Piedmont (United States)
The Piedmont is a plateau region located in the Eastern United States. It sits between the Atlantic coastal plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching from New Jersey in the north to central Alabama in the south; the Piedmont Province is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division which consists of the Gettysburg-Newark Lowlands, the Piedmont Upland and the Piedmont Lowlands sections. The Atlantic Seaboard fall line marks the Piedmont's eastern boundary with the Coastal Plain. To the west, it is bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains, the easternmost range of the main Appalachians; the width of the Piedmont varies, being quite narrow above the Delaware River but nearly 300 miles wide in North Carolina. The Piedmont's area is 80,000 square miles; the name "Piedmont" comes from the French term for the same physical region meaning "foothill" from Latin "pedemontium", meaning "at the foot of the mountains", similar to the name of the Italian region of Piedmont, abutting the Alps.
The surface relief of the Piedmont is characterized by low, rolling hills with heights above sea level between 200 feet and 800 feet to 1,000 feet. Its geology is complex, with numerous rock formations of different materials and ages intermingled with one another; the Piedmont is the remnant of several ancient mountain chains that have since been eroded away. Geologists have identified at least five separate events which have led to sediment deposition, including the Grenville orogeny and the Appalachian orogeny during the formation of Pangaea; the last major event in the history of the Piedmont was the break-up of Pangaea, when North America and Africa began to separate. Large basins formed from the rifting and were subsequently filled by the sediments shed from the surrounding higher ground; the series of Mesozoic basins is entirely located inside the Piedmont region. Piedmont soils are clay-like and moderately fertile. In some areas they have suffered from erosion and over-cropping in the South where cotton was the chief crop.
In the central Piedmont region of North Carolina and Virginia, tobacco is the main crop, while in the north region there is more diversity, including orchards and general farming. The portion of the Piedmont region in the southern United States, is associated with the Piedmont blues, a style of blues music that originated there in the late 19th century. According to the Piedmont Blues Preservation Society, most Piedmont blues musicians came from Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia. During the Great Migration, African Americans migrated to the Piedmont. With the Appalachian Mountains to the west, those who might otherwise have spread into rural areas stayed in cities and were thus exposed to a broader mixture of music than those in, for example, the rural Mississippi delta. Thus, Piedmont blues was influenced by many types of music such as ragtime and popular songs—styles that had comparatively less influence on blues music in other regions. Many major cities are located on the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the eastern boundary of the Piedmont.
The fall line, where the land rises abruptly from the coastal plain, marks the limit of navigability on many major rivers, so inland ports sprang up along it. Within the Piedmont region itself, there are several areas of urban concentration, the largest being the Philadelphia metropolitan area in Pennsylvania; the Piedmont cuts Maryland in half. In Virginia, the Greater Richmond metropolitan area is the largest urban concentration. In North Carolina, the Piedmont Crescent includes several metropolitan clusters such as Charlotte metropolitan area, the Piedmont Triad, the Research Triangle. Other notable areas include the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC Combined Statistical Area in South Carolina, in Georgia, the Atlanta metropolitan area. Cecil Piedmont Atlantic Piedmont region of Virginia Interstate 85 Godfrey, Michael A.. Field Guide to the Piedmont. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4671-6. Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History "Piedmont Plain". New International Encyclopedia.
Politics of North Carolina
Like most U. S. states, North Carolina is politically dominated by both the Democratic and Republican political parties. North Carolina has 13 seats in the U. S. House of Representatives and two seats in the U. S. Senate. A Democratic state, North Carolina has voted Republican in 9 of the last 10 presidential elections, as North Carolina did not vote for John McCain in 2008. Despite this, it has mostly elected Democrats to the Governorship in its history, with only 2 Republican governors elected in the entire twentieth century. North Carolina was politically divided between the eastern and western parts of the state. Before the Civil War, the eastern half of North Carolina supported the Democratic Party because the region contained most of the state's planter slaveholders who profited from large cash crops. Yeomen farmers in the western Piedmont and mountains were not slaveholders and tended to support the Whig party, seen as more moderate on slavery and more supportive of business interests. After the Civil War, including newly enfranchised freedmen, controlled the state government during Reconstruction.
When federal troops were removed in the national compromise of 1877, the Democratic Party gained control of the state government through white paramilitary groups conducting a campaign of violence against African-Americans to discourage them from voting in the Piedmont counties. Despite that, the number of African-American officeholders peaked in the 1880s as they were elected to local offices in African-American-majority districts. Hard pressed. Conditions turned much worse in the Panic of 1893. In North Carolina black Republican Party formed a fusion ticket with the white Populist, giving them control of the state legislature in 1894. In 1896 the Republican-Populist alliance took control of many state offices. In response, many white Democrats began efforts to turnout. During the late 1890s, Democrats began to pass legislation to restrict voter registration and reduce voting by African-Americans and poor whites. With the first step accomplished in 1896 by making registration more complicated and reducing African-American voter turnout, in 1898 the state's Democratic Party regained control of the state government.
Contemporary observers described the election as a "contest unquestionably accompanied by violence and fraud—to what extent we do not know—in the securing of a majority of 60,000 for the new arrangement". Using the slogan, "White Supremacy", backed by influential newspapers such as the Raleigh News and Observer under publisher Josephus Daniels, the Democrats ousted the Populist-Republican majority. By 1900 new laws imposed poll taxes, residency requirements, literacy tests; the grandfather clause was used to exempt illiterate whites from the literacy test, but many were disfranchised as well. By these efforts, by 1904 white Democratic legislators had eliminated African-American voter turnout in North Carolina. Disfranchisement lasted until it was ended by the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965. By 1900 North Carolina joined the "Solid Democratic South", with black people still members of the Republican Party but powerless in state and local affairs. However, some counties in North Carolina's western Piedmont and Appalachian Mountains continued to vote Republican, continuing a tradition that dated from their yeoman culture and opposition to secession before the Civil War.
In 1928, North Carolina was one of five former Confederate states to vote for Republican Herbert Hoover electing two Republican Congressman from the western part of the state, Charles A. Jonas and George M. Pritchard. In 1952, aided by the presidential candidacy of popular war hero Dwight Eisenhower, the Republicans were successful in electing a U. S. Congressman, Charles R. Jonas, the son of Charles A. Jonas. In the mid-20th century Republicans began to attract white voters in North Carolina and other Southern states; this was after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 under Democratic President Lyndon Johnson, which extended Federal protection and enforcement of civil rights for all American citizens. Because the Democratic Party had supported civil rights at the national level, most African-American voters aligned with the Democrats when they regained their franchise. In 1972, aided by the landslide re-election of Richard Nixon, Republicans in North Carolina elected their first governor and U.
S. senator of the 20th century. Senator Jesse Helms played a major role in renewing the Republican Party and turning North Carolina into a two-party state. Under his banner, many conservative white Democrats in the central and eastern parts of North Carolina began to vote Republican, at least in national elections. In part, this was due to dissatisfaction with the national Democratic Party's stance on issues of civil rights and racial integration. In decades, conservatives rallied to Republicans over social issues such as prayer in school, gun rights, abortion rights, gay rights. Except for regional favorite Jimmy Carter's election in 1976, North Carolina voted Republican in every presidential election from 1968 to 2004. At the state level, the Democrats still controlled most of the elected offices during this time. Two Presidents of the United States, James K. Polk and Andrew Johnson, were born and raised in North Carolina, but both began their political careers in neighboring Tennessee, were elected President from that state.
A third U. S. President, Andrew Jackson, may have been born in North Carolina. How
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
The Research Triangle referred to as The Triangle, is a region in the Piedmont of North Carolina in the United States, anchored by the three major research universities of North Carolina State University, Duke University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, as well as the cities of Raleigh and Durham and the town of Chapel Hill. The eight-county region named the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill combined statistical area, comprises the Raleigh and Durham–Chapel Hill metropolitan areas and the Dunn, Henderson and Sanford Micropolitan Statistical Areas. A 2017 Census estimate put the population at 2,156,253, making it the second largest metropolitan area in the state of North Carolina behind Charlotte; the Raleigh–Durham television market includes a broader 24-county area which includes Fayetteville, North Carolina, has a population of 2,726,000 persons. The "Triangle" name was cemented in the public consciousness in the 1950s with the creation of Research Triangle Park, home to numerous tech companies and enterprises.
Although the name is now used to refer to the geographic region, "the Triangle" referred to the universities, whose research facilities, the educated workforce they provide, have served as a major attraction for businesses located in the region. Most of the Triangle is part of North Carolina's second and thirteenth congressional districts; the region is sometimes confused with The Triad, a North Carolina region adjacent to and directly west of the Triangle comprising Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point, among other cities. Depending on which definition of the Research Triangle region is used, as few as three or as many as 16 counties are included as part of the region. All of these counties when included hold a population over 2,167,000 people. Chatham‡¶ Durham*‡¶ Edgecombe¶ Franklin‡¶ Granville‡¶ Harnett‡¶ Johnston‡¶ Lee‡¶ Moore¶ Orange*‡¶ Person‡¶ Vance‡¶ Wake*‡¶ Nash‡¶ Warren¶* – Most restrictive definition, comprising the three core counties of Wake and Orange ‡ – U. S. Census Bureau definition, taken from the counties included in the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area ¶ – Most liberal definition of the Research Triangle region, as defined by the Research Triangle Regional PartnershipRaleigh–Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area Population 2,199,459 The Triangle region, as defined for statistical purposes as the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill CSA, comprises eight counties, although the U.
