A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
A dream is a succession of images, ideas and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. The content and purpose of dreams are not understood, although they have been a topic of scientific and religious interest throughout recorded history. Dream interpretation is the attempt at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for an underlying message; the scientific study of dreams is called oneirology. Dreams occur in the rapid-eye movement stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams may occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tend to be memorable; the length of a dream can vary. People are more to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phase; the average person has three to five dreams per night, some may have up to seven. Dreams tend to last longer. During a full eight-hour night sleep, most dreams occur in the typical two hours of REM.
Dreams related to waking-life experiences are associated with REM theta activity, which suggests that emotional memory processing takes place in REM sleep. Opinions about the meaning of dreams have shifted through time and culture. Many endorse the Freudian theory of dreams – that dreams reveal insight into hidden desires and emotions. Other prominent theories include those suggesting that dreams assist in memory formation, problem solving, or are a product of random brain activation. Sigmund Freud, who developed the psychological discipline of psychoanalysis, wrote extensively about dream theories and their interpretations in the early 1900s, he explained dreams as manifestations of one's deepest desires and anxieties relating to repressed childhood memories or obsessions. Furthermore, he believed that every dream topic, regardless of its content, represented the release of sexual tension. In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud developed a psychological technique to interpret dreams and devised a series of guidelines to understand the symbols and motifs that appear in our dreams.
In modern times, dreams have been seen as a connection to the unconscious mind. They range from ordinary to overly surreal and bizarre. Dreams can have varying natures, such as being frightening, magical, adventurous, or sexual; the events in dreams are outside the control of the dreamer, with the exception of lucid dreaming, where the dreamer is self-aware. Dreams can at times make a creative thought give a sense of inspiration; the Dreaming is a common term within the animist creation narrative of indigenous Australians for a personal, or group and for what may be understood as the "timeless time" of formative creation and perpetual creating. The ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia have left evidence of dream interpretation dating back to at least 3100 BC. Throughout Mesopotamian history, dreams were always held to be important for divination and Mesopotamian kings paid close attention to them. Gudea, the king of the Sumerian city-state of Lagash, rebuilt the temple of Ningirsu as the result of a dream in which he was told to do so.
The standard Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh contains numerous accounts of the prophetic power of dreams. First, Gilgamesh himself has two dreams foretelling the arrival of Enkidu. Enkidu dreams about the heroes' encounter with the giant Humbaba. Dreams were sometimes seen as a means of seeing into other worlds and it was thought that the soul, or some part of it, moved out of the body of the sleeping person and visited the places and persons the dreamer saw in his or her sleep. In Tablet VII of the epic, Enkidu recounts to Gilgamesh a dream in which he saw the gods Anu and Shamash condemn him to death, he has a dream in which he visits the Underworld. The Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II built a temple to Mamu the god of dreams, at Imgur-Enlil, near Kalhu; the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal had a dream during a desperate military situation in which his divine patron, the goddess Ishtar, appeared to him and promised that she would lead him to victory. The Babylonians and Assyrians divided dreams into "good," which were sent by the gods, "bad," sent by demons.
A surviving collection of dream omens entitled Iškar Zaqīqu records various dream scenarios as well as prognostications of what will happen to the person who experiences each dream based on previous cases. Some list different possible outcomes, based on occasions in which people experienced similar dreams with different results. Dream scenarios mentioned include a variety of daily work events, journeys to different locations, family matters, sex acts, encounters with human individuals and deities. In ancient Egypt, as far back as 2000 BC, the Egyptians wrote down their dreams on papyrus. People with vivid and significant dreams were considered special. Ancient Egyptians believed, they thought that the best way to receive divine revelation was through dreaming and thus they would induce dreams. Egyptians would go to sanctuaries and sleep on special "dream beds" in hope of receiving advice, comfort, or healing from the gods. In Chinese history, people wrote of two vital aspects of the soul of which one is freed from the body during slumber to journey in a dream realm, while the other remained in the body, although this belie
The Endless are a group of fictional beings appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics imprint Vertigo. The characters embody powerful forces or aspects of the universe in the comic book series The Sandman, by Neil Gaiman, they have existed since the dawn of time and are thought to be among the most powerful beings in the existence. They are more powerful than most gods. Dream is the protagonist of The Sandman series; the Endless are a somewhat dysfunctional family of seven siblings. They may appear in different forms, but have light skin and black hair, with the exception of redheads Destruction and Delirium, their appearance can change to fit the expectations of others. When asked by Marco Polo if he is always so pale, Dream replies, "That depends on who's watching." The Endless spend most of their time fulfilling their functions as embodiments of natural forces. For example, Death leads the souls of the dead away from the realm of the living, while Dream oversees the realm of dreams and imagination and regulates dreams and inspiration.
One notable facet of their depiction is that none of them are "representations" or "personifications" of their function, they are their function. In The Sandman #48, Destruction gives a further description of the Endless: "The Endless are patterns; the Endless are ideas. The Endless are wave functions; the Endless are repeating motifs. The Endless are echoes of darkness, nothing more... And our existences are brief and bounded. None of us will last longer than this version of the Universe." Some of the Endless are more dedicated to their tasks than others. The younger Endless Desire, are known to play games with mortal lives. Destruction called "The Prodigal", abandoned his duties altogether. If one of the Endless is destroyed he or she will be replaced by another aspect of their role, but this does not occur if they are absent or inactive. In such cases, the aspect of existence supervised by that member of the Endless becomes more random and chaotic. During this time the Universe may attempt to replace that member by putting some of their essence within a mortal, as it did with Wesley Dodds, who received a fraction of Dream's soul while Dream was imprisoned.
Each of the Endless has a realm in which they are sovereign. Within their realm, each member of the Endless has a gallery containing symbols, or sigils, of the other Endless; the Endless may contact each other by holding the appropriate sigil and calling for that member of the Endless. Destiny is able to summon his siblings by using his gallery of portraits, whether they want it or not. In addition to overseeing their own sphere of influence, the Endless help to define their own opposites; this dualistic aspect of the Endless has been confirmed in the case of Death, present at the beginning as well as the end of every life. Destruction has an interest in creative pastimes, including art and cooking. Dream seems to have some power to shape reality, as seen in The Sandman #18, A Dream of a Thousand Cats, in which a large number of entities, dreaming of an alternate reality, create said reality. Delirium has some kind of strange logic that only makes sense to her, but that allows her to understand things that others do not.
In the Sandman Overture, it was revealed that under some conditions, some Endless can fool other Endless by trickery and use some of their powers. Indeed, Dream was capable of saving the dead Prez from Boss Smiley, while Death could not do it herself. Desire was capable of posing as an aspect of Dream and create a dream Vessel, created by Dream, it was convincing enough to Dream. The exact limits of the powers the Endless may/must use are subject to debate - but are set by rules, it is unknown if the Endless are allowed/capable/supposed to use their powers on those more powerful or more ancient than them. The origin and exact nature of the Endless is unknown. Few hints are given in the series as to why the Endless exist, they seem to be natural forces. They have at times been described as "a creation of the consciousness of living beings"; the Endless are as old as the concepts. The Endless are said to be older than the fairyfolk and other supernatural beings, their exact ages in years are unknown.
In The Sandman #5, "Passengers", Dream is recognized by the Martian Manhunter as the dream god on ancient Mars, as well as in the Endless Nights chapter "Dream: The Heart of the Star", which takes place before our Sun's planets have "awakened" with life. Dream states in The Sandman #16 that once another world was lost to a vortex. Death has claimed that she was there when the first living thin
Justice Society of America
The Justice Society of America is a superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The Justice Society of America was conceived by writer Gardner Fox; the JSA first appeared in All Star Comics #3, making it the first team of superheroes in comic books. The team was popular, but in the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned, the JSA's adventures ceased with issue #57 of the title. JSA members remained absent from comics until ten years when the original Flash appeared alongside a new character by that name in The Flash #123. During the Silver Age of Comic Books, DC Comics reinvented several Justice Society members and banded many of them together in the Justice League of America; the Justice Society was established as existing on "Earth-Two" and the Justice League on "Earth-One". This allowed for annual cross-dimensional team-ups of the teams between 1963 and 1985. New series, such as All-Star Squadron, Inc. and a new All-Star Comics featured the JSA, their children and their heirs.
These series explored the issues of aging, generational differences, contrasts between the Golden Age and subsequent eras. The 1985 Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series merged all of the company's various alternate realities into one, placing the JSA as World War II-era predecessors to the company's modern characters. A JSA series was published from 1999 to 2006, a Justice Society of America series ran from 2007 to 2011; as part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of its entire line of monthly books an unnamed version of the team appears in the Earth 2 Vol 1, Earth 2 World's End, Earth 2: Society. The Justice Society of America first appeared in All Star Comics #3 written by Gardner Fox and edited by Sheldon Mayer during the Golden Age of Comic Books; the team included: Doctor Fate, Hour-Man, the Spectre, the Sandman, the Atom, the Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman. Because some of these characters were published by All-American Publications rather than DC Comics, All-Star Comics #3 is the first inter-company superhero title, as well as the first team-up title.
Comics' historian Les Daniels noted that: "This was a great notion, since it offered readers a lot of headliners for a dime, the fun of watching fan favorites interact."The JSA's adventures were written by Gardner Fox as well as by John Broome and Robert Kanigher. The series was illustrated by a legion of artists including: Martin Nodell, Joe Kubert, Jack Kirby, Harry Lampert, Joe Simon, Alex Toth, Sheldon Moldoff, Carmine Infantino, Joe Giella, Win Mortimer, Bernard Baily, Frank Giacoia, H. G. Peter, Jack Burnley, Lee Elias, Irwin Hasen, Bob Oksner, Paul Reinman, Everett E. Hibbard, Bernard Sachs; the first JSA story featured the team's first meeting, with a framing sequence for each member telling a story of an individual exploit. In the next issue, the team worked together on a common case, but each story from there on still featured the members individually on a mission involving part of the case, banding together in the end to wrap things up. An in-house rule explicitly laid out on the last page of All Star Comics #5, reprinted on page 206 of All Star Comics Archives Vol. 1, required that whenever a member received his or her own title, that character would leave All Star Comics, becoming an "honorary member" of the JSA.
Thus, the Flash was replaced by Johnny Thunder after #6, Green Lantern left shortly thereafter for the same reason. For this reason and Batman were established as being "honorary" members prior to All Star Comics #3. How these two heroes helped found the JSA before becoming honorary members was not explained until DC Special #29 in 1977. Hawkman is the only member to appear in every JSA adventure in the original run of All Star Comics. All Star Comics #8 featured the first appearance of Wonder Woman. Unlike the other characters who had their own titles, she was allowed to appear in the series, but only as the JSA's secretary from #11 onward, did not take part in most adventures until much in the series, she was excluded from the title because of the same rules that had excluded the Flash, Green Lantern and Batman from the title, though in #13 it was claimed she had become an active member. A fan club for the team called the "Junior Justice Society of America" was introduced in All Star Comics #14.
The membership kit included a welcome letter, a badge, a decoder, a four-page comic book, a membership certificate. By All Star Comics #24, a real-world schism between National Comics and All-American Publications—a nominally independent company run by Max Gaines and Jack Liebowitz—had occurred, which resulted in the Detective Comics, Inc. heroes being removed from the title. As a result, the Flash and Green Lantern returned to the team. With issue #27, National Comics bought out Max Gaines' share of All-American and the two companies merged to form Detective Comics, Inc; the JSA roster remained the same for the rest of the series. Gardner Fox left the series with issue #34 with a story that introduced a new super-villain, the Wizard; the Injustice Society first battled the JSA in issue #37 in a tale written by Robert Kanigher. The team's second female member, Black Canary, first helped the group in All Star Comics #38 and became a full member in #41. All Star Comics and the JSA's Golden Age adventures ended with issue #57, the title becoming All-Star Western, with no superheroes.
A good amount of artwork has survived from an unpublishe
A fedora is a hat with a soft brim and indented crown. It is creased lengthwise down the crown and "pinched" near the front on both sides. Fedoras can be creased with teardrop crowns, diamond crowns, center dents, others, the positioning of pinches can vary; the typical crown height is 4.5 inches. The fedora hat's brim is wide 2.5 inches wide, but may be wider, can be left "raw edged", finished with a sewn overwelt or underwelt, or bound with a trim-ribbon. "Stitched edge" means that there is one, two or more rows of stitching radiating inward toward the crown. The "Cavanagh Edge" is a welted edge with invisible stitching to hold it in place and is a expensive treatment that can no longer be performed by modern hat factories. Fedora hats are not to be confused with small brimmed hats called trilbies; the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg. Fedoras can be made of wool, rabbit or beaver felt; these felts can be blended to each other with mink or chinchilla and with vicuña, cervelt, or mohair.
They can be made of straw, waxed or oiled cotton, linen or leather. A special variation is the foldaway or crushable fedora with a certain or open crown. Special fedoras have a ventilated crown with grommets, mesh inlets or penetrations for a better air circulation. Fedoras can have a leather or cloth or ribbon sweatband. Small feathers are sometimes added as decoration. Fedoras can be equipped with a chinstrap; the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg; the word fedora comes from the title of an 1882 play by dramatist Victorien Sardou, Fédora, written for Sarah Bernhardt. The play was first performed in the United States in 1889. Bernhardt played the heroine of the play. During the play, Bernhardt -- a noted cross-dresser -- wore a soft brimmed hat; the hat was fashionable for women, the women's rights movement adopted it as a symbol. After Edward, Prince of Wales started wearing them in 1924, it became popular among men for its stylishness and its ability to protect the wearer's head from the wind and weather.
Since the early part of the 20th century, many Haredi and other Orthodox Jews have made black fedoras normal to their daily wear. During the early twentieth century, a hat was a staple of men’s fashion and would be worn in all public places. However, as a social custom and common courtesy, men would remove their hats when at home or when engaged in conversation with women. In addition, the ability to own a hat was culturally considered a sign of wealth due to fashion being recognized as a “status symbol.” Only those with few economic resources would venture the streets without a hat. The introduction of a new line of felt hats made from nutria, an animal similar to the beaver, helped establish the fedora as a durable product. Prices, in the first decade of the twentieth century, for a nutria fedora ranged from ninety-eight cents to two dollars and twenty-five cents. Starting in the 1920s, fedoras began to rise in popularity after the Prince of Wales adopted the felt hat as his favored headwear.
As a result, “the soft felt hat replaced the stiff hat as the best seller in the decade.” The fedora soon took its place as a choice hat and joined other popular styles that included the derby and panama. In America during the 1940s, the brims of fedoras started to increase in width, while the British maintained a smaller brim size; the colors of fedoras traditionally included shades of black and gray. However, this palette would grow at the onset of the second world war to include military themed colors such as khaki and green. One of the most prominent companies to sell fedoras was the department store, Sears and Company. In addition, famous hat manufactures which still exist today include Bailey and Stetson. In the 1880s, French stage actress Sarah Bernhardt popularized the fedora for the female audience, it soon became a common fashion accessory for many women among activists fighting for gender equality during the late nineteenth century. The fedora was adopted as a defining symbol of the women’s rights movement.
It would not be until 1924 when, in Britain, the fashion minded Prince Edward started wearing the felt hat. This event shifted the popularity of the fedora over to men’s fashion, making the hat one of the few androgynous clothing pieces. To this day, fedoras continue to be worn by women, not quite to the same extent as they once were in the early twentieth century. Women’s fedoras vary in form and color. In addition, these fedoras come in every color from basic black to bright red and in the occasional animal print. Along with men’s felt hats, women’s fedoras are making a comeback in current fashion trends. Baseball caps, which have in recent years been the staple of headwear, are experiencing a decline in popularity amidst this “fedora renaissance.” Fedoras became associated with gangsters and Prohibition, a connection coinciding with the height of the hat's popularity between the 1920s and the early 1950s. In the second half of the 1950s, the fedora fell out of favor in a shift towards more informal clothing styles.
Coach Tom Landry wore the hat while he was the head coach of the Dallas Cowboys. It would become his trademark image. A cenotaph dedicated to Landry with a depiction of his fedora was placed in the official Texas State Cemeter
Sandman (Wesley Dodds)
Sandman is a fictional character, a superhero who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics. The first of several DC characters to bear the name Sandman, he was created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Bert Christman. Attired in a green business suit and gas mask, the Sandman used a gun emitting a sleeping gas to sedate criminals, he was one of the mystery men to appear in comic books and other types of adventure fiction in the 1930s but was outfitted with a unitard/cowl costume and developed into a proper superhero, acquiring sidekick Sandy, founding the Justice Society of America. Like most DC Golden Age superheroes, the Sandman fell into obscurity in the 1940s and other DC characters took his name. During the 1990s, when writer Neil Gaiman's Sandman was popular, DC revived Dodds in Sandman Mystery Theatre, a pulp/noir series set in the 1930s. Wizard Magazine ranked Wesley Dodds among the Top 200 Comic Book Characters of All Time, he is the oldest superhero in terms of continuity to appear on the list.
Artist Bert Christman and writer Gardner Fox are credited as co-creating the original, Wesley Dodd version of the DC Comics character the Sandman. While the character's first appearance is given as Adventure Comics #40, he appeared in DC Comics' 1939 New York World's Fair Comics omnibus, which historians believe appeared on newsstands one to two weeks earlier, while believing the Adventure Comics story was written and drawn first; each of the two stories' scripts were credited to the pseudonym "Larry Dean". Creig Flessel, who drew many early Sandman adventures, has sometimes been credited as co-creator on the basis of drawing the Sandman cover of Adventure #40, but no other evidence has surfaced. Following these two first appearances, the feature "The Sandman" continued to appear in the omnibus Adventure Comics through #102. One of the medium's seminal "mystery men", as referred to at the time, the Sandman straddled the pulp magazine detective tradition and the emerging superhero tradition by dint of his dual identity and his fanciful, masked attire and weapon: an exotic "gas gun" that could compel villains to tell the truth, as well as put them to sleep.
Unlike many superheroes, he found himself the victim of gunshot wounds, both in the Golden Age and in stories in DC's modern-day Vertigo imprint, he would continue fighting in spite of his injuries. In his early career, Dodds was aided by his girlfriend, Dian Belmont, aware of his dual identity. Unlike many superhero love interests, Belmont was though not always, portrayed as an equal partner of the Sandman, rather than a damsel in distress. Stories would reveal that the two remained together for the duration of their lives, though they never married; the Sandman was one of the original members of the Justice Society of America when that superhero team was introduced in All Star Comics #3, published by All-American Comics, one of the companies that would merge to form DC. In Adventure Comics #69, Dodds was given a yellow-and-purple costume by writer Mort Weisinger and artist Paul Norris, as well as a yellow-clad kid sidekick, Sandy the Golden Boy, nephew of Dian Belmont; that year, the celebrated team of Joe Simon and Jack Kirby took over this version of the character.
In 1942, Dodds enlisted in the U. S. Army and served as an anti-aircraft gunner during World War II. Reintroduced in the Silver Age in Justice League of America #46, the Sandman made occasional appearances in the annual teamups between that superhero group and the JSA. In 1981 DC began publishing All-Star Squadron, a retelling of the Earth-Two mystery-men during WWII. Although not a main character, Sandman does appear in its pages. Of note is issue #18 which gives an explanation of why Dodds changed costumes from the cloak and gas mask to the yellow-and-purple outfit. Dodds decided to wear the new costume, of Dian's design, until he could bring himself to wear the original in which she had died; this explanation would be changed again when Dian Belmont was retconned to have never died, a new explanation was given: Sandy convinced Dodds to switch to the more colorful costume to gain the support of regular people, who preferred the more traditional superhero look to his older, pulp-themed costume.
An acclaimed film noir-inspired retelling of the original Sandman's adventures, Sandman Mystery Theatre, ran from 1993–1998 under DC Comics' Vertigo mature-reader imprint. Although as a whole its continuity within the DC Universe is debatable, several elements of the series – the more nuanced relationship between Dodds and Dian Belmont; the series ran for 1 annual. In Sandman Midnight Theatre a one-shot special by Neil Gaiman, Matt Wagner, Teddy Kristiansen, depicts an interaction between the two characters, with the original visiting Great Britain and encountering the imprisoned Dream, the protagonist of Gaiman's series. A minor retcon by Gaiman s
Adventure Comics is an American comic book series published by DC Comics from 1938 to 1983 and revived from 2009 to 2011. In its first era, the series ran for 503 issues, making it the fifth-longest-running DC series, behind Detective Comics, Action Comics and Batman, it was revived in 2009 by writer Geoff Johns with the Conner Kent incarnation of Superboy headlining the title's main feature, the Legion of Super-Heroes in the back-up story. It returned to its original numbering with #516; the series ended with #529, prior to DC's The New 52 company reboot as a result of the Flashpoint storyline. Adventure Comics began its nearly 50-year run in December 1935 under the title New Comics, only the second comic book series published by National Allied Publications, now DC Comics; the series was retitled New Adventure Comics with its 12th issue in January 1937. Issue #32 saw the title changed again to Adventure Comics, which would remain the book's name for the duration of its existence. A humor series, it evolved into a serious adventure series.
In issue #12 when the series was titled New Adventure Comics, Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel introduced the first version of the character Jor-L as a science fiction detective in the far future. The series' focus shifted to superhero stories starting with the debut of the Sandman in issue #40. Other superheroes who appeared in the early days of Adventure included Hourman. A pivotal issue of the series was #103, when Superboy, Green Arrow, Johnny Quick, Aquaman moved from More Fun Comics, being converted to a humor format to Adventure. Starman's and Sandman's series were canceled to make room for the new features, while Genius Jones moved to the comic the new arrivals had just vacated. Superboy became the star of the book, would appear on each cover into 1969. Superboy's popularity in Adventure resulted in the character receiving his own title in 1949, when superhero titles in general were losing popularity. Krypto the Superdog debuted in issue # 210 in a Curt Swan. In issue #247, by Otto Binder and artist Al Plastino, Superboy met the Legion of Super-Heroes, a team of super-powered teens from the future.
The group became popular, would replace "Tales of the Bizarro World" as the Adventure backup feature with #300, soon be promoted to its lead. Lightning Lad, one of the Legion's founding members, was killed in Adventure Comics #304 and revived in issue #312. Issue #260 saw the first Silver Age appearance of Aquaman. In Adventure Comics #346, Jim Shooter, 14 years old at the time, wrote his first Legion story. Shooter wrote the story in which Ferro Lad died – the first "real" death of a Legionnaire – and introduced the Fatal Five; the Legion feature lasted until issue #380. With the next issue, Supergirl migrated from the backup slot in Action Comics to the starring feature in Adventure and ran until issue #424; the series reached its 400th issue in December 1970 and featured a Supergirl story written and drawn by Mike Sekowsky. As of #425, the book's theme changed from superhero adventure to fantasy/supernatural adventure; that issue debuted one new feature along with three non-series stories, the pirate saga "Captain Fear".
The next edition added a semi-anthology series, "The Adventurers' Club". Soon, editor Joe Orlando was trying out horror-tinged costumed heroes such as the Black Orchid, the Spectre. Before long, conventional superheroes returned to the book, beginning behind the Spectre, first a three-issue run of Aquaman and a newly drawn 1940s Seven Soldiers of Victory script. Aquaman was promoted to lead, backing him up were three-part story arcs featuring the Creeper, the Martian Manhunter, bracketed by issue-length Aquaman leads, he was awarded his own title and Superboy took over Adventure with Aqualad and Eclipso backups. Following this was a run as a Dollar Comic format giant-sized book, including such features as the resolution of Return of the New Gods, "Deadman", the "Justice Society of America"; the standard format returned, split between a new Starman named Plastic Man. With an increase in the story-and-art page count, the last four issues included one more run of Aquaman. All three were dropped to make way for a new version of an old feature, "Dial H for Hero".
Issue #490 saw the comic's cancellation. "Dial'H' for Hero" was moved to New Adventures of Superboy as of that series' issue #28. Adventure Comics was soon rescued; as of the September issue it was revived as a digest-sized comic. This format lasted from issues #491–503, with most stories during this period being reprints, with new stories featuring the Marvel Family and the Challengers of the Unknown including a