Wolferton is a village in the north of the English county of Norfolk. The village is situated some 2 miles west of the village of Sandringham, 7½ miles north of the town of King's Lynn and 37¼ miles north-west of the city of Norwich; the village forms part of the civil parish of Sandringham, in turn part of the district of King's Lynn and West Norfolk. Wolferton is best known as the location of Wolferton railway station; the station was opened in 1862 after Queen Victoria had purchased the site of Sandringham House as a Norfolk retreat. The station contained a set of elegant reception rooms, where the several generations of the royal family and their visitors would wait for transportation to Sandringham House; the station closed in the 1960s and suffered through neglect until it was renovated and converted to a residence in the late 1990s. The 13th-century St Peter's Church was damaged by fire in the fifteenth century, restored in the 19th century by Arthur Blomfield, it retains its medieval parclose screens.
Map sources for Wolferton Information from Genuki Norfolk on Wolferton. Information from NorfolkCoast.co.uk on Wolferton
The Wash is a square bay and estuary at the north-west corner of East Anglia on the East coast of England, where Norfolk meets Lincolnshire, both border the North Sea. One of the broadest estuaries in the United Kingdom, it is fed by the rivers Witham, Welland and Great Ouse, it is a 62,046-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest. It is a Nature Conservation Review site, Grade I, a National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar site, a Special Area of Conservation and a Special Protection Area, it is in the Norfolk Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and part of it is the Snettisham Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve. The Wash is a large indentation in the coastline of Eastern England that separates the curved coast of East Anglia from Lincolnshire, it is a large bay with three straight sides meeting at right angles, each about 15 miles in length. The eastern coast of the Wash is within Norfolk, extends from a point a little north of Hunstanton in the north to the mouth of the River Great Ouse at King's Lynn in the south.
The opposing coast, parallel to the east coast, runs from Gibraltar Point to the mouth of the River Welland, all within Lincolnshire. The southern coast runs north-west to south-east, connecting these two river mouths and is punctuated by the mouth of a third river, the River Nene. Inland from the Wash the land is flat, low-lying and marshy: these are the Fens of Lincolnshire and Norfolk. To the east is the North Sea. Owing to deposits of sediment and land reclamation, the coastline of the Wash has altered markedly within historical times. Much of the Wash itself is shallow, with several large sandbanks, such as Breast Sand, Bulldog Sand, Roger Sand and Old South Sand, which are exposed at low tide along the south coast. For this reason, navigation in the Wash can be hazardous. Two commercial shipping lane channels lead inland from The Wash, the River Nene leading to Sutton Bridge Docks in Lincolnshire and further inland to the Port of Wisbech in Cambridgeshire, the River Great Ouse leading to King's Lynn Docks in Norfolk.
Both shipping lanes have their own maritime pilot stations to guide and navigate incoming and outgoing cargo ships in The Wash. A re-survey of the coastline of The Wash carried out by The Ordnance Survey in 2011 revealed that an estimated additional 3,000 acres on the coastline of The Wash had been created by accretion since the previous surveys carried out between 1960 and 1980; the Wash varies enormously in water temperature throughout the year. Winter temperatures are brought near freezing from the cold North Sea flows. Summer water temperatures can reach 20 -- 23 °C after sun; this effect, which happens in the shallow areas around beaches, only in pockets of water, is exaggerated by the large sheltered tidal reach. At the end of the latest glaciation, while the sea level remained lower than it is today, the rivers Witham, Glen and Great Ouse joined into a large river; the deep valley of the Wash was formed, not by the interglacial river, but by ice of the Wolstonian and Devensian stages flowing southwards up the slope represented by the modern coast and forming tunnel valleys, of which the Silver Pit is one of many.
