JoongAng Ilbo is a South Korean daily newspaper published in Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the three biggest newspapers in South Korea; the paper publishes an English edition, Korea JoongAng Daily, in alliance with the International New York Times. It was first published on September 22, 1965 by Lee Byung-chul, the founder of Samsung Group which once owned the Tongyang Broadcasting Company. In 1980, JoongAng Ilbo gave up TBC and TBC merged with KBS. JoongAng Ilbo is the pioneer in South Korea for the use of horizontal copy layout, topical sections, specialist reporters with investigative reporting teams. Since April 15, 1995, JoongAng Ilbo has been laid out horizontally and became a morning newspaper from on; as of March 18, 2007, it has produced a Sunday edition called JoongAng Sunday. The Korea JoongAng Daily is the English language version of the newspaper, it is one of three English-language daily newspapers in South Korea, along with The Korea Times and The Korea Herald, it runs news and feature stories by staff reporters, some stories translated from the Korean language newspaper.
The Korea JoongAng Daily is sold together with the International New York Times. JoongAng Ilbo publishes a United States edition, with branches from Toronto to Buenos Aires, its parent company, Joongang Media Network holds publication rights to Korean editions of Newsweek and Forbes as well as 25% of the shares of JTBC cable TV. List of newspapers in South Korea Communications in South Korea List of Korea-related topics Joongang Tongyang Broadcasting Company Sohn Suk-hee Official website Korea JoongAng Daily Joins.com
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Syngman Rhee was a South Korean politician, the first and the last Head of State of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the first President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960. His three-term presidency of South Korea was affected by Cold War tensions on the Korean Peninsula, he led South Korea through the Korean War. His presidency ended in resignation following popular protests against a disputed election. Rhee was regarded as an anti-Communist authoritarian dictator and is thought to have ordered tens of thousands of extrajudicial killings of suspected communists during the early stages of the Korean War, he died in exile in Hawaii. Syngman Rhee was born on April 18, 1875. Rhee was born in Hwanghae Province into a rural family of modest means as the third son out of three brothers and two sisters, his two older brothers both died in infancy. Rhee's family traced its lineage back to King Taejong of Joseon, he is a 16th-generation descendant of Grand Prince Yangnyeong. In 1877, at the age of two and his family moved to Seoul.
In Seoul, he had traditional Confucian education in various seodang in Dodong. He was portrayed as a potential candidate for the Korean civil service examination; when Rhee was nine years old, he was rendered blind through smallpox and was cured by Horace Newton Allen, an American medical missionary. In 1894, when reforms abolished the gwageo system, Rhee enrolled in the Pai Chai School, an American Methodist school, in April, he studied sinhakmun. Near the end of 1895, he joined a Hyeopseong Club created by Seo Jae-pil, who returned from the United States, he worked as the head and the main writer of the newspapers Hyeopseong-hoe Hoebo and Maeil Shinmun, the latter being the first daily newspaper in Korea. During this period, he earned money by teaching Americans Korean, he converted to Christianity in school. In 1895, he graduated from Pai Chai School. Rhee was implicated in a plot to take revenge for the assassination of Empress Myeongseong. At this point, he converted to Christianity. Rhee acted as one of the forerunners of Korea's grassroots movement through organizations such as the Hyeopseong Club and the Independence Club.
He organized several protests against corruption and the influences of the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire. As a result, in November 1898, he attained the rank of Uigwan in the Imperial Legislature, the Jungchuwon. After entering civil service, he was implicated in a plot to remove King Gojong from power through the recruitment of Park Yeong-hyo; as a result, he was imprisoned in the Gyeongmucheong Prison in January 1899. Other sources place the year arrested as 1897 and 1898. Rhee attempted to escape on the 20th day of imprisonment but was caught and was sentenced to life imprisonment through the Pyeongniwon, he was imprisoned in the Hanseong Prison. In prison, Rhee translated and compiled The Sino–Japanese War Record, wrote The Spirit of Independence, compiled the New English–Korean Dictionary and wrote in the Imperial Newspaper, he was tortured. In 1904, Rhee was released from prison at the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War with the help of Min Young-hwan. In November 1904, with the help of Min Yeong-hwan and Han Gyu-seol, Rhee moved to the United States.
In August 1905, Rhee and Yun Byeong-gu met with the Secretary of State John Hay and U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt at peace talks in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and attempted unsuccessfully to convince the US to help preserve independence for Korea. Rhee continued to stay in the United States, he obtained a Bachelor of Arts from George Washington University in 1907, a Master of Arts from Harvard University in 1908. In 1910, he obtained a Ph. D. from Princeton University with the thesis "Neutrality as influenced by the United States". In August 1910, he returned to Japanese occupied Korea, he served as a YMCA coordinator and missionary. In 1912, he was implicated in the 105-Man Incident, was shortly arrested. However, he fled to the United States in 1912 with M. C. Harris's rationale that Rhee was going to participate in the general meeting of Methodists in Minneapolis as the Korean representative. In the United States, Rhee attempted to convince Woodrow Wilson to help the people involved in the 105-Man Incident, but failed to bring any change.
Soon afterwards, he met Park Yong-man, in Nebraska at the time. In February 1913, as a consequence of the meeting, he moved to Honolulu and took over the Han-in Jung-ang Academy. In Hawaii, he began to publish the Pacific Ocean Magazine. In 1918, he established the Han-in Christian Church. During this period, he opposed Park Yong-man's stance on foreign relations of Korea and brought about a split in the community. In December 1918, he was chosen as one of the Korean representatives to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 by the Korean National Association, but failed to obtain permission to travel to Paris. After giving up traveling to Paris, Rhee held the First Korean Congress in Philadelphia with Seo Jae-pil to make plans for the declaration and action of independence of Korea. Following the March 1st Movement in 1919, Rhee discovered that he was appointed to
The Hankyoreh is a daily newspaper in South Korea. It was established in 1988 after widespread purges forced out dissident journalists, was envisioned as an alternative to existing newspapers, who were regarded as unduly influenced by the authoritarian government at the time; when it opened, it claimed to be "the first newspaper in the world independent of political power and large capital." As of 2016, it has been voted as the most trusted news organization by Korean journalists for nine consecutive years but it is the least influential news outlet by the survey. The newspaper was established as Hankyoreh Shinmun on 15 May 1988 by ex-journalists from the Dong-a Ilbo and Chosun Ilbo. At the time, government censors were in every newsroom, newspaper content was dictated by the Ministry of Culture & Information, newspapers had nearly the same articles on every page. Hankyoreh was intended to provide an independent, left-leaning, nationalist alternative to mainstream newspapers regarded as blindly pro-business, pro-American, opposed to national reunification.
To underscore its patriotism and its break with tradition, the Hankyoreh became the first daily to reject the use of hanja and use only hangul. It was the first newspaper in Korea to be printed horizontally instead of vertically. On the conflictual nature of the territorial sovereignty of the Liancourt Rocks, although exceeded by the Chosun Ilbo in its coverage, the Hankyoreh's coverage has been described in “A Comparative Analysis of News Coverage of Dokdo Island” by Yoon Youngchul and E Gwangho as reflecting the foreign policy interest of South Korea versus the U. S or Japan. In general, on issues pertaining to national sovereignty, the Hankyoreh's editorial stance can be seen as one issuing aggressive criticism on a government's undemocratic attitude or United States unilateral policy towards Korea, the Korean peninsula or elsewhere. Where the Hankyoreh has criticized the Bush administration's foreign policies on numerous occasions, it has tended to be favorable on the Obama administration's foreign policies on North Korea.
On the domestic front, Hankyoreh has been characterized as opposed to big business, has been “nationalist, anti-American and anti-corporate.” The Hankyoreh does negate the philosophy of the free market economy, individual liberty and personal freedom, has been critical of Korean big business and conglomerates that overwhelm the market, the Korean university entrance system, widening income disparities in Korean society, the rapid opening and globalization of the Korean economy, while maintaining a favorable attitude towards organized labor, trade protectionism, the redistribution of income. Other legacies of its early dissident history include a strong emphasis on human rights in South Korea, a position it continues to hold today together with several international organizations have criticized South Korea for its retreat in democracy, human rights and press freedom; the Hankyoreh's advocacy of human rights extends to North Koreans and tends to support normalization of relations with the U.
