New Jersey Legislature
The New Jersey Legislature is the legislative branch of the government of the U. S. state of New Jersey. In its current form, as defined by the New Jersey Constitution of 1947, the Legislature consists of two houses: the General Assembly and the Senate; the Legislature meets in the state capital of Trenton. Democrats hold super majorities in both chambers of the legislature; the New Jersey Legislature was established in 1702 upon the surrender by the Proprietors of East Jersey and those of West Jersey of the right of government to Queen Anne. Anne's government united the two colonies as the Province of New Jersey, a royal colony, establishing a new system of government; the instructions from Queen Anne to Viscount Cornbury, the first royal governor of New Jersey, outlined a fusion of powers system, which allowed for an overlap of executive and judicial authority. It provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of an appointed Council and an elected General Assembly; the Provincial Council consisted of twelve members, appointed by and serving at the pleasure of the British crown.
With the exception of resignations and those being removed for cause, councillors served for life. The former provinces of East and West Jersey were reorganized as the Eastern Division and the Western Division of the Province of New Jersey. Councillors were apportioned. In practice, this was not always followed; the Assembly consisted of 24 members with two each elected in the Cities of Burlington and Perth Amboy, ten at-large from each of the two divisions. As this system proved unwieldy for holding elections, in 1709 the Assembly was reapportioned; the number of members remained with a total of twelve from each division. In his instructions to Governor William Burnet, King George I recommended the reapportionment of Salem's seats to the formed Hunterdon County. Membership continued at 24 until 1768, when it was expanded to 30 by the addition of two representatives each from Morris and Sussex Counties; this apportionment remained until superseded by the Constitution of 1776. The Governor had the authority to summon the Legislature, to dissolve the Assembly and call new elections.
On December 6, 1775, Governor William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution. In 1775, representatives from New Jersey's 13 counties established a Provincial Congress to supersede the Royal Governor. In June 1776, this congress had authorized the preparation of a constitution, written within five days, adopted by the Provincial Congress, accepted by the Continental Congress; the Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of a General Assembly with three members from each county and a legislative council with one member from each county. All state officials, including the governor, were to be appointed by the Legislature under this constitution; the Vice-President of Council would succeed the governor.
Accordingly, the first session of the legislature convened on August 27, 1776. Legislative politics was defined in the following years by an intense rivalry between the Federalists, the Whigs, the Democratic Party; the New Jersey Constitution of 1844 provided for a direct popular election of the governor, gave him the power to veto bills passed by the legislature. The General Assembly was expanded to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the counties based on population; the Legislative Council was renamed the Senate, was to be composed of one member from each of the state's 19 counties, serving a three-year term. During the Civil War, party allegiance became entrenched. Democrats won both houses until the Republicans gained control in 1893. A court ruling obtained by the Republicans provided that members of the General Assembly were to be elected from the counties at-large, rather than from election districts of unequal population. Regardless of any changes, the legislature met infrequently, had high turnover among its members, was far from being the most influential or powerful organ of state government.
New Jersey adopted its current constitution in 1947. Under this constitution, the governor was given additional veto powers and the ability to serve two terms. Hundreds of independent agencies were consolidated into 20 principal executive departments under the control of the governor. Senators' terms were extended to four years. In 1966, the Senate was expanded from 21 to 40 members and the General Assembly from 60 to 80. Following a United States Supreme Court decision in 1964 and a New Jersey Supreme Court decision in 1972, the state's legislative districts were reapportioned into the current arrangement. Two more modern developments have helped shape the Legislature: the increase in importance of legislative committees and the development of longer tenures for the legislative leadership; the Legislature has the power to enact laws by a majority vote of both houses, subject to the Governor
Nassau is the capital and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The city has an estimated population of 274,400 as of 2016, just over 70% of the population of the country. Lynden Pindling International Airport, the major airport for the Bahamas, is located about 16 kilometres west of Nassau city centre, has daily flights to major cities in Canada, the Caribbean, the United Kingdom and the United States; the city is located on the island of New Providence. Nassau is the site of the House of Assembly and various judicial departments and was considered to be a stronghold of pirates; the city was named in honour of William III of England, Prince of Orange-Nassau, deriving its name from Nassau, Germany. Nassau's modern growth began in the late eighteenth century, with the influx of thousands of American Loyalists and their slaves to the Bahamas following the American War of Independence. Many of them settled in Nassau and came to outnumber the original inhabitants; as the population of Nassau grew, so did its populated areas.
Today the city dominates its satellite, Paradise Island. However, until the post-Second World War era, the outer suburbs scarcely existed. Most of New Providence was uncultivated bush until Loyalists were resettled there following the American Revolutionary War. Slaves were imported as labour. After the British abolished the international slave trade in 1807, they resettled thousands of Africans liberated from slave ships by the Royal Navy on New Providence, along with other islands such as Grand Bahama, Exuma and Inagua. In addition, slaves freed from American ships, such as the Creole case in 1841, were allowed to settle there; the largest concentration of Africans lived in the "Over-the-Hill" suburbs of Grants Town and Bain Town to the south of the city of Nassau, while most of the inhabitants of European descent lived on the island's northern coastal ridges. Nassau was known as Charles Town. During the Raid on Charles Town the town was burned to the ground by the Spanish in 1684 during one of their frequent wars with the English.
It was rebuilt and renamed to Nassau in 1695 under Governor Nicholas Trott in honour of the Dutch Stadtholder and also King of England and Ireland, William III who belonged to a branch of the House of Nassau, from which the city takes its name. The name Nassau derives from the town of Nassau in Germany. Due to a lack of effective governors, Nassau fell on hard times. In 1703 Spanish and French allied forces occupied Nassau. From 1703 to 1718 there was no governor in the colony and by 1713, the sparsely settled Bahamas had become a pirate haven; the Governor of Bermuda stated that there were over 1,000 pirates in Nassau and that they outnumbered the mere hundred inhabitants of the town. They proclaimed Nassau a pirate republic, establishing themselves as "governors". Examples of pirates that used Nassau as their base are Charles Vane, Thomas Barrow, Benjamin Hornigold, Calico Jack Rackham, Anne Bonny, Mary Read, the infamous Edward Teach, better known as "Blackbeard". In 1718, the British sought to regain control of the islands and appointed Captain Woodes Rogers as Royal governor.
He clamped down on the pirates, reformed the civil administration, restored commerce. Rogers rebuilt the fort, using his own wealth to try to overcome problems. In 1720 the Spanish made an unsuccessful attempt to capture Nassau. During the wars in the Thirteen Colonies, Nassau experienced an economic boom. With funds from privateering, a new fort, street lights and over 2300 sumptuous houses were built and Nassau was extended. In addition to this, mosquito breeding swamps were filled. In 1776, the Battle of Nassau resulted in a brief occupation by American Continental Marines during the American War of Independence, where the Marines staged their first amphibious raid on Fort Montague after attempting to sneak up on Fort Nassau. In 1778 after an overnight invasion, American raiders led by Captain Rathburn, left with ships and military stores after stopping in Nassau for only two weeks. In 1782 Spain captured Nassau for the last time when Don Juan de Cagigal, governor-general of Cuba, attacked New Providence with 5000 men.
Andrew Deveaux, an American Loyalist who resettled on the island, set forth to recapture Nassau for the British Crown and with 220 men and 150 muskets to face a force of 600 trained soldiers. Lord Dunmore governed the colony from 1787 to 1796, he oversaw the construction of Fort Fincastle in Nassau. During the American Civil War, Nassau served as a port for blockade runners making their way to and from ports along the southern Atlantic Coast for continued trade with the Confederacy. In the 1920s and 1930s, Nassau profited from Prohibition in the United States. Located on New Providence Island, Nassau has an attractive harbour, a blend of old world and colonial architecture, a busy port; the tropical climate and natural environment of the Bahamas have made Nassau a tourist destination. Nassau developed directly behind the port area. New Providence provides 200 km² of flat and low-lying land intersected by low ridges. In the centre of the island there are several shallow lakes that are tidally connec
The Press of Atlantic City
The Press of Atlantic City is the fourth-largest daily newspaper in New Jersey, United States. Based in Pleasantville, it is the primary newspaper for southeastern New Jersey and the Jersey Shore; the newspaper designated market runs from Waretown in southern Ocean County down to Cape May. It reaches west to Cumberland County, New Jersey; the paper has a combined print and digital daily circulation of 72,846 and a Sunday circulation of 95,626. The Press closed its printing facility in Pleasantville in 2014, at which time it outsourced printing to a facility in Freehold; that printing plant closed in 2017, with most of the New Jersey printing and production operations consolidated in Gannett's Rockaway plant. Coverage focuses on local and regional news, with limited state and international news appearing on the Nation & World page in the Money section on page D3; the Press of Atlantic City publishes various other products, including At The Shore, the area's entertainment guide. Presented in tabloid format, it is inserted in the paper each Thursday and an additional 20,000–40,000 copies are bulk dropped to key tourist locations throughout the year.
Other specialty niche publications include Bliss, a twice yearly bridal magazine, Real Estate Monthly, Summer Fun, The Atlantic County Living Guide, The Cape May County Living Guide, among many others. Two branded editions of the paper, Press Extra and Sunday Saver, provide limited coverage of the area; because the Press focuses on local issues, with an emphasis on local and school events – high school sports – other daily papers have penetration in the area. These include the Philadelphia Inquirer, the Asbury Park Press, Cherry Hill's Courier-Post and the Vineland Daily Journal; the newspaper was founded in 1895 by Walter Edge as the Atlantic City Daily Press. In 1930 the name of the paper was changed to the Atlantic City Press, in 1971 the name was changed to The Press. In 1988, its name was changed again to The Press of Atlantic City, the name in use; the paper was owned from 1951–2013 by Abarta, a owned Pittsburgh-based holding company known for Coca-Cola bottling, oil and gas operations in Pennsylvania.
On January 14, 2013, Abarta officials announced they were selling the paper to focus on their other business operations. On July 18, 2013, an asset purchase agreement was signed with BH Media for $9.6 million and the paper became wholly owned by BH Media, a Berkshire Hathaway company, on August 11, 2013. In 2014, BH Media bought the Gazette newspapers. In 2015, BH Media bought Atlantic City Weekly. Publisher: Mark L. Blum Vice President of News: Kris Worrell Vice President of Sales and Marketing: Michelle Rice Director of Circulation: Carol Steiger Director of Advertising: Michelle Rice Finance Manager: Ellen Wolcott Human Resources Manager: Ed Steiger Executive Editor: Kris Worrell Managing Editor: W. F. Keough Editorial Page Editor: Kevin Post The Press of Atlantic City is available in several formats, it is published in several digital formats. In May 2013, the paper shifted from a traditional business model of separate paid subscriptions for print and digital, created All Access Passes which give readers access to the news across all available platforms for one price.
Current rates range from $16.50 a month for full digital access with Sunday home delivery or no home deliver, to $23.50 for seven-day print home delivery plus full digital access. The print newsstand rate is $1.00 for the daily edition, $2.00 for Sunday. Prices are north. On October 15, 2011, PressofAtlanticCity.com became a paid content website, was the first daily newspaper site in New Jersey to request payment for access to its digital content. It is available in a replica e-edition that allows viewers to see the entire paper digitally as it appears each day in print, along with page-turning technology and links. In addition to news and sports, both web editions have local auto, real estate and job pages within the respective sites. Readers may view up to five pages on a free trial, after which they are asked to subscribe; the Press of Atlantic City Mobile version Abarta.com
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Essex County, New Jersey
Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 808,285, making it the state's third-most populous county, an increase of 3.1% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 783,969, in turn a decrease of 1.2% from the 793,633 enumerated in the 2000 Census. In 2010, the county dropped down to third-largest, behind Middlesex County, was one of only two counties in the state to see a decline between 2000 and 2010, its county seat is the most populous city in the state. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $60,030, the eighth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 153rd of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 94th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county is named after a county in the East of England. Based on data from the 2010 census, Essex County is the 14th-most densely populated county in the United States, was ranked second in the state after Hudson County.
Newark, with a population density of 11,458.3 people/square mile, is the largest municipality in the county both in terms of land area and population, while Caldwell is the smallest in terms of land area and Essex Fells has the smallest population. Many of the county's smallest municipalities have population densities that are comparable to those of many big cities, are well above the state's average which in turn is the highest in the nation. Like many of the counties of Northern New Jersey near New York City—which tend to have sharp divides between rich suburban neighborhoods and less wealthy, more densely populated cities nearby—the eastern region of Essex County tends to be poorer and more urbanized, while the western parts tend to be more affluent and suburban; the wide area of Eastern Essex has significant pockets of high population, high building density, high poverty, high crime rates. Within this general area however are many stable and middle-income areas of diverse populations. For example and west sides of Newark have well-kept suburban areas such as Vailsburg and Forest Hill.
The east side of Newark is a working-class Brazilian and Portuguese community. East Orange has the Presidential Estate neighborhood full of large one family homes. Belleville and Bloomfield are suburbs with historic Italian communities that, in spite of retaining a core Italian-American population, now have many immigrants from Latin America and Asia; as of the 2000 Census, 36% of Nutley residents indicated that they were of Italian ancestry, the 12th-highest of any municipality in the nation and third-highest in New Jersey. Beginning at about the turn of the century, this region led the state in the rebuilding and rehab of its housing stock. In the 2000s, Newark led the state in the issuance of building permits. Many reasons were cited: citywide incentives to encourage construction development, an improving local economy, the rising demand of low-cost housing so close to Manhattan. Newark has since become one of the fastest growing cities in the entire Northeast, reported a gain in median income and drop in poverty rate.
