged in the 14th century resulting in the Gothic appearance it has now, aspects of the Gothic structure were subsequently destroyed by fires in 1443,1456 and 1531, and further damage resulted from military occupation. It is an edifice built, like many contemporary edifices of the mendicant orders, in bricks. The interior is on the Egyptian cross plan with a nave covered by trusses. The church contains relics of St. Catherine of Siena. This is an old praying place of Dominican nuns, connected to numerous episode of sanctity of Catherine of Sienas life and it houses the Canonization of St. Catherine by Mattia Preti, flanked by two 1602 paintings by Crescenzio Gambarelli. Other works by the latter are present, the main wall has a portrait of St. Catherine. Rutilio Manetti painted a St. Anthony Abbots Exorcism, Sebastiano Folli a St.
Catherine of Alexandria and Francesco Vanni a St. Hyacinth Saving a Statue of the Madonna from a Fire. The altars on the side are decorated by a Appearance of the Virgin by Stefano Volpi, a Nativity of the Virgin by Alessandro Casolani. They are followed by the St. Catherine Chapel, with, in the centre, il Sodoma provided an Fainting and Ecstasy of St. Catherine and Death of Niccolò di Tuldo for the chapel, while by Francesco Vanni is a St. Catherines Exorcism. The 15th century marble pavement, featuring Orpheus and animals, is attributed to Francesco di Giorgio. The right wall has a fresco by Pietro Lorenzetti and the Adoration of the Shepherds by Francesco di Giorgio, completed by a lunette by Matteo di Giovanni, on the right transept is altar dedicated to Blessed Ambrogio Sansedoni, portrayed in a canvas by Francesco Rustici. The fourth chapel has a Baroque canvas by Raffaello Vanni and a St. Anthony the Abbot from 1426. The Majesty by Guido da Siena is in the centre of the fifth chapel, the left transept ends with the altar of St.
Dominic. The altar has a ciborium with two angels by Benedetto da Maiano, while in the apse is a Death of St. Peter Martyr by Arcangelo Salimbeni and St. Thomas, the crypt, in Gothic style, can be visited. It houses a crucifix by Sano di Pietro and a Crucifixion signed by Ventura Salimbeni, media related to Basilica of San Domenico at Wikimedia Commons Official website
San Martino (Siena)
San Martino is a Roman Catholic church located on Via del Porrione, in the Terzo San Martino in central in Siena, region of Tuscany, Italy. Adjacent to the church is the Renaissance style Logge del Papa erected in 1462 by commission by Pope Pius II Piccolomini, a church at the site was present by the 12th century, but it was rebuilt and enlarged in the 16th century. The Baroque façade was built in 1613 and the tower completed in 1738. The interior, in the counterfaçade, has a canvas of the Immaculate Conception Protecting Siena during the 1526 Battle of Camollia by Giovanni di Lorenzo, commissioned by the citys commune in 1528. In the chapels are, among the others, the Circumcision of Jesus, one of Guido Renis masterworks, the Martyrdom of San Bartolomeo by Guercino, the presbyterys restoration in the 17th century was patronized by the de Vecchi family, who commissioned the decorations to the Mazzuoli family. Giuseppe Mazzuoli completed the statue of St. Thomas of Villanova, and he helped his brother Giovanni complete the main altar
Piazza del Campo
Piazza del Campo is the principal public space of the historic center of Siena, Italy and is regarded as one of Europes greatest medieval squares. It is renowned worldwide for its beauty and architectural integrity, the Palazzo Pubblico and its Torre del Mangia, as well as various palazzi signorili surround the shell-shaped piazza. At the northwest edge is the Fonte Gaia, the twice-a-year horse-race, Palio di Siena, is held around the edges of the piazza. Siena may have had earlier Etruscan settlements, but it was not a considerable Roman settlement, the number of divisions is held to be symbolic of the rule of The Nine who laid out the campo and governed Siena at the height of its mediaeval splendour between 1292-1355. The Campo was and remains the point of public life in the City. From the piazza, eleven narrow shaded streets radiate into the city, at the foot of the Palazzo Pubblicos wall is the late Gothic Chapel of the Virgin built as an ex voto by the Sienese, after the terrible Black Death of 1348 had ended.
Under the direction of the Committee of Nine, many miles of tunnels were constructed to bring water in aqueducts to fountains and thence to drain to the surrounding fields. The white marble Fonte Gaia was originally designed and built by Jacopo della Quercia, whose bas-reliefs from the basins sides are conserved in the Ospedale di St. Maria della Scala in Piazza Duomo. When they were set up in 1419, Jacopo della Quercias nude figures were the first two female nudes, who were neither Eve nor a repentant saint, to stand in a place since Antiquity. Two Weeks in Tuscany The Sight in the Piazza ItalyGuides. com, Piazza del Campo Many pictures Siena Piazza del Campo English Video Introduction
The Palazzo Pubblico is a palace in Siena, central Italy. Construction began in 1297 and its purpose was to house the republican government, consisting of the Podestà. The outside of the structure is an example of Italian medieval architecture with Gothic influences, the lower story is stone, the upper crenelatted stories are made of brick. The facade of the palace is curved inwards to reflect the outwards curve of the Piazza del Campo. The campanile or bell tower, Torre del Mangia, was built between 1325 and 1344 with its crown designed by the painter, Lippo Memmi. The tower was designed to be taller than the tower in neighboring rival Florence and it was fitted with a mechanical clock during the mid-14th century. Nearly every major room in the palace contains frescoes and these were unusual for the time in that they were commissioned by the governing body of the city, rather than by the Church or by a religious fraternity. They are unusual in many of them depict secular subjects instead of the religious subjects which are overwhelmingly typical of Italian art of this era.
The most famous of the frescoes are three panels in the series on government in the Hall of the Nine by Ambrogio Lorenzetti. These frescoes are collectively known as The Allegory of Good and Bad Government, the Allegory of Good Government depicts the personification of Justice as a woman. She gestures to the scales of balance, held by the personification of Wisdom floating over her throne, on the viewers left, a convicted criminal is beheaded, on the right, figures receive the rewards of justice. The men face towards the largest figure in the image, a located in the center right. The judge is surrounded by additional personifications including Peace, who is represented as a fashionable, the allegory carries a strong social message of the value of the stable republican government of Siena. It combines elements of life with references to the importance of religion in the city at the time. The figure of Justice resembles the figure of Mary, Queen of Heaven, the Judge reflects the tradition in the Christian Last Judgment to have God or Christ judging the saved on the left, the damned on the right.
While classified as medieval or proto -renaissance art, these show a transition in thought. Flanking the Allegory are two paintings on perpendicular walls, Effects of Good Government and Effects of Bad Government. Both these frescoes depict a view of Siena and its countryside
Pinacoteca Nazionale (Siena)
The Pinacoteca Nazionale is a national museum in Siena, Italy. Inaugurated in 1932, it houses especially late medieval and Renaissance paintings from Italian artists and it is housed in the Brigidi and Buonsignori palaces in the citys center, the former, built in the 14th century, it is traditionally identified as the Pannocchieschi familys residence. The Palazzo Bichi-Buonsignori, although built in the 15th century, has a 19th-century neo-medieval façade based on the citys Palazzo Pubblico, the gallery has one of the largest collections of Sienese paintings with gold backgrounds from the 14th and 15th centuries. Works in the include, Duccio di Buoninsegnas Polyptych N.28. Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena - Scalarchives. com Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena - Scolarsresource. com
Siena Cathedral Pulpit
The prosperity of the city of Siena during the thirteenth century led to an increase in civic pride and interest in public works. In 1196, the masons guild, the Opera di Santa Maria, was commissioned to construct a new cathedral to take the place of the original structure that was built in the ninth century. Many artists were commissioned to gild the interior and the façade of the new cathedral, Nicola had earned fame from his work on the pulpit in the Baptistery in Pisa, which he had finished in 1260. This contract stipulated precise clauses such as the materials, times of work payment and it stated that there were to be seven panels instead of five such as in Pisa and it stated that Pisano needed to use the Sienese Carrara marble. For this labour Nicola, magister lapisorum, would receive eight Pisan soldi per day, nicoli was to receive four soldi per day, to be paid to his father. According to the Siena Cathedral archives, Nicola Pisano was born to Petrus de Apulia between 1200 and 1205 in the city of Apulia, frederick favoured the fusion of the classical and Christian traditions.
Nicolas first recorded work was the pulpit inside the Baptistery in Pisa and this piece is the forerunner of the Sienese pulpit in multiple ways. One being the “Synthesis of French Gothic and Classical elements and incorporates a programme of great complexity, with the Pisan pulpit we see Nicola hone his classical style. The pulpit itself is octagonal and it has a column on a pedestal that is encircled with the carved figures of ‘Philosophy’. An aspect of these panels is that each one more than one subject, whereas. The panels of this monumental pulpit share the same style of the Late Antique. In between each of the panels on the corner sections Nicola chose to include Christian symbols to make the story line of the panels to flow more effortlessly. The many figures in each scene with their chiaroscuro effect show a richness of surface, the seven scenes on the parapet that narrate the Life of Christ. At the Upper right, above the shepherds, intrudes the large head of a Roman Emperor, his beard, added with the flora sculpted above the magi, it can be seen that Nicola wanted to embrace naturalistic themes.
The upper right hand holds the scene with Jesus being adored by the Magi while sitting on his mother’s lap. The fold of the robes that each character wears and the S-shape pattern in the hair denotes Roman stylistic influence, the temple sits in the upper left hand corner presiding over the Toga cloaked figures below. The Style of the building is yet again Gothic which is juxtaposed with the Roman style characters of the panel, on the bottom of the left side there is the narrative of Mary and Joseph with baby Jesus meeting Simeon outside the temple. Then immediately to the right of these there is the carving of the Holy family fleeing to Egypt on the back of a mule
Siena Baptistery of San Giovanni
The Battistero di San Giovanni is a religious building in Siena, Italy. It is located in the square with the name, near the final spans of the choir of the citys cathedral. It was built between 1316 and 1325 by Camaino di Crescentino, the father of Tino di Camaino, the façade, in Gothic style, is unfinished in the upper part, such as the apse of the cathedral. The marble shrine on the font was designed by Jacopo della Quercia between 1427 and 1429, the five Prophets in the niches and the marble statuette of John the Baptist at the top are equally by his hand. Two of the angels are by Donatello, three by Giovanni di Turino. The frescoes are by Vecchietta and his school, Benvenuto di Giovanni, Vecchietta painted two scenes on the wall of the apse, representing the Flagellation and the Road to Calvary. Michele di Matteo da Bologna painted in 1477 the frescoes on the vault of the apse
Oratory of Sant'Antonio da Padova (Siena)
The Oratory of SantAntonio da Padova is a small church on Via Tommaso Pendola in Siena, Italy. The oratory is property of the Ward of the Turtle or Contrada della Tartuca, Siena has a separate church of SantAntonio da Padova located elsewhere in the city in the Contrada della Civetta. In the second half of the 17th century, inhabitants of this neighborhood, many of them sculptors, using a Baroque design by Jacomo Franchini. The bell tower was reconstructed in 1800, the cupola is decorated with murals depicting St Anthony in Glory by Vincenzo Dei. The lateral altars were built in the late 1700s by the local sculptor Gaspero Fineschi, the interior includes four oval paintings by members of the Mazzuoli and Nasini family, St Jerome and the Angel attributed to Giuseppe Nicola Nasini. St Ansano baptizes first Christians of Siena by Annibale Mazzuoli, martyrdom of St Bartholemew by Antonio Nasini. St Sebastian healed by St Irene by Annibale Mazzuoli, the main altarpiece depicts the legendary miracle when St Anthony of Padua restores an amputated leg.
The miracle is depicted on the floor in the work in inlaid marble mosaics by Leopoldo Maccari. Official website of Cantrade della Tartuca Translated from Italian Wikipedia
SantAgostino is a Roman Catholic church in Siena, region of Tuscany, Italy. The construction of the church and its associated convent began in 1258, other renovations and reconstructions were carried out in the following centuries. The church had a fire in 1747. A few years after fire, the interior was redesigned by Luigi Vanvitelli. The stucco statues in the nave and in the date from the Vanvitelli renovation. The portico was constructed in the early 19th century by Agostino Fantastici
Contrade of Siena
A contrada is a district, or a ward, within an Italian city. The most well-known contrade are probably the 17 contrade of Siena that race in the Palio di Siena, each is named after an animal or symbol and each with its own long history and complicated set of heraldic and semi-mythological associations. Every contrada has its own museum and baptismal font, allied contrada and adversary contrada, there were originally 59 contrade, but consolidation over the centuries has seen the number reduced to todays 17. During the seventeenth century some contrade were slowly dying out until their abolition and these districts were Gallo, Orso, Quercia and Vipera. The abolition of six quarters has always surrounded by uncertainty. The six rebel districts were therefore deleted and this tradition is not supported by contemporary records. The abolition was motivated mainly by poor organization and lack of participation in life of cities. The six quarters were officially abolished the edict issued by Violante Beatrice of Bavaria in 1729 and these six were incorporated into other contrade as follows, Gallo was incorporated into Civetta and Selva.
Spadaforte was incorporated into Leocorno and Torre, aquila is situated immediately to the south-west of the Piazza del Campo in the centre of the city, and is home to the duomo. Their last victory was on July 3,1992 and they have had 24 official victories, aquilas symbol is a double-headed black eagle holding an orb, a sword and a sceptre. Its colours are yellow, trimmed with blue and black, aquila is one of only four nobile contrade, its title was bestowed by the Habsburg emperor Charles V, out of gratitude for the warm reception he received there in 1536. The contradas museum is home to the oldest surviving Palio di Siena banner, aquilas patron saint is La Vergine, her titulary festival being celebrated on 8 September. They are allied to the Civetta and Drago contrade and they are opposed to the Pantera contrada. Bruco is situated to the north of the Piazza del Campo, its residents worked in the silk trade. Brucos symbol is a caterpillar crawling on a rose. Its colours are green and yellow, trimmed with blue and its Sede is at Via del Comune,44.
Its patron Saint is Madonna and the Titulary feast is on 2 July and its motto is Come rivoluzion suona il mio nome. It is allied to the Istrice and Torre contrade and not officially opposed to any other contrade since its animosity with neighbouring Giraffa ended, chiocciola is situated in the south-western corner of the city, its residents worked as terracotta makers
Siena Cathedral is a medieval church in Siena, dedicated from its earliest days as a Roman Catholic Marian church, and now dedicated to the Assumption of Mary. Previously the episcopal seat of the Diocese of Siena, from the 15th century the Archdiocese of Siena, the cathedral itself was originally designed and completed between 1215 and 1263 on the site of an earlier structure. It has the form of a Latin cross with a slightly projecting transept, a dome, the dome rises from a hexagonal base with supporting columns. The lantern atop the dome was added by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the nave is separated from the two aisles by semicircular arches. The exterior and interior are constructed of white and greenish-black marble in alternating stripes and white are the symbolic colors of Siena, etiologically linked to black and white horses of the legendary citys founders and Aschius. The origins of the first structure are obscure and shrouded in legend, there was a 9th-century church with bishops palace at the present location.
In December 1058 a synod was held in this resulting in the election of pope Nicholas II. In 1196 the cathedral masons’ guild, the Opera di Santa Maria, was put in charge of the construction of a new cathedral. Works were started with the north - south transept and it was planned to add the main, larger body of the cathedral later, by 1215 there were already daily masses said in the new church. There are records from 1226 onwards of the transport of black and white marble, probably for the construction of the façade, the vaults and the transept were constructed in 1259-1260. In 1259 Manuello di Ranieri and his son Parri carved some wooden choir stalls, in 1264, Rosso Padellaio was paid for the copper sphere on top of the dome. A second massive addition of the body of the cathedral was planned in 1339. It would have more than doubled the size of the structure by means of a new nave. The construction was begun under the direction of Giovanni di Agostino, construction was halted by the Black Death in 1348.
Basic errors in the construction were already evident by then, the outer walls, remains of this extension, can now be seen to the south of the Duomo. The floor of the nave now serves as a parking lot and museum, though unfinished, the remains are testament to Sienese power, ambition. Underneath the choir of the Duomo, a narthex containing important late 13th-century frescoes was found, the frescoes depict scenes from the Old Testament and the life of Christ. This was part of the entrance of an earlier church, but when the baptistry was built, this under-church was filled with rubble
Santa Maria della Scala (Siena)
Santa Maria della Scala is located in Siena, Italy. Now a museum, it was once an important civic hospital dedicated to caring for abandoned children, the poor, the sick, revenues were earned partially from bequests and donations from the citizens of Siena, particularly the wealthy. The head of the hospital was the rector who managed the lay brothers responsible for its operation, Santa Maria della Scala was one of Europes first hospitals and is one of the oldest hospitals still surviving in the world. It played a major role and is considered one of Sienas 3 main artistic hubs. The Hospital partially gets its name from its position, located across the Piazza del Duomo from Siena Cathedral, Santa Maria della Scala refers to its position across from the steps that lead into the Cathedral. The Hospital is made up of a complex of buildings, around the 13th and 14th centuries, the Hospital organized its land into large agricultural estates. This is said to have represented the largest concentration of land of the Sienese state and this agricultural land helped to financially support the Hospitals works.
The Pellegrinaio is the hall where pilgrims were lodged. It served as a location for public festivities and this hall, along with another specifically to house women was built around 1325. The church of the Santissima Annuziata, built during the 13th century, was enlarged during the part of the 15th century. Santa Maria della Scala was dedicated to its services, from at least as far back as 1193 up to the 18th century, the Hospital took on many philanthropic endeavors, Cast-off babies often found their way to the Hospital. Meticulous records were kept of the details relating to each child, the procedure for the childrens care was implemented according to age, As infants, they were given to wet nurses later weaned and educated. At age 8, they were taught a trade and any profits made were kept for them. When they reached 18, the children had the option of leaving and those that chose to leave were given all their saved earnings, plus 100 soldi, a set of clothing, and furnishings for a house. Girls were given an additional 50 lire as a dowry, meals were served for the poor three times a week.
The sick were given free meals and treatment, the Hospitals treatment of the sick was unusual for the time, their policy was to have one bed for each sick patient, and the sheets were kept clean. Also, in what has been suggested as one of the earliest examples of such a therapeutic objective, the Hospital employed one normal doctor and one surgeon. In the 16th century, it added an additional surgeon, as the Hospital became a training ground for doctors, there was, for the 17th and 18th centuries, a unique emphasis on using a more hands-on learning approach