Roderick Charles Smallwood is an English music manager, best known as the co-manager of the British heavy metal band Iron Maiden. With his business partner, Andy Taylor, whom he met while studying at Trinity College, Cambridge, he founded the Sanctuary Records Group in 1979, which became the largest independent record label in the UK and the largest independent music management company in the world until its closure in 2007. Prior to managing Iron Maiden, Smallwood managed Steve Cockney Rebel. Smallwood was born and raised in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, where he grew up listening to The Beatles and The Rolling Stones on the radio and playing cricket and rugby union, it was only when he began attending university that his musical interests expanded and he began listening to Deep Purple, Pink Floyd, Grateful Dead and The Doors. In the autumn of 1968, Smallwood began studying architecture at Trinity College, where he soon became involved in organising social events, such as the annual Trinity May Ball, for which he booked the "various acts".
It was while undertaking these duties that he formed a friendship with fellow undergraduate and future business partner Andy Taylor. From on, Smallwood and Taylor worked on end-of-term events together and booked various musicians, including Graham Bond, Chris Farlowe, Bridget St John, John Martyn, most notably, the MC5. Smallwood acquired most of these artists from a local booking agency, Horus Arts, whose boss, Barry Hawkins, gave Smallwood advice which led to his career as a booking agent. Shortly before his final exams in 1971, Smallwood dropped out of university and moved to Paris with his girlfriend, stating that "it just seemed like the cool thing to do". After three months in Paris, Smallwood undertook a job at a London booking agency, Gemini, in order to finance a trip to Morocco. Through his work with Gemini, Smallwood was offered a "£35 a week" job with rival agency MAM, therefore abandoned his trip to Morocco. After 18 months with MAM, Smallwood began managing English rock act Steve Cockney Rebel.
Smallwood disliked working with Harley, whom he would describe as "a pain - selfish, obsessed" and thus "completely put me off management." Convinced by EMI, Harley fired Trigram, his management agency, Smallwood undertook the management of punk rock act Gloria Mundi. In 1979, Smallwood decided to return to university to obtain a law degree, where he was given a copy of Iron Maiden's demo tape. After much deliberation, Smallwood contacted Steve Harris, the band's bassist and founder member, arranged two pub gigs for the group in west London, one at the Windsor Castle in Maida Vale and the other at The Swan in Hammersmith. Neither show went to plan- the first was cancelled after the band refused to play early, the band had to perform the second without lead vocalist, Paul Di'Anno, arrested for carrying a knife 30 minutes before the gig. In spite of this, Smallwood agreed to help the group, following his experiences with Steve Harley, he did not commit to becoming their full-time manager until he arranged the band's signing to EMI and publishers Zomba at the end of the year.
Joined by Andy Taylor in 1982, the pair have managed the group since. After committing himself to managing Iron Maiden in October 1979, Smallwood decided to form his own management company, which he would name after Iron Maiden's second single, "Sanctuary". Sanctuary Records Group expanded into the largest independent record label in the United Kingdom until its closure in 2007. Prior to this, in November 2006, Smallwood left Sanctuary and formed Phantom Music Management with Andy Taylor, which focuses on Iron Maiden; the Iron Maiden b-side "Sheriff of Huddersfield" was written by Iron Maiden about Rod Smallwood, was released on the 1986 single "Wasted Years". It likens Smallwood to the Sheriff of Nottingham, due to his notorious stinginess with money, refers to his frequent complaining about a move to Los Angeles. Smallwood did not know about the song until the single was released
British Airways is the flag carrier and the second largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size and passengers carried, behind easyJet. The airline is based in Waterside near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. In January 2011 BA merged with Iberia, creating the International Airlines Group, a holding company registered in Madrid, Spain. IAG is the world's third-largest airline group in terms of annual revenue and the second-largest in Europe, it is listed in the FTSE 100 Index. BA was created in 1974 after a British Airways Board was established by the British government to manage the two nationalised airline corporations, British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways, two regional airlines, Cambrian Airways from Cardiff, Northeast Airlines from Newcastle upon Tyne. On 31 March 1974, all four companies were merged to form British Airways. After 13 years as a state company, BA was privatised in February 1987 as part of a wider privatisation plan by the Conservative government.
The carrier expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian in 1987, Dan-Air in 1992, British Midland International in 2012. Its preeminence highlights the reach of the country's influence as many of its destinations in several regions were part of the British Empire, it is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The alliance has since grown to become the third largest, after Star Alliance. Proposals to establish a joint British airline, combining the assets of the British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways were first raised in 1953 as a result of difficulties in attempts by BOAC and BEA to negotiate air rights through the British colony of Cyprus. BOAC was protesting that BEA was using its subsidiary Cyprus Airways to circumvent an agreement that BEA would not fly routes further east than Cyprus to the important oil regions in the Middle East; the Chairman of BOAC, Miles Thomas, was in favour of merger as a potential solution to this disagreement and had backing for the idea from the Chancellor of the Exchequer at the time, Rab Butler.
However, opposition from the Treasury blocked the proposal. It was only following the recommendations of the 1969 Edwards Report that a new British Airways Board, managing both BEA and BOAC, the two regional British airlines Cambrian Airways based at Cardiff, Northeast Airlines based at Newcastle upon Tyne, was constituted on 1 April 1972. Although each airline's individual branding was maintained two years the British Airways Board unified its branding establishing British Airways as an airline on 31 March 1974. Following two years of fierce competition with British Caledonian, the second-largest airline in the United Kingdom at the time, the Government changed its aviation policy in 1976 so that the two carriers would no longer compete on long-haul routes. British Airways and Air France operated the supersonic airliner Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde, the world's first supersonic passenger service flew in January 1976 from London Heathrow to Bahrain. Services to the US began on 24 May 1976 with a flight to Washington Dulles airport, flights to New York JFK airport followed on 22 September 1977.
Service to Singapore was established in co-operation with Singapore Airlines as a continuation of the flight to Bahrain. Following the Air France Concorde crash in Paris and a slump in air travel following the 11 September attacks in New York in 2001, it was decided to cease Concorde operations in 2003 after 27 years of service; the final commercial Concorde flight was BA002 from New York JFK to London Heathrow on 24 October 2003. In 1981 the airline was instructed to prepare for privatisation by the Conservative Thatcher government. Sir John King Lord King, was appointed chairman, charged with bringing the airline back into profitability. While many other large airlines struggled, King was credited with transforming British Airways into one of the most profitable air carriers in the world; the flag carrier was privatised and was floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 1987. British Airways effected the takeover of the UK's "second" airline, British Caledonian, in July of that same year.
The formation of Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic in 1984 created a competitor for BA. The intense rivalry between British Airways and Virgin Atlantic culminated in the former being sued for libel in 1993, arising from claims and counterclaims over a "dirty tricks" campaign against Virgin; this campaign included allegations of poaching Virgin Atlantic customers, tampering with private files belonging to Virgin and undermining Virgin's reputation in the City. As a result of the case BA management apologised "unreservedly", the company agreed to pay £110,000 damages to Virgin, £500,000 to Branson and £3 million legal costs. Lord King stepped down as chairman in 1993 and was replaced by his deputy, Colin Marshall, while Bob Ayling took over as CEO. Virgin filed a separate action in the US that same year regarding BA's domination of the trans-Atlantic routes, but it was thrown out in 1999. In 1992 British Airways expanded through the acquisition of the financially troubled Dan-Air, giving BA a much larger presence at Gatwick airport.
British Asia Airways, a subsidiary based in Taiwan, was formed in March 1993 to operate between London and Taipei. That same month BA purchased a 25% stake in the Australian airline Qantas and, with the acquisition of Brymon Airways in May, formed British Airways Citiexpress. In September 1998, British Airways, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and Canadian
CD86: 48 Tracks from the Birth of Indie Pop is a compilation album of artists from the original C86 era, released in 2006 by Sanctuary Records. It is compiled by Bob Stanley of Saint Etienne. To coincide with its release, the Institute of Contemporary Arts hosted "C86 - Still Doing It For Fun", an exhibition and two nights of gigs celebrating the rise of British independent music. Released in 1986, the original compilation album C86 became influential, is today credited as the birth of indie pop. Stanley notes: "It was the beginning of indie music. It's hard to remember how fanzines were in the mid -'80s. DIY ethics and any residual punk attitudes were in isolated pockets around the country, the C86 comp and gigs brought them together". For the original's twentieth anniversary in 2006, Stanley compiled the set of songs, released as CD86. CD86 is inspired by C86. Only three of the songs on C86 appear on CD86. Several tracks were little-known before the album's release. Writing in Prefix magazine, Greg Ingber gave the compilation a good review, noting that over twenty years the songs have stood the test of time well.
Ingber argues that while some may see C86 as not much more than a footnote in pop history, the CD86 compilation demonstrates that the scene was more than that. Nitsuh Abebe disapproved of the revised track-list, saying that "Stanley's set runs the risk of convincing old indie-pop kids that the music they spent their youths on wasn't that great." Abebe felt that the compilation's choices were too narrow in terms of genre, criticized Stanley for not including more of the tracks included on the original C86. Nick Hasted was ambivalent, noting that the revised compilation would never have the influence of the original. Both Hasted and Abebe recognized, that CD86 contained numerous good songs. There are 48 tracks on 2 CDs. "Velocity Girl" – Primal Scream "The Sun, a Small Star" – The Servants "Around and Around" – Hurrah! "Why Does the Rain?" – The Loft "Vibrato" – East Village "Pristine Christine" – The Sea Urchins "What Went Wrong This Time" – The Siddeleys "Anorak City" – Another Sunny Day "Get Out of My Dream" – Clouds "Golden Shower" – The Boy Hairdressers "Ask Johnny Dee" – The Chesterfields "He Blows In" – The Raw Herbs "Paul McCartney" – Laugh "You Didn't Love Me Then" – The Hit Parade "Like Frankie Lymon" – The Weather Prophets "Sunday to Saturday" – The June Brides "I Had an Excellent Dream" – The Dentists "Everybody Knows the Monkey" – Mighty Mighty "E102" – BMX Bandits "Talulah Gosh" – Talulah Gosh "Cut Me Deep" – The Jasmine Minks "I'll Still Be There" – Razorcuts "Therese" – The Bodines "Paradise Estate" – Television Personalities "Upside Down" – The Jesus and Mary Chain "Really Stupid" – The Primitives "It Always Rains on Sunday" – The Groove Farm "Black Country Chainsaw Massacre" – Pop Will Eat Itself "Come Get Me" – 14 Iced Bears "Sign on the Line" – Fizzbombs "Anti-Midas Touch" – The Wolfhounds "This Boy Can Wait" – The Wedding Present "Bible of the Beats" – Age Of Chance "Safety Net" – The Shop Assistants "Just Too Bloody Stupid" – Close Lobsters "Dukla Prague Away Kit" – Half Man Half Biscuit "Don't Slip Up" – Meat Whiplash "I Could Be in Heaven" – The Flatmates "If I Said" – The Darling Buds "Poised Over the Pause Button" – This Poison "Jack and Julian" – The Bachelor Pad "On Tape" – The Pooh Sticks "Flowers Are in The Sky" – Revolving Paint Dream "Whole Wide World" – The Soup Dragons "Frans Hals" – McCarthy "Like an Angel" – The Mighty Lemon Drops "Why Popstars Can't Dance" – Big Flame "Baby Honey" – The Pastels
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Steven Patrick Morrissey, known mononymously as Morrissey, is an English singer and author. He came to prominence as the frontman of the Smiths, a rock band active from 1982 to 1987. Since he has pursued a commercially successful solo career. Morrissey's music is characterised by his baritone voice and distinctive lyrical content featuring recurring themes of emotional isolation and sexual longing, self-deprecating and black humour, anti-establishment stances. Born in Davyhulme, Lancashire, to a working-class Irish migrant family, Morrissey grew up in Manchester; as a child he developed a love of literature, kitchen sink realism, pop music. In the late 1970s, he fronted punk rock band the Nosebleeds with little success before beginning a career in music journalism and authoring several books on music and film in the early 1980s. With Johnny Marr he formed the Smiths in 1982, soon attracting national recognition for their eponymous debut album; as the band's frontman, Morrissey attracted attention for his trademark quiff and witty and sardonic lyrics.
Deliberately avoiding rock machismo, he cultivated the aesthetic of a sexually ambiguous social outsider who embraced celibacy. The Smiths released three further studio albums—Meat Is Murder, The Queen Is Dead, Strangeways, Here We Come—and had a string of hit singles; the band attracted a cult following. Personal differences between Morrissey and Marr resulted in the separation of the Smiths in 1987. In 1988, Morrissey launched his solo career with Viva Hate; this album and its follow-ups—Kill Uncle, Your Arsenal, Vauxhall and I—all did well on the UK Albums Chart and spawned multiple hit singles. Replacing Marr, he took on Boz Boorer as his primary co-writers. During this time his image began to shift into that of a burlier figure, who toyed with patriotic imagery and working-class masculinity. In the mid-to-late 1990s, his albums Southpaw Grammar and Maladjusted charted but were less well received. Relocating to Los Angeles, he took a musical hiatus from 1998 to 2003 before releasing a successful comeback album, You Are the Quarry, in 2004.
Ensuing years saw the release of albums Ringleader of the Tormentors, Years of Refusal, World Peace Is None of Your Business, Low in High School, as well as an autobiography and a novel. Influential, Morrissey has been credited as a seminal figure in the emergence of indie rock and Britpop. Regarded as one of the greatest lyricists in British history, his lyrics have become the subject of academic study, he has courted controversy since early on in his music career with his forthright opinions—endorsing vegetarianism and animal rights, criticising royalty and prominent politicians, defending a particular vision of English national identity. In a 2006 poll for the BBC's The Culture Show, Morrissey was voted the second-greatest living British cultural icon. Steven Patrick Morrissey was born on 22 May 1959, at Park Hospital, Lancashire, his parents—Elizabeth and Peter Morrissey—were working-class Irish Catholics. They had emigrated to Manchester from Dublin with his only sibling, elder sister Jacqueline, a year prior to his birth.
They had given him the forename of Steven after the American actor Steve Cochran. His earliest home was a council house at 17 Harper Street in the Hulme area of inner Manchester. Living in that area, as a child he was affected by the Moors murders in which a number of local children were murdered by Ian Brady and Myra Hindley, he became aware of the anti-Irish sentiment in British society against Irish migrants to Britain. In 1970 the family relocated to another council house at Stretford. Following an early education at St. Wilfred's Primary School, Morrissey failed his 11-plus exam, proceeded to St. Mary's Technical Modern School, an experience that he found unpleasant, he excelled at athletics. He has been critical of his formal education stating that "the education I received was so evil and brutal. All I learnt was to have no self-esteem and to feel ashamed without knowing why", he left school in 1975. He continued his education at Stretford Technical College, there gained three O-levels in English Literature and the General Paper.
In 1975 he travelled to the United States to visit an aunt. The relationship between Morrissey's parents was strained, they separated in December 1976, with his father moving out of the family home. Morrissey's librarian mother encouraged her son's interest in reading, he took an interest in feminist literature, adored the Irish author Oscar Wilde, whom he came to idolise. The young Morrissey was a keen fan of the television soap opera Coronation Street, which focused around working-class communities in Manchester, he was a fan of Shelagh Delaney's A Taste of Honey and its 1961 film adaptation, a kitchen sink drama focusing around working-class life in Salford. Many of his songs directly quoted from A Taste of Honey. Of his youth, Morrissey said, "Pop music was all I had, it was entwined with the image of the pop star. I remember feeling the person singing was with me and understood me and my predicament." He revealed that the first record he purchased was Marianne Faithfull's 1964 single "Come and Stay With Me".
During the 1970s he became a glam rock fan, enjoying the work of English artists
Black Sabbath were an English rock band, formed in Birmingham in 1968, by guitarist and main songwriter Tony Iommi and main lyricist Geezer Butler, drummer Bill Ward, singer Ozzy Osbourne. Black Sabbath are cited as pioneers of heavy metal music; the band helped define the genre with releases such as Black Sabbath and Master of Reality. The band had multiple line-up changes, with Iommi being the only constant member throughout its history. Formed in 1968 as the Polka Tulk Blues Band, a blues rock band, the group went through line up changes, renamed themselves as Earth, broke up and reformed. By 1969, they had named themselves Black Sabbath after the film Black Sabbath starring Boris Karloff, began incorporating occult themes with horror-inspired lyrics and tuned-down guitars; the band's first show as Black Sabbath took place on 30 August 1969, in Workington. Signing to Philips Records in November 1969, they released their first single, "Evil Woman" in January 1970, their debut album, Black Sabbath, was released on Friday the 13th, February 1970, on Philips' newly formed progressive rock label, Vertigo Records.
Though receiving a negative critical response, the album was a commercial success and reached number 8 in the UK Albums Chart, so the band returned to the studios to record the follow up, released in 1970. The band's popularity grew, by 1973's Sabbath Bloody Sabbath, critics were starting to respond favourably. Osbourne's regular use of alcohol and other drugs led to his dismissal from the band in 1979, he was replaced by former Rainbow vocalist Ronnie James Dio. Following two albums with Dio, Black Sabbath endured many personnel changes in the 1980s and 1990s that included vocalists Ian Gillan, Glenn Hughes, Ray Gillen and Tony Martin, as well as several drummers and bassists. In 1991, Iommi and Butler rejoined drummer Vinny Appice to record Dehumanizer; the original line-up released a live album Reunion. Black Sabbath's final studio album and nineteenth overall, 13, features all of the original members but Ward, who left the band prior to the recording sessions due to a contract dispute. A year after embarking on a farewell tour, the band played their final concert in their home city of Birmingham on 4 February 2017, after which they broke up.
Iommi has stated that he has not ruled out the possibility of new material or one-off shows under the Black Sabbath name. They were ranked by MTV as the "Greatest Metal Band" of all time, placed second in VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock" list. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them number 85 in their "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", they have sold over 70 million records worldwide. Black Sabbath were inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006, they have won two Grammy Awards for Best Metal Performance, in 2019 the band were presented a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Following the break-up of their previous band Mythology in 1968, guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward sought to form a heavy blues rock band in Aston, Birmingham, they enlisted bassist Geezer Butler and vocalist Ozzy Osbourne, who had played together in a band called Rare Breed, Osbourne having placed an advertisement in a local music shop: "Ozzy Zig Needs Gig – has own PA".
The new group was named the Polka Tulk Blues Band, the name taken either from a brand of talcum powder or an Indian/Pakistani clothing shop. The Polka Tulk Blues Band included slide guitarist Jimmy Phillips, a childhood friend of Osbourne's, saxophonist Alan "Aker" Clarke. After shortening the name to Polka Tulk, the band again changed their name to Earth and continued as a four-piece without Phillips and Clarke. Iommi became concerned that Phillips and Clarke lacked the necessary dedication and were not taking the band seriously. Rather than asking them to leave, they instead decided to break up and quietly reformed the band as a four-piece. While the band was performing under the Earth title, they recorded several demos written by Norman Haines such as "The Rebel", "Song for Jim", "When I Came Down"; the demo titled. Jim Simpson was a manager for the bands Bakerloo Blues Line and Tea & Symphony, as well as being trumpet player for the group Locomotive. Simpson had started a new club named Henry's Blueshouse at The Crown Hotel in Birmingham and offered to let Earth play there after they agreed to waive the usual support band fee in return for free t-shirts.
The audience response was positive and Simpson agreed to manage Earth. In December 1968, Iommi abruptly left Earth to join Jethro Tull. Although his stint with the band would be short-lived, Iommi made an appearance with Jethro Tull on The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus TV show. Unsatisfied with the direction of Jethro Tull, Iommi returned to Earth in January 1969. "It just wasn't right, so I left", Iommi said. "At first I thought Tull were great, but I didn't much go for having a leader in the band, Ian Anderson's way. When I came back from Tull, I came back with a new attitude altogether, they taught me that to get on, you got to work for it."While playing shows in England in 1969, the band discovered they were being mistaken for another English group named Earth. They decided to change their name again. A cinema across the street from the band's rehearsal room was showing the 1963 horror film Black Sabbath starring Boris Karloff and directed by Mario Bava. While watching people line up to see the film, Butler noted that it was "strange that people spend so much money to see scary movies".
Following that and Butler wrote the lyrics for a song called "Black Sabbath", which was