New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
An Australian pub or hotel is a public house or pub for short, in Australia, is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises. They provide other services, as entertainment venues, serving meals and providing basic accommodation; the Australian pub is a direct descendant of the Irish pub. The production and consumption of alcoholic drinks has long played a key role in Western commerce and social activity, this is reflected in the importance of pubs in the British colonisation of Australia after 1788. However, in the 19th century the local version evolved a number of distinctive features that set it apart from the classic British or urban Irish pub. In many cases, pubs were the first structures built in newly colonised areas on the goldfields, new towns grew up around them. Pubs served multiple functions serving as hostelry, post office, meeting place and sometimes general store. Pubs proliferated during the 19th century during the gold rush that began in the 1850s, many fine examples were built in the state capitals and major regional cities and towns.
Some of the best colonial-era pubs in Australia's major cities have fallen victim to urban re-development, which has destroyed a significant portion of Australia's 19th-century architectural heritage. State capitals like Melbourne and Adelaide, large regional cities and towns such as Kalgoorlie in Western Australia still boast some examples, many other 19th century pubs survive in country towns. Among the colonial-era hotels, now lost to development, were the Bellevue Hotel in Brisbane and two of Sydney's pub-hotels – the Hotel Australia, which stood on the corner of Castlereagh St and Martin Place and the Tattersall's Hotel in Pitt St, its marble bar was dismantled and reinstalled in a basement under the Sydney Hilton Hotel, built on the site of the Tattersall's Hotel in the early 1970s. The development that solidified the characteristic style of the modern Australian pub was the introduction of the American-style bar counter in the early nineteenth century. Customers began to sit apart from the publicans, the atmosphere became commercial rather than home-like and the pub became a distinctly public, Australian male-dominated establishment.
Australia's beer-drinking culture is descended from the northern European tradition, which favoured grain-derived beverages like beer and spirits, whereas in southern European countries like Italy and Greece wine was the drink of choice. Beer was for many years the largest-selling form of alcoholic drink in Australia, Australia has long had one of the highest per capita rates of beer consumption in the world. Australia did not develop a significant wine-making industry until the 20th century and while the wine industry grew wine did not become a major consumer drink until the late 20th century. Therefore, for the period between 1800 and 1950, alcohol production and consumption in Australia was dominated by beer and spirits, with Australian pubs becoming synonymous with ice-cold pilsener beer. Liquor licensing policies in early colonial Australia were liberal, but in the late 19th century there was growing pressure from conservative Christian groups, known as the Temperance Leagues, to restrict the sale of alcohol.
In 1916 after drunken soldiers rioted in Sydney new licensing laws restricted alcohol in all Australian states, in most cases banning sales after 6 pm. The new legislation forced publicans seeking a spirits licence to obtain a beer licence and to provide accommodation; the licensing laws restricted the sale and service of alcohol exclusively to pubs for decades. Alcohol could be purchased only in pubs, many states placed restrictions on the number of bottles per customer that could be sold over the counter, it was not until the late 20th century that "bottle-shops" and chain-store outlets became common and restaurants and cafes were more licensed to serve liquor or to allow customers to "bring their own". Opening hours were heavily restricted, pubs were open only from 10 am to 6 pm, Monday to Saturday; some pubs were granted special licences to open and close earlier – e.g. opening at 6 am and closing at 3 pm – in areas where there were large numbers of people working night shifts. Pubs were invariably closed on Sundays, until the various state Sunday Observance Acts were repealed during the 1950s and early 1960s.
These restrictions created a small but lucrative black market in illegal alcohol, leading to the proliferation of illegal alcohol outlets in many urban areas. After the Federation of Australia in 1901, Australia's new constitution ruled that the Commonwealth of Australia had no power to legislate in this area, so each state enacted and enforced its own liquor licensing regulations; this meant the Prohibition lobby in Australia had to lobby each individual state government, was unable to achieve any nationwide ban on the sale of alcohol. Although liquor sales remained restricted for many years, Australia did not experience the many social ills, including the vast expansion of organised crime that resulted from Prohibition in the United States in the 1920s; because of the hot, dry climate, Australian beer drinkers soon came to favour chilled pilsener style beers. This trend was reinforced with the expansion and consolidation of the Australian brewing industry, by the development of hop growing in Tasmania.
The dominance of chilled pilsener beer was further reinforced by the invention of refrigeration. Australia was one of the first countries to adopt
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, Breton, New Zealand, South African and Australian cultures. In many places in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th-century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England". Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them visible for passing ale tasters, who would assess the quality of ale sold. Most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks; as well, pubs sell wines and soft drinks and snacks. The owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or landlady, or publican. Referred to as their "local" by regulars, pubs are chosen for their proximity to home or work, the availability of a particular beer or ale or a good selection, good food, a social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, the availability of recreational activities such as a darts team, a skittles team, a pool or snooker table.
The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s. The inhabitants of the British Isles have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Roman Empire on its shores in the 1st century, the construction of the Roman road networks that the first inns, called tabernae, in which travellers could obtain refreshment, began to appear. After the departure of Roman authority in the 5th century and the fall of the Romano-British kingdoms, the Anglo-Saxons established alehouses that grew out of domestic dwellings; the Anglo-Saxon alewife would put a green bush up on a pole to let. These alehouses evolved into meeting houses for the folk to congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities. Herein lies "pub" as it is colloquially called in England, they spread across the kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel.