It was this process that narrowness. When the tunnel valley was free of ice and seawater, it was occupied by the river; this kept it free of sediment, unlike most of the tunnel valleys. Since the sea flooded it, the valley seems to have been kept open by tidal action. During the Ipswichian Stage, though the Wash River flowed by way of the site of the Silver Pit, the tunnel valley will not have been formed at this stage, as its alignment seems inconsistent; the Wash is made up of extensive salt marshes, major intertidal banks of sand and mud, shallow waters and deep channels. As understanding of the importance of the natural marshes has increased, in the 21st century the seawall at Freiston has been breached in three places to increase the saltmarsh area, in order to provide an extra habitat for birds waders, as a natural flood prevention measure; the extensive creeks in the salt marsh, the vegetation that grows there, help dissipate wave energy, thus improving the protection afforded to land behind the saltmarsh.
This last aspect is an example of the developing exploration of the possibilities of sustainable coastal management by adopting soft engineering techniques rather than dykes and drainage. The same scheme includes new brackish lagoon habitat. On the eastern side of the Wash, low chalk cliffs, with a noted stratum of red chalk, are found at Hunstanton. Gravel pits are found at Snettisham RSPB reserve, which are an important roost for waders at high tide; this SPA borders onto the North Norfolk Coast Special Protection Area. To the north-west, the Wash extends to another Special Protection Area; the confined nature of the Wash habitats, combined with the ample tidal flows, allows shellfish to breed shrimp and mussels. Some water birds such as oystercatchers feed on shellfish, it is an important breeding area for common tern, a feeding area for marsh harriers. Migrating birds, such as geese and wading birds, come to the Wash in huge numbers to spend the winter, with an average total of around 400,000 birds present at any one time.
It has been estimated that about two million birds a year use the Wash for feeding and roosting during their annual migrations. The Wash is recognised as being internationally important for 17 species of bi
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm
Bagthorpe with Barmer
Bagthorpe with Barmer is a civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. The parish includes the hamlets of Bagthorpe and Barmer, is situated some 15 km west of Fakenham and 20 km north east of King's Lynn; as the population of the civil parish remained less than 100 at the 2011 Census it was included in the civil parish of Stanhoe. The civil parish has an area of 9.05 km2 and in the 2001 census had a population of 53 in 22 households. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of King's Lynn and West Norfolk. Barmer All Saints is a Grade II* listed building, it is one of 124 existing round-tower churches in Norfolk. The church sits off the road, about 250 yards across a field in a copse of trees. In 1602 it was a ruin but in 1885 the Kerslake family decided to turn it into a mausoleum and employed architect Frederick Preedy to restore the church. What exists today is Victorian, but there are remains of its earlier history; the round tower is Norman, but the origins may have been Anglo-Saxon as indicated by the flint quoins at the west end of the nave.
The chancel arch is the nave 13th Century. The church was declared redundant in 1970 and it was taken over by the Norfolk Churches Trust in 1978; the Kerslake coat of arms can be seen on a cast-iron tympanum above the door. The Kerslakes owned much of the surrounding land as well as the manor house; the house no longer exists. Several of the Kerslake family are buried in the churchyard; the Kerslakes originate from the southwest of England where the family owned shipyards building ships for the Royal Navy. Due to the considerable amount of work undertaken for the Admiralty during the 18th century, the family became wealthy and a government creditor, it is believed that the family were awarded a large plot of land and manorial rights in part payment of government debt. Information from Genuki Norfolk on Bagthorpe Information from Genuki Norfolk on Barmer Website with photos of Barmer All Saints Bagthorpe in the Domesday Book Barmer in the Domesday Book
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
King's Lynn, known until 1537 as Bishop's Lynn, is an English seaport and market town in Norfolk, about 98 miles north of London, 36 miles north-east of Peterborough, 44 miles north north-east of Cambridge and 44 miles west of Norwich. The population is 42,800, it is a cultural centre with two theatres, three museums, several other cultural and sporting venues, along with three secondary schools and one college. The etymology of King's Lynn is uncertain; the name Lynn is said to be derived from the body of water near the town: the Celtic word llyn, means a lake. As the Domesday Book mentions many saltings at Lena, an area of partitioned pools or small lakes may have existed there at that time; the salt may have contributed to Herbert de Losinga's interest in the modest parish. For a time it was named Len Episcopi while under the jurisdiction, both temporal and spiritual, of the Bishop of Norwich. In the Domesday Book, it is known as Lun, Lenn; the town is and has been for generations known by its inhabitants and local people as Lynn.