S. and have been critical of approaches towards improving the situation by encouraging system collapse such as the Lefkowitz approach and absorption by South Korea or by encouraging defections. The Hankyoreh opposes censorship and wiretapping and encourages active debate on news, circulated, like many newspapers in South Korea, is opposed to circulation of graphic news content and took a strong stance in the instance of the video footage of Kim Sun-il's death in Iraq It endorsed the 2008 "mad cow protests" as a victory for "substantive democracy" over "procedural democracy." It encouraged coverage of the 2008 demonstrations and a greater understanding of "candlelight spirit" that academics are referring to as an emergence of a new social movement and form of democracy in South Korea that protests policy development on trade, liberalization of public education, the privatization of health, the environmental consequences of a cross-country canal project without substantial public opinion gathering.
In line with the newspaper's nationalism and aspirations for reunification, its reporting of inter-Korean and East Asian affairs is based on its editorial policy seeking reconciliation and peaceful co-prosperity through dialogue rather than pressure on government of North Korea. In terms of national affairs, Office of the President, studies on the editorial policies of South Korean newspapers have found that the "Hankyoreh Shinmun, which published its first issue early in the Roh Tae Woo administration, has shown little fluctuation from administration to administration. Hankyoreh runs a "Hankyoreh Foundation for Reunification and Culture" as a forum for advocacy of peace and reunification on the Korean peninsula. Notwithstanding the newspaper's support for democracy, human rights, free speech in South Korea, in June 2009, the Hankyoreh described the arrest and imprisonment of two US journalists in North Korea, condemned by Reporters Without Borders as a sham trial, as a "not negative signal" of North Korea's openness to communicate.
In its business, Hankyoreh departed from established convention by relying more on sales, periodic private donation campaigns, the sale of stock, rather than advertising from major corporations to sustain itself. The newspaper has more than 60,000 citizen shareholders, none of whom have a more than one percent share. Core shareholders include students, lawyers, dissidents, liberal, p
OhmyNews is a South Korean online news website with the motto "Every Citizen is a Reporter". It was founded by Oh Yeon Ho on February 22, 2000, it is the first news website in Korea to accept and publish articles from its readers, in an open source style of news reporting. About 20% of the site's content is written by the 55-person staff, while most of the articles are written by other freelance contributors who are ordinary citizens. OhmyNews was influential in determining the outcome of the South Korean presidential election, 2002. After being elected, President Roh Moo-hyun granted his first interview to OhmyNews. OhmyNews International is an English language online newspaper that features "citizen reporter" articles written by contributors from all over the globe, its content is 100% citizen reporter. On February 22, 2006, OhmyNews and Japanese firm Softbank signed an investment contract valued at US$11 million. In 2006 OhmyNews started to build a Japan-based citizen-participatory journalism site called OhmyNews Japan, launched on August 28 with a famous Japanese journalist and 22 other employees working under ten reporters.
These journalists' articles were the object of much criticism. The South Korean newspaper admitted. In July 2008, all staff of OhmyNews Japan were dismissed, by the end of August operations had ceased on the site; the 2nd Citizen Reporters' Forum was held by OhmyNews in Seoul, Korea from July 12–15, 2006. The 3rd International Citizen Reporters Forum was held by OhmyNews in Seoul from June 27–29, 2007. On November 24, 2007, OhmyNews opened a "citizen journalism school" to serve as a "collaborative knowledge center" for classes in journalism, digital cameras and photojournalism, it is located 90 minutes from Seoul in the refurbished building of an elementary school. The faculty will include OhmyNews editors and other journalists from print and television. There is in-school dining capacity for 50 guests. On July 8, 2009, Oh Yeon-ho revealed that Ohmynews was losing up to 700 m won yearly, appealed to website users to join a voluntary subscription scheme. Critics argue that Ohmynews is losing original features as alternative–independent media in financial independence.
Oh Yeon-ho said, "70 to 80 percent of our revenue sponsorships. In contrast, contributions from readers only totaled five percent of total revenue.” Oh said, “We have not received a cent from Lee Myungbak government for central government advertising.”However a government report to National Assembly in 2009 revealed that Ohmynews received 120 m won for government advertising from February 2008 to July 2009. An Ohmynews report said they had received about 870 m won for government advertising from 2003 to 2007 by introducing government official reports to National Assembly. An alternative medium Pressian reported Oh's comments, "I respect Samsung as major business partner," and introduced about 20 percent of the total advertising and cooperation revenue of Ohmynews is coming from Samsung for years, the biggest business corporate of Korea. On August 1, 2010, OhMyNews of South Korea announced a change in its format from an "edited citizen journalist news site" to a "blog dedicated to covering and discussing the world of citizen journalism itself," starting the following month.
"Curators are important to our operation. They are given a great deal of trust. In order to maintain credibility amongst our team members, new curators join through recommendations of existing curators, and amongst the curators we have different levels depending on their experience and contributions. This is to maintain a steady level of quality and credibility with our readers." On September 2010, OhmyNews International changed its format from citizen journalism to becoming a forum about citizen journalism. OmN became a victim of its own success; the old site does not accept new articles. Hankyungoh, the grouping which includes OhmyNews Culture of South Korea Media in South Korea International press react to OhmyNews TIME magazine profile of contributor Kim Hye-won Giants of Citizen Media Meet Up The Tyee, October 24, 2007 OhmyNews Citizen Journalism School Opens, OhmyNews, November 24, 2007 The End of OhmyNews Japan, Global Voices Online, September 18, 2008 Official website Media related to OhmyNews at Wikimedia Commons
South Gyeongsang Province
South Gyeongsang Province is a province in the southeast of South Korea. The provincial capital is at Changwon, it is adjacent to port of Busan. There is UNESCO World Heritage Site Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple that houses the Tripitaka Koreana and attracts many tourists. Automobile and petrochemical factories are concentrated along the southern part of the province, extending from Ulsan through Busan and Jinju; the name derives from Korean Gyeongsang, meaning'joyous furthermore'. The name derives from the names of the principal cities of Sangju. Before 1895, the area corresponding to modern-day Gyeongsangnam-do was part of Gyeongsang Province, one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. In 1895, southern Gyeongsang was replaced by the districts of Jinju in the west and Dongnae in the east. In 1896, they were merged to form Gyeongsangnam-do; the provincial capital was at Jinju. In 1948, Gyeongsangnam-do became part of South Korea. In 1963, Busan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly Governed City.
In 1983, the provincial capital moved from Busan to Changwon. In 1995, Busan became a Metropolitan City, Ulsan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Metropolitan City in 1997; the province is part of the Yeongnam region, on the north by Gyeongsangbuk-do province, on the west Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do provinces, on the south by the Korea Strait far from Japan. Most of the province is drained by its tributaries; the total area of the province is 10,533 square kilometres. The Nakdong delta plain around Gimhae is one of the best granaries in South Korea. Agricultural products form Gyeongsangnam-do include rice, beans and barley; the area is renowned for its cotton and fruits which are grown along the southern seaside. A number of marine products are caught; the province is one of the country's leading fisheries. The largest cities in the region are Busan and Ulsan, which are separately administered as provincial-level Metropolitan Cities. Apart from the capital Changwon, other large or notable cities include Jinju.
Gyeongsangnam-do is the home of Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple that houses the Tripitaka Koreana and attracts many tourists. It is in the national park around Jirisan on the border with Jeollabuk-do; the temple was first built in 802. Changnyeong county contains three major tourist attractions for the province: Upo wetland, Bugok natural hotsprings, Hwawang mountain. Gyeongsangnam-do is divided into 10 counties; the names below are given in English and hanja. According to the census of 2005, of the people of South Gyeongsang 40% follow Buddhism and 14.8% follow Christianity. 45.2% of the population is not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions. Yamaguchi Prefecture Maryland Shandong East Java Đồng Nai Province Khabarovsk Krai Jalisco Laguna province Pomeranian Voivodeship Fejér County List of Korea-related topics Igeum-dong site - complex archaeological site in Sacheon-si Tongyeong International Music Festival South Gyeongsang travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website
Republic of Korea Army
The Republic of Korea Army known as the ROK Army, is the army of South Korea, responsible for ground-based warfare. It is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces with 464,000 members as of 2018; this size is maintained through conscription. The modern South Korean army traces its lineage back to the Gwangmu Reform, when the Beolgyegoon was established by Emperor Gojong in 1881; the 1st of every October is celebrated in South Korea as Armed Forces Day. It commemorates the day during the Korean War when units of the ROK Army first crossed the 38th Parallel, thus leading the UN Coalition north into North Korean territory for the first time; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was formed out of the Republic Of Korea Army. This organization was created during the American occupation period from 1945-1948; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was a reserve unit of the National Police. In addition to some Nationalist Chinese and post-Manchurian soldiers remnants of the Imperial Japanese Army contributed to the force.
