Vesterøya is one of two peninsulas outside Sandefjord, Norway. It is known for its many beaches and idyllic costal landscape, but there are numerous trails used for hiking and biking. During the Viking age, ocean water levels were 3–4 meters higher than today. Vesterøya was therefore an island surrounded by waters, but became a peninsula as water levels decreased. Vesterøya was known as Velløy, which derives from Vadill-øy. West Island lies between south-east of the city center; the landscape is dominated by hills, forests, sloping rocks, farm fields. The peninsula has a length of 10 kilometers, it is home to a large number of vacation homes, beaches and recreational areas. Sea water levels were 20–25 meters higher 5,000 years ago, which means Vesterøya consisted of a large island and 25-30 minor islets. Previous names for Vesterøya include Velløy, Vælløy, Valløy, Veløyene, Vælløynni. There are 25 km of hiking trails at Vesterøya, an extension of the 20 km coastal path at Østerøya. Combined the 45 km hiking trail is part of the international North Sea Trail.
West Island is home to numerous preserved areas, including Holtan Plant Preserve, the only place in Vestfold County where the species Pipsissewa occurs. Folehavna Fort at West Island's southernmost point was constructed by the Germans in 1941 during the German occupation of Norway; the Norwegian Armed Forces maintained control of the area until 1995, when it became a public recreation area. Bunkers, trenches and tunnels can still be seen at Folehavna. At most about 200 German troops were stationed at Folehavna Fort, it is the southernmost point of Sandefjord, located on the mainland. German forces constructed three large tunnels at Folehavna, including a 120-meter tunnel. Four 15 cm cannons were installed in concrete gun pits on the sloping rocks; some beaches at West Island: Asnes Tangen Folehavna Sjøbakken Langeby Albertstranda Vøra Fruvika Grubesand Langestrand Ormestadvika Østerøya
Sandar is a former municipality in Vestfold county, Norway. Sandar was established as a municipality January 1, 1838, it was merged with Sandefjord and became its northeastern suburb on January 1, 1968. Sandar was the rural part of the current municipality, although it had its share of industry, too located close to the former border between the two municipalities, thus many famous corporations now associated with Sandefjord had their origins in Sandar, e.g. Jotun, Framnæs Mekaniske Værksted and Sandar Fabrikker. With the merger, the combined district took the name of the much smaller town and made Sandar disappear from history; the municipality was named after the old farm Sande. The name is the plural form of sandr m'sand; the municipality, established 1838, was named Sandeherred'the herred of Sande'. Sandar was located in the southern half of the county called Vestfold, by the coast. To get there, directions are as for Sandefjord - by road from the south or the north via E18. Berg, Lorens. Bygdebok for Sandeherred, 1918
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a treshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct treshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and were created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind. In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast.
Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts. This current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current there is a reverse current of saltier water from the coast.
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Vestfold is a county in Norway, on the western shore of the Oslofjord. It borders Telemark; the county administration is in Tønsberg, Norway's oldest city, the largest city is Sandefjord. With the exception of the city-county of Oslo, Vestfold is the smallest county in Norway by area. Vestfold is located west of the Oslofjord, it includes many smaller, but well-known towns in Norway, such as Larvik, Sandefjord, Tønsberg and Horten. The river Numedalslågen runs through the county. Many islands are located at the coast. Vestfold is dominated by lowland and is among the best agricultural areas of Norway. Winters last about three months, while pleasant summer temperatures last from May to September, with a July average high of 17 °C. Vestfold is traditionally known for sailing. Sandefjord was a headquarters for the Norwegian whaling fleet, Horten used to be an important naval port; the coastal towns of Vestfold now engage in shipbuilding. Some lumbering is carried on in the interior; the area includes some of the best farmland in Norway.
Vestfold is the only county in which all municipalities have declared Bokmål to be their sole official written form of the Norwegian language. Vestfold will merge with neighboring Telemark County on January 1, 2020 as part of a nationwide municipal reform; the new county name is Vestfold og Telemark. Vestfold is the old name of the region, revived in modern times. Fold was the old name of the Oslofjord, the meaning of the name Vestfold is the region west of the Fold. Before 1919, the county was called Jarlsberg og Larvik Amt; the amt was created in 1821, consisting of the two old counties of Larvik. In the Viking age, Vestfold referred to Eiker, Kongsberg, now in Buskerud. Vestfold is mentioned for the first time in a written source in 813, when Danish kings were in Vestfold to quell an uprising amongst the Fürsts. There may have been as many as six political centers in Vestfold. At that time Kaupang, located in Tjølling near Larvik, had been functioning for decades and had a chieftain. Kaupang, which dates from the Viking Era, is believed to be the first town in Norway, although Tønsberg is the oldest town in Norway still in existence.
At Borre, there was a site for another chieftain. That site held chieftains for more than one hundred years prior to 813; the stone mounds at Mølen have been dated to the Viking Age. The mounds at Haugar in present-day Tønsberg's town centre have been dated to the Viking period. At Farmannshaugen in Sem there seems to have been activity at the time, while activity at Oseberghaugen and Gokstadhaugen dates from a few decades later. An English source from around 890 retells the voyage of Ottar "from the farthest North, along Norvegr via Kaupang and Hedeby to England", where Ottar places Kaupang in the land of the Dane - danenes land. Bjørn Brandlien says that "To the degree that Harald Hårfagre gathered a kingdom after the Battle of Hafrsfjord at the end of the 9th century -, connected to Avaldsnes - it does not seem to have made such a great impression on Ottar". Kaupang is mentioned under the name of Skiringssal in Ottar's tales. By the 10th century, the local kings had established themselves; the king or his ombudsman resided in the old Royal Court at Sæheim i Sem, today the Jarlsberg Estate in Tønsberg.
The farm Haugar became the seat for Haugating, the Thing for Vestfold and one of Norway's most important place for the proclamation of kings. The family of Harald Fairhair, most the first king of Norway, is said to have come from this area; the Danish kings seem to have been weak in Vestfold from around the middle of the 9th century until the middle of the 10th century, but their rule was strengthened there at the end of the 10th century. The Danish kings seem to have tried to control the region until the 13th century. Erik Agnarsson Halfdan Hvitbeinn Eystein Halfdansson Halfdan the Mild Gudrød the Hunter Halfdan the Black, together with his brother, Olaf Gudrødsson Ragnvald the Mountain-High, Cousin of Harold Fairhair Harald Fairhair Bjørn Farmann Olaf Haraldsson Geirstadalf, brother of Bjørn Harald Gudrødsson Grenske, 976–987 Whaling was an important 19th century industry in coastal cities such as Larvik, Tønsberg, Sandefjord, the world centre for the world's modern whaling industry. Not only did men from Vestfold County make up all the crew on the Norwegian whaling fleet, but many were involved in the whaling industry in other nations.
As an example, the first phase of modern Australian whaling was entirely based on workers from Larvik. While the first whaling station in the Faroe Islands was established by Sandefjordians, Larvik played a similar role for the Shetland Islands. Tønsberg initiated much of the whaling industry in Iceland and the Hebrides; the largest settlement in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, was established by Carl Anton Larsen of Sandefjord on November 16, 1904. Sandefjordian Nils Larsen's expeditions to Antarctica in the early 20th century led to the Norwegian annexation of Bouvet Island and Peter I Island. A cove on Peter I Island is named Sandefjord Cove in honor of Nils Larsen's hometown. Sandefjord Harbor is now home to Southern Actor, the only whale-catcher from the Modern Whaling Epoch still to be in its original order; the museum ship is owned by Sandefjord Whaling Museum, Europe's only museum dedicated to wh
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor