Norwegian Lutheran Church (Grytviken)
Grytviken Church known as the Whalers Church, as the Norwegian Lutheran Church, was built in 1913 in Grytviken, South Georgia. The church was part of the Church of Norway for a century from 1913 to 2013, it was formally handed over to the United Kingdom in 2013, is now part of the Anglican Communion Diocese of the Falkland Islands. The church had a cameo appearance in the 2006 animated film Happy Feet; the Neo-Gothic church was pre-built in Norway and erected in Grytviken by whalers led by Carl Anton Larsen around 1912–1913 and consecrated on Christmas Day 1913. The church consists of a single nave leading to a small altar. A small library is attached to the side near the altar. Inside, worshippers are seated on long wood benches; the floor's dark wood planks contrast with the white walls and celling. The church, one of the most southern churches on earth, was consecrated on Christmas Day in 1913. In 1922, a funeral service for Sir Ernest Shackleton was conducted in this church before his burial amongst 64 others in the church cemetery.
The cemetery, located 700 metres to the south on the other end of Grytviken Harbour holds empty graves for lost whalers at sea. The church was led by Kristen Løken, from 1913 to 1914. Løken was born in 1885 in Lillehammer and was made Pastor of South Georgia and arrived in 1912 to take his post, he was responsible for supervising the building of the church building as well. Løken was the only pastor for this church. Løken died in 1975; the Grytviken Cemetery, associated with the church, is located about 700 metres away to the south. It predates the church, first accepting whalers' graves before 1902, it holds 64 graves, including nine victims of a 1912 typhoid epidemic, Ernest Shackleton, the ashes of fellow polar explorer Frank Wild which were interred in 2011, Félix Artuso, an Argentinian submarine officer, killed in the 1982 British recapture of South Georgia from Argentina. In April 1982, during the invasion of South Georgia by Argentinian military forces, members of a British Antarctic Survey team were invited by British marines to take shelter in the church.
After years of abandonment and weathering the harsh elements of the region, the church was renovated by the keepers of South Georgia Museum and volunteers in 1996-1998, now serves for occasional church services and marriage ceremonies. Trinity Church located south of Grytviken in Antarctica South Georgia Museum – one of a few active structures in town Løken Pond – named for the church's only pastor Grytviken Cemetery
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
The Antarctic is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica, the Kerguelen Plateau and other island territories located on the Antarctic Plate or south of the Antarctic Convergence; the Antarctic region includes the ice shelves and all the island territories in the Southern Ocean situated south of the Antarctic Convergence, a zone 32 to 48 km wide varying in latitude seasonally. The region covers some 20 percent of the Southern Hemisphere, of which 5.5 percent is the surface area of the Antarctic continent itself. All of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude are administered under the Antarctic Treaty System. Biogeographically, the Antarctic ecozone is one of eight ecozones of the Earth's land surface; the maritime part of the region constitutes the area of application of the international Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, where for technical reasons the Convention uses an approximation of the Convergence line by means of a line joining specified points along parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.
The implementation of the Convention is managed through an international Commission headquartered in Hobart, Australia, by an efficient system of annual fishing quotas and international inspectors on the fishing vessels, as well as satellite surveillance. Most of the Antarctic region is situated south of 60°S latitude parallel, is governed in accordance with the international legal regime of the Antarctic Treaty System; the Treaty area covers the continent itself and its adjacent islands, as well as the archipelagos of the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Peter I Island, Scott Island and Balleny Islands. The islands situated between 60°S latitude parallel to the south and the Antarctic Convergence to the north, their respective 200-nautical-mile exclusive economic zones fall under the national jurisdiction of the countries that possess them: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Bouvet Island, Heard and McDonald Islands. Kerguelen Islands are situated in the Antarctic Convergence area, while the Falkland Islands, Isla de los Estados, Hornos Island with Cape Horn, Diego Ramírez Islands, Campbell Island, Macquarie Island and Saint Paul Islands, Crozet Islands, Prince Edward Islands, Gough Island and Tristan da Cunha group remain north of the Convergence and thus outside the Antarctic region.
