Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the city on the Neckar is the seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Furthermore, Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt, after Heinrich von Kleist's Das Käthchen von Heilbronn. Heilbronn is located in the northern corner of the Neckar basin at the bottom of the Wartberg, it occupies both banks of the Neckar, the highest spot inside city limits is the Schweinsberg with a height of 372 meters. Heilbronn is surrounded by vineyards. Heilbronn and its surroundings are located in the northern part of the larger Stuttgart metropolitan area; the city is the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region and is one of fourteen such cities in the Baden-Württemberg master plan of 2002. It serves Abstatt, Bad Rappenau, Bad Wimpfen, Brackenheim, Eberstatt, Eppingen, Gemmingen, Güglingen, Ittlingen, Lauffen am Neckar, Leingarten, Löwenstein, Neckarwestheim, Obersulm, Schwaigern, Talheim, Weinsberg, Wüstenrot, Zaberfeld as a regional economic centre.
Heilbronn shares a border with the following cities and towns, all part of Heilbronn County and listed here clockwise from the North: Bad Wimpfen, Erlenbach, Lehrensteinsfeld, Flein, Lauffen am Neckar, Leingarten, Schwaigern and Bad Rappenau. The city is divided into nine boroughs: The oldest traces of humans in and around Heilbronn date back to the Old Stone Age; the fertile Neckar floodplains in the Heilbronn basin aided early settlement by farmers and ranchers. The city limits of present-day Heilbronn contain. On, but still before AD, the Celts mined here for salt from brine. Under Roman Emperor Domitian the Romans pushed east away from the Rhine and the outer boundary of the Roman Empire was set at the Neckar-Odenwald Limes. A castle in today's borough of Böckingen was part of that limes, nearby numerous Roman villas and plantations were built. Around AD 150, the Neckar-Odenwald Limes became obsolete when the boundary of the Roman Empire was moved 30 km to the east, where it was subsequently fortified with the construction of the Upper Germanic Limes complete with parapet and trenches.
Around 260, the Romans surrendered the limes, the Alamanni became rulers of the Neckar basin. Between the 4th and 7th centuries, the area became part of the Frankish Empire, the first settlement was built in the general vicinity of the present center of town. In 741 Heilbronn is first mentioned in an official document of the Diocese of Würzburg as villa Helibrunna, in 841, King Louis the German set up court here for a period of time; the name Heilbrunna hints to a well, located not far from the basilica. In 1050 a significant settlement of Jews is noted in official documents, the Codex of the monastery in Hirsau documented Heilbronn's right to hold market days and mint coins, mentioning its harbor and vineyards as well; the name of the city became a widespread Jewish surname in many varieties, see Heilprin and Halperin. In 1225 Heilbronn was incorporated into the Hohenstaufen Empire as oppidum Heilecbrunnen. Oppidum signified a city fortified by parapet and trenches. During the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights obtained ownership of a large area south of Heilbronn which would remain owned by that order until German Mediatisation in 1805.
Starting in 1268, the order built the Deutschhof there as one of its residences. The church building of the order, located on the premises was modified and expanded several times: First in 1350 it was expanded it was remodeled in 1719, in 1977, it was consecrated as a cathedral. After the demise of the Staufen dynasty, King Rudolf I returned city status to Heilbronn in 1281 and installed a regal advocate to rule the city. In addition to the advocate he put a council in place, headed up by a mayor. Around 1300, the first city hall was erected in the market place and the Kilianskirche was expanded; the Neckar privilege gave the city the right to modify the flow of the river in 1333, which meant it now had the right to construct dams and mills. Because of the infrastructure thus created, during the 14th century Heilbronn grew attractive to merchants and craftspeople, who now demanded the right to determine their own fate. In 1371 Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, issued a new charter to the city. Now Heilbronn needed as such was an Imperial Free City.