This is a turnaround from the deterioration and abandonment experienced in the post-riot 1970s, 1980s and early part of the 1990s. Crime in this part of the county has traditionally been among the highest in the state and the country as well, but has seen significant declines, mirroring its large neighbor to the east, New York City. By 2006, crime in Newark had fallen 60% over the previous decade to its lowest levels in 40 years. Neighboring East Orange has experienced a decline in crimes, dropping 50% in the three years. While crime rates have fallen in these cities in recent years, they nonetheless remain high here compared to national crime statistics, as well as Irvington, Orange. In 2008, Newark had 67 homicides, down from 105 in 2007 and the record of 161 murders set in 1981. In contrast, Western Essex tends to be more affluent. Within this region are some of the most diverse and racially integrated municipalities in the state and nation, including Montclair, West Orange, South Orange and Maplewood.
Many neighborhoods are well-known magnets for people moving from New York City, such as Glen Ridge, Verona, Cedar Grove, South Orange and West Orange. The communities of Livingston, West Caldwell, South Orange, Millburn, North Caldwell, Essex Fells are some of the wealthiest towns in the county. Short Hills, South Orange and Livingston have large Jewish communities. Short Hills has a popular upscale shopping mall, The Mall at Short Hills located near affluent communities in Morris and Union counties; as the poorest place in the county, Newark has a median household income of $33,025 and a per capita income of $17,198. Essex County was the first county in the country to create a county park system, to ensure that it did not lose all its land to development; some of the county's municipalities Newark, The Oranges, The Caldwells were seen on episodes of the HBO mob drama The Sopranos, set in North Caldwell. There are various attractions in Essex County, such as the Newark Museum, Montclair Art Mus
The Bahamas, known as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a country within the Lucayan Archipelago. The archipelagic state consists of more than 700 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, is located north of Cuba and Hispaniola, northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands, southeast of the U. S. state of Florida, east of the Florida Keys. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence; the designation of "the Bahamas" can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Royal Bahamas Defence Force describes the Bahamas territory as encompassing 470,000 km2 of ocean space; the Bahamas is the site of Columbus's first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taíno people. Although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola; the islands were deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.
The Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718. After the American Revolutionary War, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas. Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period; the slave trade was abolished by the British in 1807. Subsequently, the Bahamas became a haven for freed African slaves. Today, Afro-Bahamians make up nearly 90% of the population; the Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973 with Elizabeth II as its queen. In terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance; the name Bahamas is most derived from either the Taíno ba ha ma, a term for the region used by the indigenous Native Americans, or from the Spanish baja mar reflecting the shallow waters of the area. Alternatively, it may originate from a local name of unclear meaning; the word The constitutes an integral part of the short form of the name and is, capitalised.
So in contrast to "the Congo" and "the United Kingdom", it is proper to write "The Bahamas." The name The Bahamas is thus comparable with certain non-English names that use the definite article, such as Las Vegas or Los Angeles. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, the country's fundamental law, capitalizes the "T" in "The Bahamas." Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century, having migrated there from South America. They came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayans inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in 1492. Columbus's first landfall in the New World was on an island; some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, situated in the southeastern Bahamas. An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbus's log.
Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus exchanged goods with them; the Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour. The slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity; the population of the Bahamas was diminished. In 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda; these English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom. They settled New Providence, naming it Sayle's Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks. In 1670, King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America, they rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, appointing governors, administering the country. In 1684 Spanish corsair Juan de Alcon raided Charles Town.
In 1703, a joint Franco-Spanish expedition occupied the Bahamian capital during the War of the Spanish Succession. During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including Blackbeard. To put an end to the'Pirates' republic' and restore orderly government, Great Britain made the Bahamas a crown colony in 1718 under the royal governorship of Woodes Rogers. After a difficult struggle, he succeeded in suppressing piracy. In 1720, Rogers led local militia to drive off a Spanish attack. During the US War of Independence in the late 18th century, the islands became a target for US naval forces under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins. US Marines occupied the capital of Nassau for 2 weeks. In 1782, following the British defeat at Yorktown, a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau; the city surrendered without a fight. Spain returned possession of the Bahamas to Great Britain the following year, u
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"