A variety of animals live in Antarctica for at least some of the year, including: Seals Penguins South Georgia pipits Albatrosses Antarctic petrels Whales Fish, such as Antarctic icefish, Antarctic toothfish Squid, including the colossal squid Antarctic krillMost of the Antarctic continent is permanently covered by ice and snow, leaving less than 1 percent of the land exposed. There are only two species of flowering plant, Antarctic hair grass and Antarctic pearlwort, but a range of mosses, liverworts and macrofungi; the first Antarctic land discovered was the island of South Georgia, visited by the English merchant Anthony de la Roché in 1675. Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent of Antarctica is accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny; the first human born in the Antarctic was Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen born on 8 October 1913 in Grytviken, South Georgia.
The Antarctic region had no indigenous population when first discovered, its present inhabitants comprise a few thousand transient scientific and other personnel working on tours of duty at the several dozen research stations maintained by various countries. However, the region is visited by more than 40,000 tourists annually, the most popular destinations being the Antarctic Peninsula area and South Georgia Island. In December 2009, the growth of tourism, with consequences for both the ecology and the safety of the travellers in its great and remote wilderness, was noted at a conference in New Zealand by experts from signatories to the Antarctic Treaty; the definitive results of the conference was presented at the Antarctic Treaty states' meeting in Uruguay in May 2010. The Antarctic hosts the world's largest protected area comprising 1.07 million km2, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Marine Protection Area created in 2012. The latter exceeds the surface area of another vast protected territory, the Greenland National Park’s 972,000 km2.
Because Antarctica surrounds the South Pole, it is theoretically located in all time zones. For practical purposes, time zones are based on territorial claims or the time zone of a station's owner country or supply base. Antarctic Circle History of Antarctica Krupnik, Michael A. Lang, Scott E. Miller, eds. Smithsonian at the Poles: Contributions to International Polar Year Science. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2009. British Services Antarctic Expedition 2012 Committee for Environmental Protection of Antarctica Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty CCAMLR Commission Antarctic Heritage Trusts International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators Map of the Antarctic Convergence The South Atlantic and Subantarctic Islands
History of whaling
This article discusses the history of whaling from prehistoric times up to the commencement of the International Whaling Commission moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986. Humans have engaged in whaling since prehistoric times; the earliest depictions of whaling have been discovered in Korea at the Neolithic Bangudae site, which may date back to 6000 BCE. Bangudae is the earliest evidence for whaling. Archaeological evidence acquired by the University of Alaska Fairbanks demonstrates whaling began at least circa 1000 BCE; the oldest known method of catching cetaceans is dolphin drive hunting, in which a number of small boats are positioned between the animal and the open sea, after which the animals are herded towards shore in an attempt to beach them. This was — and still is — used for smaller species such as pilot whales, beluga whales and narwhals; this technique is described in A Pattern of Islands, a memoir published by British administrator Arthur Grimble in 1952. The next step was to employ a drogue such as a wooden drum or an inflated sealskin, tied to an arrow or a harpoon.
Once the missile had been shot into a whale's body, the buoyancy and drag from the drogue would cause the whale to fatigue, allowing it to be approached and killed. Several cultures around the world practiced whaling with drogues, including the Ainu, Native Americans, the Basque people of the Bay of Biscay; the Bangudae petroglyphs, an archaeological site in South Korea, suggests that drogues and lines were being used to kill small whales as early as 6000 BCE. Petroglyphs unearthed by researchers from Kyungpook National University show sperm whales, humpback whales and North Pacific right whales surrounded by boats. Similarly-aged cetacean bones were found in the area, reflecting the importance of whales in the prehistoric diet of coastal people. Whale bones recovered near the Strait of Gibraltar raised the possibility that whales were hunted in the Mediterranean Sea by ancient Rome Whaling on the Pacific Northwest Coast encompasses both aboriginal and commercial whaling along the coast from Washington State through British Columbia to Alaska.
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast have whaling traditions dating back millennia, the hunting of cetaceans continues by Alaska Natives and to a lesser extent by the Makah people. In the twentieth century there was a commercial whaling industry, small by global standards, in British Columbia and southeast Alaska, as evidenced by place names such as Blubber Bay; when Coal Harbour closed its whaling station in the late 1960s, the industrial killing of whales in Pacific Canada was over. By that point, marine entrepreneurs had moved on to hunting orcas for live capture, to be displayed in aquaria; that lasted about a decade. As the twentieth century whaling stations existed in British Columbia and Alaska, they are covered in more detail in the articles Whaling in Canada and Whaling in the United States respectively; some of the pre-contact hunting - and, for that matter, some of the orca captures too - took place across the waters of the two countries, hence this grouping of the two countries.
A description of the assistance that European technology brought to skilled indigenous whale hunters is given in the memoir of John R. Jewitt, an English blacksmith who spent three years as a captive of the Nuu-chah-nulth people from 1802-1805. Jewitt mentions the importance of whale meat and oil to the diet. Whaling was integral to the cultures and economies of other indigenous people as well, notably the Makah and Klallam. For other groups the Haida, whales appear prominently as totems; the first mention of Basque whaling was made in 1059, when it was said to have been practiced at the Basque town of Bayonne. The fishery spread to what is now the Spanish Basque Country in 1150, when King Sancho the Wise of Navarre granted petitions for the warehousing of such commodities as whalebone. At first, they only hunted the whale they called sarda, or the North Atlantic right whale, using watchtowers to look for their distinctive twin vapour spouts. By the 14th century they were making "seasonal trips" to the English southern Ireland.
The fishery spread to Terranova in the second quarter of the 16th century, to Iceland at least by the early 17th century. They established whaling stations at the former in Red Bay, established some in the latter as well. In Terranova they hunted bowheads and right whales, while in Iceland they appear to have only hunted the latter; the fishery in Terranova declined for a variety of reasons. Principal among them the conflicts between Spain and other European powers during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, attacks by hostile Inuit, declining whale populations, the opening up of the Spitsbergen fishery in 1611; the first voyages to Spitsbergen by the English and Danish relied on Basque specialists, with the Basque provinces sending out their own whaler in 1612. The following season San Sebastián and Saint-Jean-de-Luz sent out a combined eleven or twelve whalers to the Spitsbergen fishery, but most were driven off by the Dutch and English. Two more ships were sent by a merchant in San Sebastián in 1615, but both were driven away by the Dutch.
They continued whale fishing in Iceland and Spitsbergen at least into the 18th century, but Basque whaling in those regions appears to have ended with the commencement of the Seven Years' War. Encouraged by reports of whales off the coast of Spitsbergen, Norway, in 1610, the English Muscovy Company (also know
Whaling in Norway
Whaling in Norway involves subsidized hunting of minke whales for use as animal and human food in Norway and for export to Japan. Whale hunting has been a part of Norwegian coastal culture for centuries, commercial operations targeting the minke whale have occurred since the early 20th century; some still continue the practice in the modern day. Norwegians caught whales off the coast of Tromsø as early as the 10th century. Vikings from Norway introduced whaling methods for driving small cetaceans, like pilot whales, into fjords in Iceland; the Norse sagas, other ancient documents, provide few details on Norwegian whaling. The sagas recount some disputes between families over whale carcasses but do not describe any organized whale fishery in Norway. Spear-drift whaling was practised in the North Atlantic as early as the 12th century. In open boats, hunters would strike a whale, using a marked spear, with the intent of locating the beached carcass to claim a rightful share. From the early 17th century through the 18th century, Basque whalers hunted as far north as Svalbard and Bear Island, to include participation in Dutch and English whaling expeditions there.
Competition between nations led to over-exploitation of whale stocks. By the middle of the 17th century other European nations hunted whale in these lucrative waters; the whales were hunted to render oil from the blubber for production of soap, paint and more—including oil for illumination. The baleen, or whalebone, was used in products like corsets and umbrellas. On arrival at Spitsbergen, the whalers would set anchor construct a shore station with materials from the ship; the whales were spotted from shore chased and lanced from the bow of a shallop. The whale carcass was next towed back to the shore station where the blubber was removed and boiled down; the whale oil was stored in wooden casks which were loaded onto the anchored ship. The Dutch used Jan Mayen Island as a base for whaling having established a semi-permanent shore station in the early seventeenth century on Amsterdam Island, which became the village of Smeerenburg. Norwegian ships were sent to Svalbard during the 18th century.
New techniques and technologies, developed in the mid 19th century, revolutionized the whaling industry and Norway's prominence as a whaling nation. In 1865, Thomas Welcome Roys and C. A. Lilliendahl, tested their experimental rocket harpoon design and set up a shore station in Seyðisfjörður, Iceland. A slump in oil prices after the American Civil War forced their endeavor into bankruptcy in 1867. A Norwegian, Svend Foyn studied the American method in Iceland. Svend Foyn, was born in Tønsberg in 1809, his father was lost at sea. Raised by his mother, Foyn came to be considered the'Father of modern whaling', his own harpoon design proved to be much more effective than the American experiment. There were many others. In 1867, a Danish fireworks manufacturer, Gaetano Amici, patented. An Englishman, George Welch, patented a grenade harpoon in 1867 similar to Foyn's invention. In 1856, Phillip Rechten, of Bremen, together with the gunsmith Cordes, produced a double-barreled whale gun with a separate harpoon and bomb-lance.
Another Norwegian, Jacob Nicolai Walsøe experimented with an explosive tipped projectile design. A third Norwegian, Arent Christian Dahl experimented with explosive harpoons from 1857-1860. In 1863, Foyn contracted the building of his first whaling ship—a steam powered ship that had seven whaling cannons—the Spes et Fides; the ship was fitted with check boards to increase the drag on harpooned whales. He incorporated a'compensator' or'accumulator' from the Roys system—a series of rollers and springs installed below deck—to help the thick whale line, attached to the harpoon, to take up some of the shock without breaking. Svend Foyn, after years of experiments and expeditions, patented the modern whaling harpoon in 1870, his basic design is still in use today, he solved these problems in his own system. He included, with the help of H. M. T. Esmark, a grenade tip that exploded inside the whale; this harpoon design utilized a shaft, connected to the head with a moveable joint. His original cannons were muzzle-loaded with special padding and used a unique form of gunpowder.
The cannons were replaced with safer breech-loading types. "God had let the whale inhabit for the benefit and blessing of mankind, I considered it my vocation to promote these fisheries." Svend Foyn In 1864, Foyn took his first whaling ship to Finnmark but was unsuccessful and only caught a few whales. However, with the 1870 introduction of his improved harpoon design, powered ships, larger rorquals could be chased and killed off Norway's shores with new and deadly efficiency. By the 1880s, there were twenty whaling companies operating out of Norway. Foyn, while enjoying a ten-year whaling monopoly, granted by the Norwegian government to protect the new opportunity and technology from German competitors, moved his whaling operation from Tønsberg to Vadsø. In spite of frequent disputes between the whalers and the people of Vadsø, Foyn overcame oil production issues and enjoyed great success, he established guano factories rather than let the stripped whale carcasses go to waste. Attempts to market the meat for domestic consumption were unsuccessful.
Regardless of the monopoly, in 1876, some Norwegian c
Lars Christensen was a Norwegian shipowner and whaling magnate. He was a philanthropist with a keen interest in the exploration of Antarctica. Lars Christensen was born at Sandar in Norway. Born into a wealthy family, Christensen inherited his whaling fleet from his father, Christen Christensen. After completing middle school in 1899, he received training in Germany and at Newcastle followed by trade college in Kristiania, he started his career as a ship owner in 1906. He ventured into the whaling industry in 1909, directed several companies, including Framnæs Mekaniske Værksted, AS Thor Dahl, AS Odd, AS Ørnen, AS Thorsholm and Bryde og Dahls Hvalfangstselskap. Christensen was Danish consul in Sandefjord from 1909. In 1910 Lars Christensen had married Ingrid Dahl, daughter of wholesale merchant and ship owner Thor Dahl, he would assume control of large part of his father's and his father-in-law's extensive businesses following their deaths during the 1920s. Endurance, the ship that became famous after Sir Ernest Shackleton's failed Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914, was built for Christensen, who intended to use her for Arctic cruises for tourists to hunt polar bears.
When this did not happen, Christensen sold the ship to Shackleton. Christensen had a deep interest in its animal life, he was interested in making geographical discoveries, gave his captains wide latitude to do so. He financed several expeditions devoted to the exploration of the Antarctic continent and its waters, participated in some of these himself bringing his wife Ingrid with him in the 1936–1937 expedition, he was among the first to use aerial surveying with seaplanes to map the coast of East Antarctica, which he completed from the Weddell Sea to the Shackleton Ice Shelf, concentrating on Bouvetøya and the region from Enderby Land to Coats Land. From the seaplane brought on the 1936–1937 expedition, members took 2,200 oblique aerial photographs, covering 6,250 square miles. Mrs Christensen became the first woman to fly over the continent. On 1 December 1927, as the leader of one of his financed expeditions, Christensen landed on and claimed the Bouvet Island for Norway. On the expeditions he financed between 1927 and 1937, Christensen's men discovered and surveyed substantial new land on the Dronning Maud Land and MacRobertson Land coasts.
Places in Antarctica named after Christensen include the Lars Christensen Peak, the Lars Christensen Coast as well as Lars Christensen Land known as MacRobertson Land, where the Russian Soyuz station operated. In addition, Ingrid Christensen Coast was named after Christensen's wife, one of the first women to visit Antarctica. During World War II, Christensen was Counsellor of Finance at The Royal Norwegian Embassy in Washington, DC and a member of the Nortraship Council. After the War, the Thor Dahl Group, under the leadership of Christensen, regained its position as one of the leaders in the industry; the business gained an increasing number of other shipping companies, both tankers and liner shipping. Together with Otto Sverdrup and Oscar Wisting, Christensen initiated an expedition to recover another famous ship, the Fram. In 1935 the Fram was installed in the museum. Sandefjord Whaling Museum ) was donated to Sandefjord in 1917; this was one of the first dedicated museum buildings in Norway.
In his travels, Christensen collected a considerable volume of literature, including much on the subject of whaling. This material was donated to the library of Sandefjord Museum in the 1930s. Christensen provided funds for the further expansion of the Whaling Museum's library, overseen by shipping broker and consultant Bjarne Aagaard, whose extensive book collection formed a major addition to the library. Whaling Monument was first unveiled in 1960; the rotating bronze memorial statue is situated by the harbor at the end of Jernbanealleen in Sandefjord. The monument was created by Norwegian sculptor Knut Steen; the costs associated with the design and construction of the sculpture were donated to the city by Lars Christensen. In 1962, Christensen funded the cost of the construction of Olav Chapel in Sandefjord. Outside the building is a relief of Saint Olav by sculptor Ragnhild Butenschøn; the frame around the front door shows Bible motifs designed by Finn Henrik Bodvin. The altar image was painted by Hugo Lous Mohr.
He was decorated as a commander of the Order of Vasa. In 1917 he was appointed Commander of the Order of Dannebrog, he was appointed to knight of the Order of St. Olav in 1931 and in 1944 he received the Commander's Cross with the Star of Order of St. Olav. Christensen was awarded a honorary doctorate at St. Olaf College. Christensen was a fellow of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters and received its Gunnerus Medal, an honorary fellow of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, he was a honorary member of the Norwegian Geographic Society and in the Royal Norwegian Science Society in Trondheim and was awarded of the American Geographical Society David Livingstone Centenary Medal in 1935. Lars Christensen My Last Expedition to the Antarctic 1936-1937 Hans S I Bogen 70 år. Lars Christensen og hans samtid