Craftspeople and merchants were now represented in its council and the villages of Böckingen, Flein and Neckargartach became part of Heilbronn's territory. As an Imperial Free City Heilbronn was threatened by the ambitious House of Württemberg. A relationship with the Holy Roman Emperor and a treaty with the Electorate of the Palatinate in effect from 1417 to 1622 strengthened Heilbronn's position and kept the House of Württemberg at bay; the political stability enjoyed by the city during the 15th century enabled it to expand, many of its historic structures, such as the Kilianskirche, trace their origins to that era. Götz von Berlichingen spent three years in "kn
Weinheim is a town in the north west of the state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany with 43,000 inhabitants 15 km north of Heidelberg and 10 km northeast of Mannheim. Together with these cities, it makes up the Rhine-Neckar triangle, it has the nickname "Zwei-Burgen-Stadt", or Two-Castle city, named after the two fortresses on the hill overlooking the town in the east on the edge of the Odenwald, the Windeck and the Wachenburg. The city of Weinheim with said Wachenburg castle, built by German Student Corps fraternities in the early 1900s, is the location of the annual convention of the Weinheimer Senioren-Convent. Weinheim is situated on the Bergstraße theme route on the western rim of the Odenwald; the old town lies with the new part of town further to the west. The Market Square is filled with numerous cafes, as well as the old Rathaus. Further to the south is the Schlossgarten and the Exotenwald, which contains species of trees imported from around the world, but from North America and Japan.
Weinheim celebrated its 1250th anniversary in 2005. The earliest record of Weinheim dates back to 755 AD, when the name "Winenheim" was recorded in the Lorsch codex, the record book of Lorsch Abbey. In 1000 AD, Emperor Otto III bestowed Weinheim the right to hold markets, in 1065 the right to mint and issue coins. A new town developed next to the old town from 1250. In 1308, the old town was transferred to the Electorate of the Palatinate. From 1368 onwards the whole town belonged to the Electorate of the Palatinate and the Heidelberg Oberamt district since the end of the 14th century. With the transfer to Baden in 1803, Weinheim became the seat of its own Amt, unified with Landkreis Mannheim in 1936. From 1938 onwards Weinheim belonged to Landkreis Mannheim until January 1, 1973, when the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis was formed. Windeck Castle built around 1100 to protect the Lorsch monastery, it was badly damaged in the Thirty Years' War and by Louis XIV of France. Wachenburg Castle, built between 1928 by student fraternities.
The Market Square The Schloss, home of the town council Gerberbach Quarter, old haunt of the leather makers Schlosspark Waidsee Lido, swimming beach on the Waidsee artificial lake Miramar thermal spa and sauna complex, next to the Waidsee lake Strandbad Waidsee Exotenwald Weinheim, a forest arboretum Schau- und Sichtungsgarten Hermannshof, a botanical garden Weinheim's synagogue, destroyed during the Kristallnacht. Weinheim's town museum occupies what used to be the headquarters of the Teutonic Order in the town and holds exhibits about Weinheim and its surroundings: archaeology from the prehistoric through to the Merovingian dynasty, the highlight of, the so-called "Nächstenbacher Bronze-find" of 76 objects from the late Bronze Age. February: High-jump Gala, with world class high-jumpers March: the Sommertagszug, a festival celebrating the coming of summer. May/June: day of the Weinheimer Senioren-Convents June–August: Weinheim's summer of culture June: Scheuerfest in Ritschweier July: the Weinheim road race May–September: Kerwes in Rippenweier, Sulzbach, Lützelsachsen, Oberflockenbach und Hohensachsen August: Weinheim's Kerwe September: Weinheimer UKW-Tagung, a three-day international amateur radio meeting held annually since 1956 October: Bergsträßer Winzerfest in Lützelsachsen Beltz Verlag Freudenberg Group Schlegel und Partner GmbH Kukident GmbH, Reckitt Benckiser AG Naturin OAGIS T-Systems ITS GmbH Wiley-VCH publishers 3 Glocken Weinheimer Nachrichten Druckhaus Diesbach SAP SE Domaniecki Carpetence DLCON Weinheim has two main train stations on the Main-Neckar Railway, these being Weinheim station and Lützelsachsen.
These provide connections to Frankfurt and other destinations within Germany. Deutsche Bahn Rhein-Neckar Verkehr Weinheim is served by the OEG tramway, used daily by people who use this to commute to the cities of Mannheim and Heidelberg; the closest airports to Weinheim are: Frankfurt Airport Baden Airpark Weinheim is twinned with: Ramat Gan, Israel These are the population figures for particular years. There are drawn from guesses,'Volkszählungsergebnisse and official statistics based on place of residence. ¹ These are taken from a Volkszählungsergebnes. The town of Weinheim has made the following people honorary citizens: 1894: Carl Johann Freudenberg, Geheimer Kommerzienrat 1904: Erhard Bissinger, Consul general 1913: Aute Bode, chief engineer and the architect behind the Wachenburg 1918: Hermann Ernst Freudenberg, Geheimer Kommerzienrat 1922: Georg Friedrich Vogler, vice-mayor 1923: Adam Karrillon and author 1928: Emil Hartmann, construction engineer 1928: Prof. Arthur Wienkoop, Architect 1933: Paul von Hindenburg, German President 1940: Georg Peter Nickel, agriculturist 1949: Richard Freudenberg, factory owner 1953: Hans Freudenberg, factory owner 1954: Sepp Herberger, sports trainer, trainer of the German World Cup winning side of 1954 1962: Wilhelm Brück, Lord Mayor 1986: Theo Gießelmann, Lord Mayor 2004: Dieter Freudenberg, factory owner 2004: Wolfgang Daffinger, representative in the Landtag 2005: Uwe Kleefoot, Lord Mayor Heinrich Hübsch, head of public works Karl Seidenadel, translator of Greek works Philipp Bickel, baptist theologian
Eppelheim is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg bordering Heidelberg. It belongs to the district Rhein-Neckar-Kreis. Eppelheim is situated in the valley of the Upper Rhine southwest of the hills of the Odenwald and directly on the Bundesautobahn 5; the location of the city within the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis is completely surrounded by the urban district of Heidelberg. Eppelheim borders the Heidelberg boroughs of Wieblingen in the North, Pfaffengrund in the East, Kirchheim in the South. To the West lies the municipality of Plankstadt within the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis. Another center in the Rhein-Neckar metropolitan region is Mannheim, about 20 km northwest of Eppelheim. Eppelheim does not have any boroughs, but locals orient on the directions of the compass and refer to the parts of the city that way. For example, northeast Eppelheim. However, there are no exact demarcations. Archaeological finds from the neolithic, the bronze age, the iron age, the early middle ages indicate that the area where the city is located was inhabited by people for a long time.
Eppelheim was first mentioned in historical documents pertaining to a grant in the year 770 in the Lorsch codex under the name Ebbelenheim. From the 11th century Eppelheim was a typical small village of the Electorate of the Palatinate; the number of inhabitants remained continuously under 150 up until the 18th century. Among the reasons for this was the destruction of Eppelheim in 1689; the village, like so many others in the area, was burned down by French troops on 28 January during the War of the Grand Alliance. Eppelheim was experienced a steady increase in population. In the 20th century the population boomed; the population went from 2644 in 1905 to 13,904 in 1997. The people of Eppelheim chose masonry as a career more than the average German in the 20th century. In 1908 there were over 400. Eppelheim is known in the region as a mason community. In 1998 Eppelheim was elevated to city status by the State of Baden-Württemberg; the municipal council of the city of Eppelheim has 22 members. They carry the title Stadträtin/Stadtrat.
The coat of arms in its current form was introduced in 1900. It is based on a lost seal from 1689; the coat of arms matches inescutcheon of the old coat of arms of the Electorate of the Palatinate, which refers to the honor of the counts palatine of the Rhine. The flag is yellow and red and was awarded by the Ministry of State in 1959. Eppelheim is twinned with: Wilthen, since 1989 Dammarie-lès-Lys, since 1996Friendly contacts have been established with the following cities: Vértesacsa Montebelluna The largest employer in Eppelheim is the Rudolf-Wild-Werke in the southern part of the city with about 1400 workers; the tax on the company's business is an important factor in determining the city budget. The company Wild has its headquarters in Eppelheim. Eppelheim is directly on the Bundesautobahn 5 and has access through the Heidelberg/Schwetzingen exit; the city is connected to the neighboring university city, Heidelberg by the well travelled streetcar line 22. The streetcar is run by the Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr GmbH.