S. Census Bureau divided the region into two metropolitan statistical areas and one micropolitan area in 2003; the Raleigh metropolitan area comprises Wake and Johnston Counties. Some area television stations define the region as Raleigh–Durham–Fayetteville. Fayetteville is more than 50 miles from Raleigh, but is part of the Triangle television market. Raleigh, 423,179 Durham, 239,358 Cary, 151,088 Chapel Hill, 58,424 Public secondary education in the Triangle is similar to that of the majority of the state of North Carolina, in which there are county-wide school systems. Based in Cary, the Wake County Public School System, which includes the cities of Raleigh and Cary, is the largest school system in the state of North Carolina and the 15th-largest in the United States, with average daily entollment of 159,949 as of the second month of the 2016-17 school year. Other larger systems in the region include Durham Public Schools and growing Johnston County Schools. Campbell University Central Carolina Community College Duke University Durham Technical Community College Louisburg College Meredith College North Carolina Central University North Carolina State University Piedmont Community College Shaw University Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary and The College at Southeastern St. Augustine's College University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Vance-Granville Community College Wake Technical Community College William Peace University With the significant number of universities and colleges in the area and the relative absence of major league professional sports, NCAA sports are popular those sports in which the Atlantic Coast Conference participates, most notably basketball.
The Duke Blue Devils, NC State Wolfpack, North Carolina Tar Heels are all members of the ACC. Rivalries among these schools are strong, fueled by proximity to each other, with annual competitions in every sport. Adding to the rivalries is the large number of graduates the high schools in the region send to each of the local universities, it is common for students at one university to know many students attending the other local universities, which increases the opportunities for "bragging" among the schools. The four ACC schools in the state, North Carolina, North Carolina State, Wake Forest University, are referred to as Tobacco Road by sportscasters in basketball. All four teams produce high-caliber teams; each of the Triangle-based universities listed has won at least two NCAA Basketball national championships. Three black colleges, including recent Division I arrival North Carolina Central University and Division II members St. Augustine College and Shaw University boost
Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge
The Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge is a 45,348-acre national wildlife refuge located in Chesterfield County, South Carolina. The refuge is managed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service from a headquarters located in South Carolina; the Refuge is served by U. S. Highway 1; the Carolina Sandhills NWR, as its name suggests, is dedicated to the preservation of a portion of the Carolina Sandhills, a distinct ecosystem characterized by inland sand dunes, thin or absent topsoil, frequent brush fires. Recurrent, noncatastrophic fires tended to remove invasive shrubs and maximize the health of fire-tolerant species such as the longleaf pine. Pine-friendly birds, such as the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker thrived in the Sandhills. After attempts to farm this portion of the Sandhills turned unsuccessful during the Great Depression, the region was consolidated by New Deal federal managers into the current National Wildlife Refuge in 1939. Current Refuge management practices at the Carolina Sandhills NWR include a program of Sandhills prescribed burnings.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Carolina Sandhills NWR
An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock or ancient superficial deposits on the surface of the Earth. Outcrops do not cover the majority of the Earth's land surface because in most places the bedrock or superficial deposits are covered by a mantle of soil and vegetation and cannot be seen or examined closely. However, in places where the overlying cover is removed through erosion or tectonic uplift, the rock may be exposed, or crop out; such exposure will happen most in areas where erosion is rapid and exceeds the weathering rate such as on steep hillsides, mountain ridges and tops, river banks, tectonically active areas. In Finland, glacial erosion during the last glacial maximum, followed by scouring by sea waves, followed by isostatic uplift has produced a large number of smooth coastal and littoral outcrops. Bedrock and superficial deposits may be exposed at the Earth's surface due to human excavations such as quarrying and building of transport routes. Outcrops allow direct observation and sampling of the bedrock in situ for geologic analysis and creating geologic maps.
In situ measurements are critical for proper analysis of geological history and outcrops are therefore important for understanding the geologic time scale of earth history. Some of the types of information that cannot be obtained except from bedrock outcrops or by precise drilling and coring operations, are structural geology features orientations, depositional features orientations, paleomagnetic orientations. Outcrops are very important for understanding fossil assemblages, paleo-environment, evolution as they provide a record of relative changes within geologic strata. Accurate description and sampling for laboratory analysis of outcrops made possible all of the geologic sciences and the development of fundamental geologic laws such as the law of superposition, the principle of original horizontality, principle of lateral continuity, the principle of faunal succession. On Ordnance Survey maps in Great Britain, cliffs are distinguished from outcrops: cliffs have a continuous line along the top edge with lines protruding down.
An outcrop example in California is the Vasquez Rocks, familiar from location shooting use in many films, composed of uplifted sandstone. Yana is another example of outcrops, located in Uttara Kannada district in India. Digital outcrop model List of rock formations Geological formation Geologic time scale Media related to Outcrops at Wikimedia Commons
History of North Carolina
The history of North Carolina from prehistory to the present covers the experiences of the people who have lived in the territory that now comprises the U. S. state of North Carolina. Before 200 AD, residents were building earthwork mounds, which were used for cooking and religious purposes. Succeeding peoples, including those of the ancient Mississippian culture established by 1000 AD in Piedmont, continued to build or add onto such mounds. In the 500–700 years preceding European contact, the Mississippian culture built large, complex cities and maintained far-flung regional trading networks. Documented tribes in the North Carolina region included the Carolina Algonquian-speaking tribes of the coastal areas, such as the Chowanoke, Pamlico, Core, Cape Fear Indians, others, who were the first encountered by the English. Spanish attempts to settle the interior, with several forts built by the Jose Pardo expedition in the 1560s, ended when the Indians destroyed the forts and killed most of the garrisons.
Nearly two decades English colonists began to settle the coastal areas, starting with a charter in 1584. Sir Walter Raleigh began two small settlements in the late 1580s; some mystery remains as to what happened to the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke Island, but most historians think a resupply ship was delayed. By 1640, some growth took place with colonists migrating from Virginia, who moved into the area of Albemarle Sound. In 1663, the king granted a charter for a new colony named Carolina in honor of his father Charles I, he gave ownership to the Lords Proprietors. North Carolina developed a system of representative government and local control by the early 18th century. Many of its colonists resented British attempts after 1756 to levy taxes without representation in Parliament; the colony was a Patriot base during the American Revolution, its legislature issued the Halifax Resolves, which authorized North Carolina delegates to the Second Continental Congress to vote for independence from Britain.
Loyalist elements were suppressed, there was little military activity until late in the war. During the first half of the nineteenth century, North Carolina remained a rural state, with no cities and few villages. Most whites operated small subsistence farms, but the eastern part of the state had a growing class of planters after 1800 when cotton became profitable due to the invention of the cotton gin, which enabled cultivation of short-staple cotton in the uplands. All cotton cultivation as a commodity crop was dependent on the slave labor of African Americans. Politically the state was democratic, as heated elections pitted the Democratic east versus the Whiggish west. After the fire and ensuing battle on Fort Sumter in April 1861, North Carolina seceded from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America. More soldiers from North Carolina fought for the Confederacy during the American Civil War than from any other state, but few major battles were fought here. During the early years of Reconstruction, strides were made at integrating the newly freed slaves into society.
Whites regained political power by violence and in 1899, disfranchised blacks through a new constitution, imposing Jim Crow and white supremacy. The Civil Rights Movement strengthened in the 1950s and 1960s, it had strong supporters and activists in North Carolina. Events such as the sit-in protest at the F. W. Woolworth's store in Greensboro would become a touchstone for the movement; the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, a central organization in the movement, was founded at Shaw University in Raleigh. Following the passage of national civil rights legislation to enforce suffrage, in 1973, Clarence Lightner was elected in Raleigh as the first African-American mayor of a major southern city; the earliest discovered human settlements in what became North Carolina are found at the Hardaway Site near the town of Badin in the south-central part of the state. Radiocarbon dating of the site has not been possible. But, based on other dating methods, such as rock strata and the existence of Dalton-type spear points, the site has been dated to 8000 B.
C. E. or 10,000 years old. Spearpoints of the Dalton type continued to change and evolve for the next 7000 years, suggesting a continuity of culture for most of that time. During this time, the settlement was scattered and existed on the hunter-gatherer level. Toward the end of this period, there is evidence of settled agriculture, such as plant domestication and the development of pottery. From 1000 B. C. E. until the time of European settlement, the time period is known as the "Woodland period". Permanent villages, based on settled agriculture, were developed throughout the present-day state. By about 800 C. E. towns were fortified throughout the Piedmont region, suggesting the existence of organized tribal warfare. An important site of this late-Woodland period is the Town Creek Indian Mound, an archaeologically rich site occupied from about 1100 to 1450 C. E. by the Pee Dee culture of the Mississippian tradition. It became a colony in 1653. North Carolina was home to several distinct cultural groups.
Along the east coast were Croatan nations, Algonquian speaking people. The Chowanoke lived the Croatan south or it, they had adopted a governing system whereas there would be a patriarchal society living under the rule of several local chiefs who all answered to a single, higher ruling chief & formed a c