The National Defense Force was established on January 15, 1946 replacing the American lead constabulary from 1945. The outbreak of the Korean War caught the South Korean forces unprepared, requiring the United Nations to intervene with U. S.-led forces. The South Korean military developed during the Korean War, suffering enormous casualties and loss of equipment; as the Soviets had armed North Korea, the United States armed and trained the South Korean military throughout the Korean War. The South Korean army is structured to operate in both the mountainous terrain native to the Korean Peninsula and in North Korea with its 950,000 strong Korean People's Army Ground Force, two-thirds of, permanently garrisoned in the frontline near the DMZ; the current administration has initiated a program over the next two decades to design a purely domestic means of self-defense, whereby South Korea would be able to counter a North Korean attack. The ROK Army was organized into 3 armies: the First Army, Third Army and Second Operational Command.
Each with its own headquarters and divisions. The Third Army was responsible for the defense of the capital as well as the western section of the DMZ; the First Army was responsible for the defense of the eastern section of the DMZ whereas the 2nd OC formed the rearguard. Under a restructuring plan aimed at reducing redundancy, the Second ROK Army was converted as the Second Operations Command in 2007, the First and Third ROK Armies were merged as the Ground Operations Command in 2019; the army consists of 495,000 troops 2,400-2,500 tanks, 2,700 armored fighting vehicles, 5,800 artillery pieces, 60 guided missile systems, 600 helicopters as of 2014. Main battle tank types include: 880 M48 Patton series and its upgrades such as M48A3K, M48A5, M48A5K, 33 Soviet T-80U and 2 T-80UK, as well as 1,524 K1A1 and K1 tanks, which bear a 120 mm smoothbore gun and are of local manufacture; the future replacement for the K1 and K1A1 MBTs has been named the K2 Black Panther, which will be fitted with a 1500 hp MTU-based engine, 55-caliber 120 mm main gun with autoloader.
The new tank will feature radar equipment as well as all-bearing laser detection and defense systems, anti-missile active protection, heavy reactive armor and sensor package comparable to the American M1A2 Abrams and German Leopard 2A6. The ROK Army is planning to field 390 Black Panthers. In addition Republic of Korea manufactures the K-9 howitzer which have been exported to Turkey as the T-155 howitzer as well as the ZMA series TIFV's which saw action in UN peacekeeping operations as part of the Malaysian peacekeeping forces. A variation of the K200, the KAFVs can be retrofitted to bear a 90 mm cannon, 40 mm grenade turret, M230-1 Chain gun Turret, or MK-30 Chaingun Turret. A replacement for K200 series IFVs are being tested, designated as K21 KNIFV, which will have various capabilities for both land and naval warfare; the initial production is set for 2008, with the ROKA planning to field 1,000 units until 2015. The K21 KNIFV's chassis will be constructed out of fiberglass, reducing the vehicle's load and enabling it to travel at higher speeds without bulky and powerful engines.
When constructed, the NIFV will be lighter than other IFVs, including the American Bradley series and Russian BMP series, increasing both speed and payload. The ROK Army fields the mobile K-SAM "Pegasus", fitted with 8 missiles that fly at maximum speeds of mach 2.6, the K-30 "Biho" series, which features a 30 mm twin gun system for anti-aerial fire support. Besides having vehicles and equipment of their own design as well as American models, the ROK Army possesses inventories of Russian-built AFVs, including BMP-3 IFVs and T-80U MBTs, given by the Russian government to pay off the financial debt owed to South Korea. Other notable foreign equipment in service with the ROK Army includes the Mistral MANPADS. A new infantry rifle, the Daewoo K11 entered service in 2010; the overall concept of this weapon is similar to the American OICW. Capital Defense Command'SHIELD' 1st Air Defense Brigade 52nd Homeland Defense Infantry Division 56th Homeland Defense Infantry Division Special Warfare Command'LION' 1st Special Forces Brigade'EAGLE' 3rd Special Forces Brigade'FLYING TIGER' (3공수특전여단'비호부대'