The connection leads to other public transit opportunities. Bus line 713 connects to Schwetzingen via Plankstadt. Intracity connections are offered by Eppelheim's bus line 732, run by Busverkehr Rhein-Neckar GmbH as the so-called City-Bus. 1906: Jakob Neu, head teacher from 1878 to 1907 Andreas Jäger, mayor from 1919 to 1933 and from 1945 to 1954 1979: Rudolf Wild, founder of the Wild Alois Berberich, second mayor 1997: Leonie Wild, co-founder of the Wild-company 2001: Inge Burck 2003: Hans Stephan, retired rector 2006: Hans-Peter Wild and entrepreneur Wolfgang Ketterle, grew up in Eppelheim, holder of the Nobel Prize for Physics Ernst Knoll, eight times German champion and twice Olympic participant in wrestling Jakob Rupper, owner of a steel construction company and Member of Landtag Wolfgang Ernst, Lord Mayor of Leimen 2000-2016 Official website Private website about Eppelheim Condor Airpictures Aerial photos of Eppelheim and other cities
Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany covering an area of 19,846 km2 and a population of 4.05 million inhabitants, the seventh-most populous German state. Mainz is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Trier and Worms. Rhineland-Palatinate is surrounded by the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, it borders three foreign countries: France and Belgium. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II from territory of the separate regions of the Free State of Prussia, People's State of Hesse, Bavaria, by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate has since developed its own identity built on its natural and cultural heritage, including the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, its picturesque landscapes, many castles and palaces.
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War on 30 August 1946. It was formed from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province, from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz; the Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland; the present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier of the old Prussian Rhine Province, those parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse west of the River Rhine and belonging to the People's State of Hesse, parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld. On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French.
To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Palatinate. The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig. It was called Rhenish-Palatinate; the provisional French government at that time wanted to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, had led the way with the establishment of German federal states, the French came under increasing pressure and followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz.
On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly took place there, a draft constitution was drawn up. Local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government. Adolf Süsterhenn submitted a draft constitution to the Advisory State Assembly, passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against it. One of the reasons for this was that the draft constitution made provision for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947, the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted by 53% of the electorate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate. On the same date, the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month Peter Altmeier succeeded him; the constitutional bodies, the Government, the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, established their provisional sea
Ladenburg is a town in the district of Rhein-Neckar-Kreis, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated on the right bank of the Neckar, 10 kilometres east of Mannheim, 10 km northwest of Heidelberg. Ladenburg's history dates back to Roman ages. In Roman times it was called'Lopodunum'. Emperor Trajan elevated it to the status of a city in the year 98, its old centre dates back to the Late Middle Age. Ladenburg is located on Bertha Benz Memorial Route. List of mayors: Johann Friedrich von Seilern, son of a dyer and Imperial Count, was born in Ladenburg. Johann Christoph Sauer, the first German-language printer and publisher in North America, was born in Ladenburg Franz Xaver and Friedrich von Hertling, Bavarian war ministers, were born in Ladenburg. Michael Frey, composer and conductor Lambert Heinrich von Babo, chemist Karl Benz, inventor of the automobile, lived in Ladenburg between 1906 and his death in 1929. Martin Hartmann, head of the Baden office Rudolf Agricola and journalist The first time this village was populated was between 3000 and 200 BC.
It consisted of a Celtic settlement Lopodunum. In the year 40 the Romans kept its Celtic name; the local territory formed the civilian district of Civitas Ulpia Sueborum Nicretum, of which Lopodunum was the chief town. In 74 AD the Romans founded the town Auxiliarkastelle which included a supply-keeping town, the center of the future town; the garrison included a regiment of cavalry made up from the Canaefaten. Ladenburg is twinned with: Garango, Burkina Faso Paternion, Austria Automuseum Dr. Carl Benz Bertha Benz Memorial Route
Mannheim is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of 305,000 inhabitants. The city is at the centre of the larger densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region which has a population of 2,400,000 and is Germany's eighth-largest metropolitan region. Mannheim is located at the confluence of the Rhine and the Neckar in the northwestern corner of Baden-Württemberg; the Rhine separates Mannheim from the city of Ludwigshafen, just to the west of it in Rhineland-Palatinate, the border of Baden-Württemberg with Hesse is just to the north. Mannheim is downstream along the Neckar from the city of Heidelberg. Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that its streets and avenues are laid out in a grid pattern, leading to its nickname "die Quadratestadt"; the eighteenth century Mannheim Palace, former home of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate, now houses the University of Mannheim.
The city is home to major corporations including Daimler, John Deere, Caterpillar, ABB, Fuchs Petrolub, IBM, Reckitt Benckiser, Phoenix Group and several other well-known companies. In addition, Mannheim's SAP Arena is not only the home of the German ice hockey record champions the Adler Mannheim, but the well-known handball team, the Rhein-Neckar Löwen. According to the Forbes magazine, Mannheim is known for its exceptional inventive power and was ranked 11th among the Top 15 of the most inventive cities worldwide; the New Economy Magazine elected Mannheim under the 20 cities that best represent the world of tomorrow emphasizing Mannheim's positive economic and innovative environment. Since 2014, Mannheim has been a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and holds the title of "UNESCO City of Music". Mannheim is a Smart City; the city's tourism slogan is "Leben. Im Quadrat.". The civic symbol of Mannheim is der Wasserturm, a Romanesque water tower completed in 1886 that rises to 60 metres above the highest point of the art nouveau area Friedrichsplatz.
Mannheim is the finishing point of the Bertha Benz Memorial Route. The name of the city was first recorded as Mannenheim in a legal transaction in 766, surviving in a twelfth-century copy in the Codex Laureshamensis from Lorsch Abbey; the name is interpreted as "the home of Manno", a short form of a Germanic name such as Hartmann or Hermann. Mannheim remained a mere village throughout the Middle Ages. In 1606, Frederick IV, Elector Palatine started building the fortress of Friedrichsburg and the adjacent city centre with its grid of streets and avenues. On January 24, 1607, Frederick IV gave Mannheim the status of a "city", whether it was one by or not. Mannheim was levelled during the Thirty Years War around 1622 by the forces of Johan Tilly. After being rebuilt, it was again damaged by the French Army in 1689 during the Nine Years' War. After the rebuilding of Mannheim that began in 1698, the capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate was moved from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720 when Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine began construction of Mannheim Palace and the Jesuit Church.
During the eighteenth century, Mannheim was the home of the "Mannheim School" of classical music composers. Mannheim was said to have one of the best court orchestras in Europe under the leadership of the conductor Carlo Grua; the royal court of the Palatinate left Mannheim in 1778. Two decades in 1802, Mannheim was removed from the Palatinate and given to the Grand Duchy of Baden. In 1819, Norwich Duff wrote of Mannheim: In 1819, August von Kotzebue was assassinated in Mannheim; the climate crisis of 1816-17 caused the death of many horses in Mannheim. That year Karl Drais invented the first bicycle. Infrastructure improvements included the establishment of Rhine Harbour in 1828 and construction of the first Baden railway, which opened from Mannheim to Heidelberg in 1840. Influenced by the economic rise of the middle class, another golden age of Mannheim began. In the March Revolution of 1848, the city was a centre for revolutionary activity. In 1865, Friedrich Engelhorn founded the Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik in Mannheim, but the factory was constructed across the Rhine in Ludwigshafen because Mannheim residents feared air pollution from its operations.
From this dye factory, BASF has developed into the largest chemical company in the world. After opening a workshop in Mannheim in 1871 and patenting engines from 1878, Karl Benz patented the first motor car in 1886, he was born in Mühlburg. The Schütte-Lanz company, founded by Karl Lanz and Johann Schütte in 1909, built 22 airships; the company's main competitor was the Zeppelin works. When World War I broke out in 1914, Mannheim's industrial plants played a key role in Germany's war economy; this contributed to the fact that, on 27 May 1915, Ludwigshafen was the world's first civilian settlement behind the battle lines to be bombed from the air. French aircraft attacked the BASF plants; the precedent was set for this attack by Germany's repeated air raids against British civilian populations throughout southeastern Britain during the first half of 1915. When Germany lost the war in 1918, according to the peace terms, the left bank of the Rhine was occupied by French troops; the French occupation lasted until 1930, some of Ludwigshafen's most elegant houses were erected for the officers of the French garrison.
After the First World War, the Heinric
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and