The city of Lynn, just north of Boston, was named in 1637 in honour of its first official minister of religion, Samuel Whiting, who arrived at the new settlement from Lynn, Norfolk. Lynn originated as a settlement on a constricted site to the south of where the River Great Ouse exits to the Wash. Development began in the early 10th century, but the place was not recorded until the early 11th century; until the early 13th century, the Great Ouse emptied via the Wellstream at Wisbech. After the redirection of the Great Ouse in the 13th century and its port became significant and prosperous. In 1101, Bishop Herbert de Losinga of Thetford began to construct the first mediaeval town between two rivers, the Purfleet to the north and Mill Fleet to the south, he authorised a market. In the same year, the bishop granted the people of Lynn the right to hold a market on Saturday. Trade built up along the waterways that stretched inland and the town expanded between the two rivers. Lynn had a Jewish community in the 12th century, exterminated during anti-Jewish massacres in 1189.
During the 14th century, Lynn ranked as England's most important port. It was considered as vital to England during the Middle Ages as Liverpool was during the Industrial Revolution. Sea trade with Europe was dominated by the Hanseatic League of ports; the Trinity Guildhall was rebuilt in 1421 after a fire. It is possible that the Guildhall of St George is the oldest in England. Walls entered by the South Gate and East Gate were erected to protect the town; the town retains two former Hanseatic League warehouses: Hanse House built in 1475 and Marriott's Warehouse, in use between the 15th and 17th centuries. They are the only remaining buildings from the Hanseatic League in England. In the first decade of the 16th century, Thoresby College was built by Thomas Thoresby to house priests of the Guild of The Holy Trinity in Lynn; the guild had been incorporated in 1453 on the petition of its alderman, four brethren and four sisters. The guildsmen were licensed to found a chantry of chaplains to celebrate at the altar of Holy Trinity in Wisbech, to grant to the chaplains lands in mortmain.
In 1524 Lynn acquired a corporation. In 1537 the king took control of the town from the bishop and in the 16th century the town's two annual fairs were reduced to one. In 1534 a grammar school was founded and four years Henry VIII closed the Benedictine priory and the three friaries. During the 16th century a piped water supply was created, although many could not afford to be connected: elm pipes carried water under the streets. King's Lynn suffered from outbreaks of plague, notably in 1516, 1587, 1597, 1636 and the last in 1665. Fire was another hazard and in 1572 thatched roofs were banned to reduce the risk. During the English Civil War, King's Lynn supported Parliament, but in August 1643, after a change in government, the town changed sides. Parliament sent an army, the town was besieged for three weeks before it surrendered. A heart carved on the wall of the Tuesday Market Place commemorates the burning of an alleged witch, Margaret Read, in 1590, it struck the wall. In 1683, the architect Henry Bell, once the town's mayor, designed the Custom House.
Bell designed the Duke's Head Inn, the North Runcton Church, Stanhoe Hall. His artistic inspiration was the result of travelling Europe as a young man. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the town's main export was grain. Lynn was no longer a major international port, although timber were imported. King's Lynn suffered from the discovery of the Americas, which benefited the ports on the west coast of England, its trade was affected by the growth of London. In the late 17th century, imports of wine from Spain and France boomed, there was still an important coastal trade, it was cheaper to transport goods by water than by road at that time. Large quantities of coal arrived from the north-east of England; the Fens began to be drained in the mid–17th century, the land turned to agriculture, allowing vast amounts of produce to be sent to the gr