The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses, 1,631 inns, 329 taverns, representing one pub for every 187 people. Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and food and drink, they are located in the country or along a highway. In Europe, they first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago; some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, that now distinguishes inns from taverns and pubs; the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less accommodation. Inns tend to be older and grander establishments: they provided not only food and lodging, but stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse and on some roads fresh horses for the mail coach.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard. There is, other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use "Inn" in their name, either because they are long established former coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image, or in many cases as a pun on the word "in", as in "The Welcome Inn", the name of many pubs in Scotland; the original services of an inn are now available at other establishments, such as hotels and motels, which focus more on lodging customers than on other services, although they provide meals. In North America, the lodging aspect of the word "inn" lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, in some state laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers; the Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, but became institutions of the legal profession in England and Wales. The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments due to the introduction of gin. Brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, gin became popular after the government created a market for "cuckoo grain" or "cuckoo malt" by allowing unlicensed gin and beer production while imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits.
As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and, because of its cheapness, it became popular with the poor, leading to the so-called Gin Craze. Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin shops; the drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to the ruination and degradation of the working classes. The different effects of beer and gin were illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane; the Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets
The Inner West is the metropolitan area directly west of the Sydney central business district, New South Wales, Australia. The suburbs of the Inner West are predominantly located along the southern shore of Port Jackson, stretching south to the shores of the Cooks River; the western boundary is Centenary Drive. The Inner West is an imprecise geographical region; the Australian Government Bureau of Statistics, the New South Wales Government Department of Planning and Infrastructure, local media variously describe the Inner West region to include the local government areas of: Municipality of Burwood City of Canada Bay Inner West Council Municipality of Strathfield Based on the distribution area of the Inner West Courier local newspaper and various Inner West Courier and media articles, the Inner West includes the suburbs: Prior to the arrival of the First Fleet, the Sydney region was home to the Darug people. This nation was broken up into a number of Aboriginal clans who tended to live in a certain geographic area.
Each clan contained about 50 to 100 people and, to avoid genetic problems, the men would marry women from other clans. So the clans were interrelated and members from one clan would travel in the territory of others, including to hunt and perform ceremonies, they didn't consider themselves owners of the land, rather custodians. What is now the Inner West was home to two clans, the Cadigal, whose land stretched along Port Jackson from South Head to Lewisham, the Wangal, whose land was to the west of the Cadigals and stretched to about Homebush Bay. Other clans that would have been regular visitors to the area would have included the Birrabirragal and Muru-ora-dial in what is now the Eastern Suburbs, the Bediagal and Kameygal from the Cooks River area to the south, the Burramattagal from the Parramatta area to the west, the Wallumattagal and Gorualgal from the northern shores of the Parramatta River; the topography of the Inner West reflects rolling hills intersected by shallow valleys through which waterways including Iron Cove Creek, Hawthorne Canal, Whites Creek and Johnstons Creek flow.
These waterways have been drastically altered since the late 19th century by the means of concrete lining. For example, in the 1860s iron Cove Creek was a flowing waterway which in places broadened into ponds that made excellent and picturesque swimming holes, it is now a trickle lined by residential areas and fast-food restaurants. The suburbs within the region are characterised by medium to high-density housing and include some of the older constructions in Sydney such as the terraced houses of Glebe and Annandale. Parts of the inner west have been subject to gentrification in Marrickville and its surrounding areas, it is the location of several tertiary institutions such as Australian Catholic University, Catholic Institute of Sydney, the University of Sydney, reflected in the high student populations amongst the more downtown areas. The Inner West features schools such as Sydney Secondary College, Fort Street High School, Burwood Girls High School, Homebush Boys High School, Strathfield Girls High School, Ashfield Boys High School, Presbyterian Ladies' College, Meriden School, MLC School, St. Patrick's College, Trinity Grammar School, Newington College and its preparatory school Wyvern House, Santa Sabina College and Rosebank College.
The Inner West's two oldest schools are Rosebank College. Public transport in the region includes trains, buses and light rail. Sydney Trains Airport, Inner West & South Line runs from Central station running south of Parramatta Road to Strathfield and to Macarthur via Granville; the North Shore, Northern & Western Line follows the same route to Strathfield and branches off to the north to Epping, with stops at North Strathfield, Concord West and Rhodes. The Bankstown Line provides train services to suburbs such as Erskineville, St Peters, Sydenham and Dulwich Hill. There are various bus routes provided by State Transit. Sydney Ferries operates services in Parramatta river; the Dulwich Hill Line of Sydney's light rail network connects Pyrmont, Lilyfield and Lewisham to Central railway station. Parramatta Road runs through the middle of this area. Although still playing only a small part in the overall transport task, use of bicycles for transport has increased in the Inner West since the 1990s.
Denser populations and shorter distances mean cycling is quicker and more convenient than driving or taking public transport. A network of bicycle paths, signed bicycle routes on local streets and other aids to safe and convenient cycling is developing. