Sandcastle is a water park located in the Pittsburgh suburb of West Homestead. The park is located on a 67-acre piece of land along the banks of the Monongahela River. Sandcastle is owned by Parques Reunidos; the company runs its original sister parks, Idlewild Park, Lake Compounce. The park contains fourteen water slides, several swimming pools, a handful of other attractions; the site where Sandcastle sits was a railroad yard for U. S. Steel. In 1988, Kennywood Entertainment began construction on the park. Sandcastle opened for business in July 1989; the park has a total of 14 water slides including 3 speed slides. Other slides include Thunder Run, Tubers Tower and Cliffhangers. Other attractions at Sandcastle include a "lazy river," a large swimming pool, Mon-Tsunami, a wave pool, an area of water slides and water attractions designed for children called Wet Willies; the park features an entertainment complex called The Sandbar. In January 2007, the Chevrolet Amphitheatre known as the IC Light Amphitheatre, under plans by concert promoter Live Nation, was disassembled.
According to new design plans, the new amphitheater will rest between Sandcastle's west perimeter and the Waterfront section of Homestead Borough along the Monongahela River. Sandcastle had an existing amphitheatre on the property, but was outdated and was used; the only slide removed was where The Blue TubaLuba is today. It was called "The Bermuda Triangle", it was a body slide however, it had the same structure as a tube slide. The park is located in a suburb of Pittsburgh; the water park is located down the road from the Waterfront, a large shopping complex with stores and movie theaters. The park can be accessed via Interstate 376, one PAT Transit bus line, the 59 Mon Valley runs near the park, but does not run up to it. Official website Blog Discussion of Amphitheater addition to Waterfront area
Blackpool is a seaside resort on the Lancashire coast in North West England. The town is on the Irish Sea, between the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, 15 miles northwest of Preston, 27 miles north of Liverpool, 28 miles northwest of Bolton and 40 miles northwest of Manchester, it had an estimated population of 139,720 at the 2011 Census, making it the most populous town in Lancashire. Throughout the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, Blackpool was a coastal hamlet in Lancashire's Hundred of Amounderness, remained such until the mid-18th century when it became fashionable in England to travel to the coast in the summer to improve well-being. In 1781, visitors attracted to Blackpool's 7-mile sandy beach were able to use a new private road, built by Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton. Stagecoaches began running to Blackpool from Manchester in the same year, from Halifax in 1782. In the early 19th century, Henry Banks and his son-in-law John Cocker erected new buildings in Blackpool such that its population grew from less than 500 in 1801 to over 2,500 in 1851.
St John's Church in Blackpool was consecrated in 1821. Blackpool rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in the 1840s connecting it to the industrialised regions of Northern England; the railway made it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Blackpool, triggering an influx of settlers, such that in 1876 Blackpool was incorporated as a borough, governed by its own town council and aldermen. In 1881, Blackpool was a booming resort with a population of 14,000 and a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. By 1901 the population of Blackpool was 47,000, by which time its place was cemented as "the archetypal British seaside resort". By 1951 it had grown to 147,000. Shifts in tastes, combined with opportunities for Britons to travel overseas, affected Blackpool's status as a leading resort in the late 20th century. Blackpool's urban fabric and economy remains undiversified, rooted in the tourism sector, the borough's seafront continues to attract millions of visitors every year.
In addition to its grime music scene, Blackpool's major attractions and landmarks include Blackpool Tower, Blackpool Illuminations, the Pleasure Beach, Blackpool Zoo, Sandcastle Water Park, the Winter Gardens, the UK's only surviving first-generation tramway. Blackpool gets its name from a historic drainage channel that ran over a peat bog, discharging discoloured water into the Irish Sea, which formed a black pool. Another explanation is that the local dialect for stream was "pul" or "poole", hence "Black poole". People originating from Blackpool are called Blackpudlians although Sandgrownians or Sandgrown'uns is sometimes used or Seasiders. A 13,500-year-old elk skeleton was found with man-made barbed bone points on Blackpool Old Road in Carleton in 1970. Now displayed in the Harris Museum this provided the first evidence of humans living on the Fylde as far back as the Palaeolithic era; the Fylde was home to a British tribe, the Setantii a sub-tribe of the Brigantes, who from about AD80 were controlled by Romans from their fort at Dowbridge, Kirkham.
During the Roman occupation the area was covered by bog land. Some of the earliest villages on the Fylde, which were to become part of Blackpool town, were named in the Domesday Book in 1086. Many of them were Anglo-Saxon settlements; some though had 10th century Viking place names. The Vikings and Anglo-Saxons seem to have co-existed peacefully, with some Anglo-Saxon and Viking placenames being joined together – such as Layton-with-Warbreck and Bispham-with-Norbreck. Layton was controlled by Barons of Warrington from the 12th century. In medieval times Blackpool emerged as a few farmsteads on the coast within Layton-with-Warbreck, the name coming from "le pull", a stream that drained Marton Mere and Marton Moss into the sea close to what is now Manchester Square; the stream ran through peatlands that discoloured the water, so the name for the area became "Black Poole". In the 15th century the area was just called Pul, a 1532 map calls the area "the pole howsys alias the north howsys". In 1602, entries in Bispham Parish Church baptismal register include both Poole and for the first time blackpoole.
The first house of any substance, was built toward the end of the 17th century by Edward Tyldesley, the Squire of Myerscough and son of the Royalist Sir Thomas Tyldesley. An Act of Parliament in 1767 enclosed a common sand hills on the coast, that stretched from Spen Dyke southwards. Plots of the land were allocated to landowners in Bispham, Great Marton and Little Marton; the same act provided for the layout of a number of long straight roads that would be built in the areas south of the town centre, such as Lytham Road, St. Annes Road, Watson Road and Highfield Road. By the middle of the 18th century, the practice of sea bathing to cure diseases was becoming fashionable among the wealthier classes, visitors began making the arduous trek to Blackpool for that purpose. In 1781, Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton built a private road to Blackpool, a regular stagecoach service from Manchester and Halifax was established. A few amenities, including four hotels, an archery stall and bowling greens, were developed, the town grew slowly.
The 1801 census records the town's population at 473. The growth was acce
A lazy river is a water ride found in water parks, hotels and recreation centers, which consists of a shallow pool that flows to a river. There is a slow current just enough to allow guests to ride along lying on rafts. There may be scenic elements added, such as small waterfalls on the edge of the river; some connect or lead into swimming pools or wave pools, while others are self-contained courses that complete a circuit. According to Garrett Nunnelly, lazy rivers were first invented in the state of California. A torrent river, or wave river, is a related concept. Torrent rivers feature wave machines similar to those. Torrent rivers appear at all of the Schlitterbahn water parks and Aquaventure in Dubai and the Bahamas. Most have a policy of no swimming-everybody. A current channel is another water feature found in aquatic facilities that uses moving water for enjoyment. A current channel consists of water of 3–5 feet deep and the width of the channel no greater than 10 feet. Water flows to a lazy river but because of the depth can be used for aquatic therapy and swimming or walking against the current.
Endless River at Morey's Piers in North Wildwood, New Jersey River Adventure at Morey's Piers in Wildwood, New Jersey Lazy Rider at Kings Dominion in Doswell, Virginia Never Ending River at Splash Planet in Hastings, New Zealand Ushi-Gushi River Creek at Sandcastle Water Park in Lancashire, England Crocodile Run at Kings Island, Ohio Build-A-Raft at Legoland Florida, Winter Haven, Florida Lazy River at Great Wolf Lodge Kickback Creek at Thunder Falls Family Water Park, Mackinaw City, MI Lazy River at Wet'n'Wild in North Shields, England Lazy River and Fantasy Surf at Fantasy World Resort in Kissimmee, Florida White Water Rapids at Schlitterbahn Castaway Creek at White Water Bay in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Adventure River at Water Country in Portsmouth, New Hampshire Lazy River at Reunion Resort in Reunion, Florida Lazy River at Rapids Water Park in Riviera Beach, Florida Castaway Creek at Typhoon Lagoon in Orlando, Florida Lazy River at Wet'n'Wild in Orlando, Florida Cross Country Creek at Disney's Blizzard Beach in Orlando, Florida Lazy River at Splish Splash in Riverhead, New York Lazy River at Boston University Fitness and Recreation Center in Boston, Massachusetts Bahari River at Holiday World & Splashin' Safari in Santa Claus, Indiana Congo River at Holiday World & Splashin' Safari in Santa Claus, Indiana Flotation Station at Splashtown at Darien Lake in Darien Center, NY Lazy River at Canada's Wonderland in Vaughan, Ontario Safari River at Wild Rivers in Irvine, California River Ride at Calypso Bay and Coconut Cove in Wellington and Boca Raton, Florida Unknown at Mindy O WaterPark at Clarion, Florida Lazy River at Regal Palms Resort in Davenport, Florida Rambling Bayou at Adventure Island in Tampa, Florida Lazy River at Runaway Rapids Waterpark in Keansburg, New Jersey Lazy River at Six Flags Hurricane Harbor in Arlington, Texas Lazy River at Hawaiian Falls in The Colony, Texas Lazy River at the Schlitterbahn in New Braunfels, Texas Lazy River at Waterland WaterPark in Thessaloniki, Greece Lazy River at Isla Mágica in Sevilla, Spain Lazy River at Aqua Park Macedonia in Probištip Sunset River at Knott's Soak City in San Diego, California Lazy River at The Island Waterpark in Fresno, California Lazy River at Wild Water's Adventure Park in Clovis, California Warrior River at Splash Adventure in Bessemer, Alabama El Rio Loco at The Wave in Vista, California Blue Nile Adventure River at Camelbeach Waterpark in Tannersville, Pennsylvania Lazy River at MGM Grand Las Vegas in Las Vegas, NV El Río Loco at Costa Caribe Aquatic Park in Tarragona, Spain Endless River at Waldameer Park in Erie, Pennsylvania Recreation Center at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga in Chattanooga, Tennessee Lazy River at Audubon Zoo, New Orleans Lazy Rider at RamaYana Water Park in Pattaya Big Bird's Rambling River at Sesame Place Lazy River at Centennial Park Pool Orland Park, IL The Lazy River at Magic Mountain Waterpark in Moncton, New Brunswick.
El Rio de Xocomil at Parque Xocomil of IRTRA in Retalhuleu, Guatemala. Lazy River at Spash Down Waterpark in Sudley, Virginia. Kopiko Wai Winding Rivers at Volcano Bay in Orlando, Florida
Something Special (TV series)
Something Special is a children's television programme presented by Justin Fletcher. It was produced for 10 years by Allan Johnston, it is broadcast by the BBC. It is designed to introduce children to Makaton signing, is aimed at children with delayed learning and communication difficulties, it is aired on the CBeebies channel and in the past was broadcast as part of the CBeebies programme strand on BBC One and BBC Two. The name of the programme derives from the idea that all children, irrespective of their position on the learning spectrum, are special, their format of the show has evolved since the original series. In 2012, a new series, "Something Special - We're All Friends" started, introducing some minor changes to the "Out and About" format; this format change has included a change in location, introduced the Tumble Tap, a personalised iPad showing the "special things" to look for. It is presented by Justin Fletcher and features various other characters and clips of children with disabilities.
Justin speaks as well as signing, a spoken narrative is provided over the clips of children. The other characters played by Fletcher are the Tumble Family: Mr Tumble, a clown who himself displays delayed learning and communication difficulties, Grandad Tumble, Barry Tumble and Baby Tumble. Other members of the Tumble family to have made appearances include two Aunts - Polly and Suki, Lord Tumble and King Tumble. In series 2, Justin meets; the creator and producer is Allan Johnston, who worked as a teacher of children with special needs before joining the BBC in 1989, with an important role in the show. Series 1 & 2 Each episode has a duration of 15 minutes. Series 3 "Out and About" Series 3, again presented by Justin Fletcher, was produced in 2006.'Guests' included Mr Tumble, Granddad Tumble, Aunt Polly, Aunt Sukey and Cliff Tumble. This series was made at various locations across the UK, including Wales, Northern Ireland and England; each episode has a duration of 20 minutes and features a "Doors" Style.
Mr Tumble shorts From 2007, CBeebies showed short programmes consisting of the Mr Tumble sections from the various episodes, without the sections featuring Justin. It appears that the BBC may view these programmes as series 3 of Something Special, as the full series which followed is referred to as series 4. Series 4, 5 and 6 Out and About Series 4 of the show followed the Out and About format of series 3, in a "new, week-day, year-round slot designed to provide continuity for its loyal audience" and introduced a new character, Lord Tumble; the series has Mr Tumble and the other Tumble characters based in "Tumble House", a large detached house located in extensive grounds close to the sea. Justin Fletcher revealed this to be located in Somerset; the house and grounds are populated with large coloured spots and similar circular/spherical items in keeping with the spots on Mr Tumble's costume. The episodes feature Mr Tumble sending photographs of items he is interested in finding out about to Justin using his "Spotty Bag".
Justin, with the assistance of the children with him, locates these items or activities and in return sends associated items back to Mr Tumble. There is a link in the theme between the actions of Mr Tumble and the other Tumble characters, the activities Justin and the children participate in. Series 7 In 2011, a new series, "Something Special - We're All Friends" started, introducing some minor changes to the Out and About format; this format change has included a change in location, introduced the "Tumble Tap", a tablet computer and game (the game is available on the Cbeebies website. The Tale of Mr Tumble In July 2013, a theatrical production starring Justin Fletcher as Mr Tumble and Ronni Ancona as The Unsmiling Principle featuring Mr Tumble was performed, which sees the Mr Tumble character as a baby and as a young boy, follows him throughout his early life. Series 8 - 9 Royal Television Society Educational Television Awards 2004 Awarded Best Early Years Programme BAFTA Children's Awards 2005 Awarded Best Pre-school Live Action Series BAFTA Children's Awards 2007 Nominated for Best Presenter BAFTA Children's Awards 2008 Awarded Best Presenter Video'Something Special - Favourite Things' comprising the episodes Toys, Colours and What I Like DVD'Something Special - Pets and Other Animals' comprising the episodes Pets, A Farm, Under the Sea and Jungle Animals'Something Special - Where I Live' comprising the episodes Where I Live, All About Me, Food and Family'Something Special - Hello Mr Tumble' comprising the episodes Airport, Garden Centre, By the Sea, Houseboat, Bike Ride and Drive'Something Special - Bumper Boxset' Something Special CBeebies Page
Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston; the county has an area of 1,189 square miles. People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians; the history of Lancashire begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire; the land that lay between the Ribble and Mersey, Inter Ripam et Mersam, was included in the returns for Cheshire. When its boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire. Lancashire emerged as a major industrial region during the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, with economies built around the docks and the cotton mills respectively; these cities dominated the birth of modern industrial capitalism. The county contained the collieries of the Lancashire Coalfield. By the 1830s 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire. Accrington, Bolton, Bury, Colne, Manchester, Oldham, Preston and Wigan were major cotton mill towns during this time.
Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns during wakes week. The historic county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974 which created the current ceremonial county and removed Liverpool and Manchester, most of their surrounding conurbations to form the metropolitan and ceremonial counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester; the detached northern part of Lancashire in the Lake District, including the Furness Peninsula and Cartmel, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form Cumbria. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its original area, although it did gain some land from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Today the ceremonial county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, North and West Yorkshire to the east; the county palatine boundaries remain the same as those of the pre-1974 county with Lancaster serving as the county town, the Duke of Lancaster exercising sovereignty rights, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester and Merseyside..
The county was established in 1182 than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the military zone of Roman Britain; the towns of Manchester, Ribchester, Burrow and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which became a part of England in the 10th century. In the Domesday Book, land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersam" and included in the returns for Cheshire. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, it is by no means certain, it is claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire; the county was divided into hundreds, Blackburn, Lonsdale and West Derby.
Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the detached part north of the sands of Morecambe Bay including Furness and Cartmel, Lonsdale South. Lancashire is smaller than its historical extent following a major reform of local government. In 1889, the administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historic county except for the county boroughs such as Blackburn, Barrow-in-Furness, Wigan and Manchester; the area served by the Lord-Lieutenant covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs, was expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as Wythenshawe in Manchester south of the River Mersey and in Cheshire, southern Warrington. It did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town. During the 20th century, the county became urbanised the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Bolton, Burnley, Liverpool, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, St. Helens and Wigan were added Warrington and Southport.
The county boroughs had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Lees urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire. By the census of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK; the administrative county was the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county was abolished, as were the county boroughs; the urbanised southern part became part of two metropolitan counties and Greater Manchester. The new county of Cumbria incorporates the Furness exclave; the boroughs of Liverpool, Knowsley, St. Helens and Sefton were included in Merseyside. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were
The Dandy Warhols
The Dandy Warhols are an American alternative rock band, formed in Portland, Oregon in 1994 by singer-guitarist Courtney Taylor-Taylor and guitarist Peter Holmström. They were joined by keyboardist Zia McCabe and drummer Eric Hedford. Hedford was replaced by Taylor-Taylor's cousin Brent DeBoer; the band's name is a play on the name of American pop artist Andy Warhol. The band gained recognition after they were signed to Capitol Records and released their major label album debut... The Dandy Warhols Come Down, in 1997. In 2001, the band rose to new levels of fame after their song "Bohemian Like You" enjoyed extensive exposure due to being featured in a Vodafone advertisement; the Dandy Warhols were the subject of the 2004 documentary film Dig!, along with San Francisco psychedelic outfit The Brian Jonestown Massacre. They have released nine studio albums, two compilation albums, six EPs, twenty-seven singles to date; the Dandy Warhols were formed in Portland, Oregon in 1994 by Courtney Taylor-Taylor and Peter Holmström.
Soon after, drummer Eric Hedford joined, following an unsuccessful experiment with Taylor-Taylor's girlfriend on bass guitar, Zia McCabe joined the band as keyboardist after Taylor-Taylor saw her working in a coffeehouse. Taylor-Taylor described the band's beginning as a group of friends who "needed music to drink to". Early on in their career, The Dandy Warhols performed in bars throughout Portland and became well known for their nudity-filled live shows. At their first gig in 1994, they were approached by record label Tim/Kerr, who offered to pay for the recording of an album; the result was 1995's Dandys Rule OK. Musically, Dandys Rule OK combined elements of 1960s garage rock, the then-popular Britpop genre, a shoegaze approach. Major record label Capitol Records were impressed by Dandys Rule OK, decided to sign the band. In 1997, they released their second studio album... The Dandy Warhols Come Down, it was their second attempt at a follow-up album, after their first attempt was rejected by Capitol, who claimed it didn't have any "hits".
Three singles were released for Come Down. Being their first record on a major label, Come Down featured a more commercial, polished sound, abandoning the garage rock sound of the previous album in favor of a more psychedelic and power pop-influenced sound. In 1998, drummer Eric Hedford left the band after a dispute over royalties, was replaced by Taylor-Taylor's cousin Brent DeBoer. In 2000, the band released their third studio album, Thirteen Tales from Urban Bohemia, it was a critical and commercial success, due to the single "Bohemian Like You" being featured in a popular Vodafone advertisement as well as on the TV show Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The song has been featured in the animated movie Flushed Away in a chase scene, on the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack for the film Igby Goes Down. Thirteen Tales from Urban Bohemia featured a less overdriven sound, with less overt psychedelia and more stylings in common with the power pop genre. Around this time, Taylor-Taylor took out a loan to acquire an industrial warehouse space in northwest Portland, dubbed "The Odditorium" and occupying a quarter city block.
The Odditorium is the band's eclectic rehearsal space and recording and mixing studio. It serves as an art space and clubhouse for parties and other events, it opened on November 15, 2001. Becoming a fan of the band after seeing them play at the Glastonbury Festival in 2000, David Bowie selected The Dandy Warhols to play at the 2002 Meltdown festival. Bowie and the Dandys played a rendition of The Velvet Underground's "White Light / White Heat" together as an encore to the July 29 gig, billed as The New Heathens Night; the band supported Bowie on his 2003 A Reality Tour. In September 2001, the band began work on their next studio album; the result was Welcome to the Monkey House, released in 2003. Produced by Nick Rhodes of Duran Duran, the album featured a major shift towards a 1980s-influenced synthpop sound; the album was spearheaded by its first single, "We Used to Be Friends", which went on to become one of the band's most popular tracks, gaining exposure through use as the theme song for the American cult television show Veronica Mars, as well as an appearance in The O.
C. Two further singles, were released in promotion of the album; this song was featured in EA sport FIFA 2004. Along with band The Brian Jonestown Massacre, The Dandy Warhols were the subjects of the 2004 documentary film Dig!. The film captured a love–hate relationship between both bands, highlighting the interaction of Taylor-Taylor and BJM frontman Anton Newcombe, it was recorded over the course of seven years by filmmaker Ondi Timoner, won the Documentary Grand Jury Prize at the 2004 Sundance Film Festival. In the same year, the band released a double album, comprising The Black Album – the album recorded before... The Dandy Warhols Come Down, rejected by Capitol Records and dismissed by the band themselves – and Come on Feel The Dandy Warhols, a collection of B-sides, cover versions and unreleased songs; the Dandy Warhols appeared in the 2004 film 9 Songs, performing a live rendition of the song "You Were the Last High" as one of the film's titular "nine songs". The Dandy Warhols started work on their next studio album in mid-2004.
The result was Warlords of Mars, released the following year. It was named after and recorded in the band's own studio, The Odditorium. Odditorium or Warlords of Mars was a return to the psychedelic, guitar-orientated rock of... The Dandy Warhols Come Down, moving away from the synth-heavy sound of their previous album, Welcome to the Monkey House. Two singles were released from the album: "Sm
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different ethnic groups of central Mexico those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Aztec culture was organized into city-states, some of which joined to form alliances, political confederations, or empires; the Aztec empire was a confederation of three city-states established in 1427, city-state of the Mexica or Tenochca. Although the term Aztecs is narrowly restricted to the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, it is broadly used to refer to Nahua polities or peoples of central Mexico in the prehispanic era, as well as the Spanish colonial era; the definitions of Aztec and Aztecs have long been the topic of scholarly discussion since German scientist Alexander von Humboldt established its common usage in the early nineteenth century. Most ethnic groups of central Mexico in the post-classic period shared basic cultural traits of Mesoamerica, so many of the traits that characterize Aztec culture cannot be said to be exclusive to the Aztecs.
For the same reason, the notion of "Aztec civilization" is best understood as a particular horizon of a general Mesoamerican civilization. The culture of central Mexico includes maize cultivation, the social division between nobility and commoners, a pantheon, the calendric system of a xiuhpohualli of 365 days intercalated with a tonalpohualli of 260 days. Particular to the Mexica of Tenochtitlan was the patron God Huitzilopochtli, twin pyramids, the ceramic ware known as Aztec I to IV. From the 13th century, the Valley of Mexico was the heart of dense population and the rise of city-states; the Mexica were late-comers to the Valley of Mexico, founded the city-state of Tenochtitlan on unpromising islets in Lake Texcoco becoming the dominant power of the Aztec Triple Alliance or Aztec Empire. It was a tributary empire that expanded its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica in the late post-classic period, it originated in 1427 as an alliance between the city-states Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan.
Soon Texcoco and Tlacopan were relegated to junior partnership in the alliance, with Tenochtitlan the dominant power. The empire extended its reach by a combination of trade and military conquest, it was never a true territorial empire controlling a territory by large military garrisons in conquered provinces, but rather dominated its client city-states by installing friendly rulers in conquered territories, by constructing marriage alliances between the ruling dynasties, by extending an imperial ideology to its client city-states. Client city-states paid tribute to the Aztec emperor, the Huey Tlatoani, in an economic strategy limiting communication and trade between outlying polities, making them dependent on the imperial center for the acquisition of luxury goods; the political clout of the empire reached far south into Mesoamerica conquering polities as far south as Chiapas and Guatemala and spanning Mesoamerica from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans. The empire reached its maximal extent in 1519, just prior to the arrival of a small group of Spanish conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés.
Cortés allied with city-states opposed to the Mexica the Nahuatl-speaking Tlaxcalteca as well as other central Mexican polities, including Texcoco, its former ally in the Triple Alliance. After the fall of Tenochtitlan on August 13, 1521 and the capture of the emperor Cuauhtemoc, the Spanish founded Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. From there they proceeded with the process of conquest and incorporation of Mesoamerican peoples into the Spanish Empire. With the destruction of the superstructure of the Aztec Empire in 1521, the Spanish utilized the city-states on which the Aztec Empire had been built, to rule the indigenous populations via their local nobles; those nobles pledged loyalty to the Spanish crown and converted, at least nominally, to Christianity, in return were recognized as nobles by the Spanish crown. Nobles acted as intermediaries to convey tribute and mobilize labor for their new overlords, facilitating the establishment of Spanish colonial rule. Aztec culture and history is known through archaeological evidence found in excavations such as that of the renowned Templo Mayor in Mexico City.
Important for knowledge of post-conquest Nahuas was the training of indigenous scribes to write alphabetic texts in Nahuatl for local purposes under Spanish colonial rule. At its height, Aztec culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions, as well as achieving remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments; the Nahuatl words and mean "people from Aztlan," a mythical place of origin for several ethnic groups in central Mexico. The term was not used as an endonym by Aztecs themselves, but it is