Assumption of the Virgin (Titian)
The Assumption of the Virgin or Frari Assumption is a large altarpiece panel painting in oils by the Italian Renaissance artist Titian, painted in 1515–18. It remains in the position it was designed for, on the high altar of the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari or Frari church in Venice, it is the largest altarpiece in the city, with the figures well over life-size, necessitated by the large church, with a considerable distance between the altar and the congregation. It marked a new direction in Titian's style, that reflected his awareness of the developments in High Renaissance painting further south, in Florence and Rome, by artists including Raphael and Michelangelo; the agitated figures of the Apostles marked a break with the usual meditative stillness of saints in Venetian painting, in the tradition of Giovanni Bellini and others. It was originally rather shocking for the Venetian public, but soon recognised as a masterpiece that confirmed Titian's position as the leading artist in Venice, one of the most important in all Italy, a rival to Michelangelo and Raphael.
The Assumption of Mary was a Catholic doctrine. The Franciscan order whose church the Frari is, were always keen promoters of this and other aspects of Marian theology, in particular the related doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary still a matter of live controversy; the doctrine held that the body of the Virgin Mary was "assumed" or moved physically into heaven "at the end of her earthly life". Most Catholics believed that this took place after a normal death, but some that Mary was still alive when it happened, a question that Munificentissimus Deus in 1950 was careful not to settle. At the base of the picture, glimpses of Mary's stone sarcophagus can be discreetly seen, allowing those believing in an assumption before death to ignore it or regard it as something else; the broad composition of Titian's painting, with a group of apostles below a rising Mary, shown as alive, who moves towards a group of angels in heaven, follows earlier depictions in art, though such an imagined scene did not form part of the doctrine.
The related scene of the Coronation of the Virgin in heaven had tended to be replaced by scenes showing the moment of the actual assumption, as here, combined with it. Here the angel accompanying God the Father on the right holds out a crown, which he is about to place on her head; the figures are in three zones, divided by spaces filled only with light. On the ground are the Apostles packed in a group and in a variety of dramatic poses, most looking up at the unprecedented sight of the Virgin Mary rising to heaven, they are shown in a variety of poses, ranging from gazing in awe, to kneeling and reaching for the skies, "monumental figures... massed in collective movement, united with shadow, heroic gestures are given a silhouette of unprecedented boldness". In the centre zone, the Virgin Mary stands on clouds, wrapped in a red robe and blue mantle, makes a gesture of astonishment. Around her "throngs of angels are melted into clouds irradiated by heavenly light". Above is God the Father, about to be handed a crown for Mary by the angel to the right.
Titian broke with tradition by omitting all landscape elements, although the blue-grey sky above the apostles shows the scene is set outdoors. The sky contrasts with the golden heavenly light in the upper zones, which recalls the gold ground traditional in mosaics such as those still being made in San Marco, the gold ground paintings of the Gothic period. Altogether there are twelve apostles, some only visible by a small area of their face. Saint Peter sits at the centre with his hands together in prayer, Saint John the Evangelist is the younger man in red to the left of him; the painting is signed "TITIANUS" on the sarcophagus below St Peter. The Frari is a large Gothic church of the early 15th-century plainly built of brick, like many Franciscan churches designed for preaching to large crowds, but now filled with elaborate tombs and paintings. Titian himself is buried there, though this is an unintended result of the chaos of the plague that killed him, with a large 19th-century monument that includes a relief version of the Assumption.
The high altar is a long way from the nave, the view of it is restricted by an elaborate stone choir-screen of 1475, with a round-headed arch in the centre, a pulpit at each end. Behind this, across about half the width of the church, is the choir, with rows of choir-stalls facing each other, a high wooden backing. After this comes a wide but shallow area, reaching into the transepts, before the chancel in the apse, deep; the rounded top of the painting allows it to be framed neatly by the choir-screen arch for a viewer standing at the central axis of the church at the back of the nave, though from there it appears tiny. It allows the rounded circle of heavenly light to complete the top of the composition, with no awkward corners to fill; the high altar and its elaborate reredos framing the altarpiece was designed in its broad conception by Titian, to match his painting. The detailed design and execution was by Lorenzo Bregno; the painting is framed by an extension of the altar in marble and gilding, which matches not only the round top of the choir-screen arch, but the scrolling decoration around it.
The classical style, with large columns on either side clashes somewhat with the Gothic style of the architecture, but efforts have been made to minimize this by aligning the levels of elements of both frame
In architecture, a cupola is a small, most dome-like, tall structure on top of a building. Used to provide a lookout or to admit light and air, it crowns a larger roof or dome; the word derives, via Italian, from the lower Latin cupula "small cup" indicating a vault resembling an upside down cup. The cupola is a development during the Renaissance of the oculus, an ancient device found in Roman architecture, but being weatherproof was superior for the wetter climates of northern Europe; the chhatri, seen in Indian architecture, fits the definition of a cupola when it is used atop a larger structure. Cupolas appear as small buildings in their own right, they serve as a belfry, belvedere, or roof lantern above a main roof. In other cases they may crown tower, or turret. Barns have cupolas for ventilation; the square, dome-like segment of a North American railroad train caboose that contains the second-level or "angel" seats is called a cupola. Some armored fighting vehicles have cupolas, called commander's cupola, a raised dome or cylinder with armored glass to provide 360-degree vision around the vehicle.
A facade is one exterior side of a building the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face". In architecture, the facade of a building is the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it sets the tone for the rest of the building. From the engineering perspective of a building, the facade is of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical facades, many local zoning regulations or other laws restrict or forbid their alteration; the word comes from the French foreign loan word façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face from post-classical Latin facia. The earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is 1656, it was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new facade. For example, in the city of Bath, The Bunch of Grapes in Westgate Street appears to be a Georgian building, but the appearance is only skin deep and some of the interior rooms still have Jacobean plasterwork ceilings.
This new construction has happened in other places: in Santiago de Compostela the 3-metres-deep Casa do Cabido was built to match the architectural order of the square, the main Churrigueresque facade of the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, facing the Praza do Obradoiro, is encasing and concealing the older Portico of Glory. In modern highrise building, the exterior walls are suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include precast concrete walls; the facade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another. In general, the facade systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, but due to their cost and susceptibility to panel edge staining these have not been popular. Whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration.
The melting point of aluminium, 660 °C, is reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified, too. Putting fire sprinkler systems on each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls; some building codes limit the percentage of window area in exterior walls. When the exterior wall is not rated, the perimeter slab edge becomes a junction where rated slabs are abutting an unrated wall. For rated walls, one may choose rated windows and fire doors, to maintain that wall's rating. On a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only facades, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, not subject to building codes. In film sets, they are held up with supports from behind, sometimes have boxes for actors to step in and out of from the front if necessary for a scene. Within theme parks, they are decoration for the interior ride or attraction, based on a simple building design. Façades: Principles of Construction.
By Ulrich Knaack, Tillmann Klein, Marcel Bilow and Thomas Auer. Boston/Basel/Berlin: Birkhaüser-Verlag, 2007. ISBN 978-3-7643-7961-2 ISBN 978-3-7643-7962-9 Giving buildings an illusion of grandeur Facades of Casas Chorizo in Buenos Aires, Argentina Poole, Thomas. "Façade". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company; the article outlines the development of the facade in ecclesiastical architecture from the early Christian period to the Renaissance
Nazaré is a Portuguese municipality in Oeste region and Leiria District, in historical Estremadura province of Portugal. It is one of the most popular seaside resorts in the Silver Portugal; the population in 2011 was 15,158, in an area of 82.43 km². The present mayor is Walter Chicharro, elected by the Socialist Party; the municipal holiday is September 8 with the Feasts of Nazaré, a religious and profane festival with processions, fireworks, folk dancing and a fair. The town consists of three neighbourhoods: Sítio and Pederneira. Praia and Sítio are linked by a funicular railway; the origin of the name Nazaré comes from the Portuguese translation of the biblical city name of Nazareth in Holy Land. The earliest settlements were above the beach, they provided the inhabitants with refuge against raids by Viking French and Dutch pirates, that lasted until as late as the beginning of the 19th century. In fact, only in the 19th century, with the gradual end of maritime piracy, was possible for the people to start occupying the Praia, today considered the town center.
According to the Legend of Nazaré, the town derives its name from a small wooden statue of the Virgin Mary, a Black Madonna, brought by a monk in the 4th century from Nazareth, Holy Land, to a monastery near the city of Mérida, Spain. The statue was brought to its current place in 711 by another monk, accompanied by Roderic, the last Visigoth king of today's Portugal. After their arrival at the seaside they decided to become hermits; the monk died in a small natural grotto, on top of a cliff above the sea. After his death and according to the monk's wishes, the king buried him in the grotto. Roderic left the statue of the Black Madonna in the grotto on an altar; the first church in Sítio was built over the grotto to commemorate a miraculous intervention in 1182 by the Blessed Virgin Mary, which saved the life of the 12th-century Portuguese knight Dom Fuas Roupinho while he was hunting deer one morning in a dense fog. This episode is referred to as the Legend of Nazaré. In memory of the miracle he had a chapel built over the small grotto, where the miraculous statue had been left by king Roderic after the monk's death.
Beside the chapel, on a rocky outcrop 110 meters above the Atlantic, one can still see the mark made in the rock by one of the hooves of Dom Fuas' horse. This Church of Nazareth, high on the rocky outcrop over Pederneira bay, was noted as a landmark in sailors' manuals. In 1377, King Fernando I of Portugal founded a new more spacious church, transformed between the 16th and 19th centuries; the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Nazaré is a rich baroque building, with splendid tiles on its interior. Behind and above the main altar visitors can see and venerate the miraculous statue of Our Lady of Nazaré; the religious figures are crowned by diadems of 18th century, presented to the church by King John VI. The sacred image is wrapped with a green cloak decorated with gold gifted to the Virgin Mary by King John V; the main chapel is separated from the body of the church with an arcade made from pau-santo and a few pillars decorated with mosaic Italian marble of 19th century. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 3 civil parishes: Famalicão Nazaré Valado dos Frades Nazaré has become a popular tourist attraction, advertising itself internationally as a picturesque seaside village.
Located on the Atlantic coast, it has long sandy beaches, with lots of tourists in the summer. The town used to be known for its traditional costumes worn by the fishermen and their wives who wore a traditional headscarf and embroidered aprons over seven flannel skirts in different colours; these dresses can still be seen. It is quite visited due to the religious festivals dedicated to Our Lady of Nazaré, in which there are processions and some profane celebrations. Many of the tourists and the Catholic pilgrims who visit the region of Central Portugal and the internationally famous Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima go to the fishing village of Nazaré for a visit or to watch the surfing championships. Doctor Joaquim Manso Folk and Archeological Museum Sacred Art Museum of Reitor Luís Nesi Fisherman House-Museum Nazaré Bullring Nazaré Cultural Centre Nazaré is a popular surfing destination because of its high breaking waves that form due to the presence of the underwater Nazaré Canyon; as the canyon creates constructive interference between the incoming swell waves, it makes their heights much larger on this stretch of coast.
Due to the height of the waves, numerous surfing records have been set at Nazaré. In November 2011, surfer Garrett McNamara, who resided in Hawaii at that time, surfed a record-breaking giant wave: 23.8 m from trough to crest, at Praia do Norte, Nazaré. On November 8, 2017, Brazilian surfer Rodrigo Koxa broke the previous record by surfing a big wave of 24.4 m. Social media wrongly attributed a footage of German surfer Sebastian Steudtne surfing another big wave in Nazaré to Koxa. In the meantime, Portuguese surfer Hugo Vau surfed a 35 m high wave, known as "the big mama", on 19 January 2018; this achievement yet to be validated. The waves at this point can be dangerou
Today, English-speakers use the term lantern to describe many types of portable lighting, but lanterns originated as a protective enclosure for a light source—usually a candle or a wick in oil—to make it easier to carry and hang up, more reliable outdoors or in drafty interiors. Lanterns were made from a metal frame with several sides with a hook or a hoop of metal on top. Windows of some translucent material would be fitted in the sides, now glass or plastic but thin sheets of animal horn, or tinplate punched with holes or decorative patterns. Though used to prevent a burning candle or wick being extinguished from wind, rain or other causes, another important function was to reduce the risk of fire should a spark leap from the flame or the light be dropped; this was important below deck on ships: a fire on a wooden ship was a major catastrophe. Use of unguarded lights was taken so that obligatory use of lanterns, rather than unprotected flames, below decks was written into one of the few known remaining examples of a pirate code, on pain of severe punishment.
The term used was "lanthorn", believed to be due to popular etymology, from the early use of horn windows. Lanterns may be used for signaling, as torches, or as general light-sources outdoors. Low-light level varieties can function as decoration, can be a variety of colours and sizes; the term "lantern" is used more generically to mean a light source, or the enclosure for a light source. Examples are glass-pane enclosed street lights, or the housing for the top lamp and lens section of a lighthouse; the term is associated with Chinese paper lanterns. The word "lantern" comes via French from Latin "lanterna" itself derived from Greek. Lanterns, some using a wick in oil, others protected candle-holders, have been used functionally, for light rather than decoration, since antiquity. Before the development of glass sheets, animal horn scraped thin and flattened was used as the translucent window. Decorative lanterns exist in a wide range of designs; some hang from buildings. Paper lanterns are made in societies around the world.
Modern varieties place an electric light in a decorative glass case. The ancient Chinese sometimes captured fireflies in transparent or semi-transparent containers and used them as lanterns. Raise the Red Lantern, a Chinese film, prominently features lanterns as a motif. Lanterns are used in many Asian festivals. During the Ghost Festival, lotus shaped lanterns are set afloat in rivers and seas to symbolic guide the lost souls of forgotten ancestors to the afterlife. During the Lantern Festival, the displaying of many lanterns is still a common sight on the 15th day of the first lunar month throughout China. In other Chinese festivities, the kongming lanterns can be seen floating high into the sky during Chinese festivities. Lanterns are the central theme of the Seoul Lantern Festival, too. Use of fireflies in transparent containers was a widespread practice in ancient India, but since these were short term solutions, the use of fire torches was more prevalent. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, lanterns are used in religious processions and liturgical entrances coming before the processional cross.
Lanterns are used to transport the Holy Fire from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on Great Saturday during Holy Week. The derived term "lantern jaw" is used in two quite different still current ways, comparing faces with different types of lantern. According to the OED, it refers to "long thin jaws, giving a hollow appearance to the cheek". Another meaning comes from a 15th-century lantern with a jutting base, compared with the face of a person with mandibular prognathism, with extended chin known as Habsburg jaw or Habsburg lip as it was a hereditary feature of the House of Habsburg. All fueled lanterns are somewhat hazardous owing to the danger of handling flammable and toxic fuel, danger of fire or burns from the high temperatures involved, potential dangers from carbon monoxide poisoning if used in an enclosed environment. Simple wick lanterns remain available, they are cheap and durable, but are unsuitable for reading. They require periodic trimming of the wick and regular cleaning of soot from the inside of the glass chimney.
Mantle lanterns use a woven ceramic impregnated gas mantle to accept and re-radiate heat as visible light from a flame. The mantle does not burn; when heated by the operating flame the mantle becomes incandescent and glows brightly. The heat may be provided by a gas, by kerosene, or by a pressurized liquid such as "white gas", naphtha. For protection from the high temperatures produced and to stabilize the airflow, a cylindrical glass shield called the globe or chimney is placed around the mantle. Manually pressurized lanterns using white gas are manufactured by the Coleman Company in one and two-mantle models; some models are dual fuel and can use gasoline. These are being supplanted by a battery-powered fluorescent lamp and LED models, which are safer in the hands of young people and inside tents. Battery-operated lanterns are produced by many manufacturers including Coleman. Liquid fuel lanterns remain popular where the fuel is
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
A transept is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice. In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform building within the Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architectural traditions; each half of a transept is known as a semitransept. The transept of a church separates the nave from the sanctuary, choir, presbytery, or chancel; the transepts cross the nave at the crossing, which belongs to the main nave axis and to the transept. Upon its four piers, the crossing may support a central tower or a crossing dome. Since the altar is located at the east end of a church, a transept extends to the north and south; the north and south end walls hold decorated windows of stained glass, such as rose windows, in stone tracery. The basilicas and the church and cathedral planning that descended from them were built without transepts. More the transepts extended well beyond the sides of the rest of the building, forming the shape of a cross.
This design is called a "Latin cross" ground plan, these extensions are known as the arms of the transept. A "Greek cross" ground plan, with all four extensions the same length, produces a central-plan structure; when churches have only one transept, as at Pershore Abbey, there is a historical disaster, war or funding problem, to explain the anomaly. At Beauvais only the chevet and transepts stand. At St. Vitus Cathedral, only the choir and part of a southern transept were completed until a renewed building campaign in the 19th century; the word "transept" is extended to mean any subsidiary corridor crossing a larger main corridor, such as the cross-halls or "transepts" of The Crystal Palace, London, of glass and iron, built for the Great Exhibition of 1851. In a metro station or similar construction, a transept is a space over the platforms and tracks of a station with side platforms, containing the bridge between the platforms. Placing the bridge in a transept rather than an enclosed tunnel allows passengers to see the platforms, creating a less cramped feeling and making orientation easier.
Aisle Apse Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram Glossary of the Catholic Church Transom Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Transept". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. P. 172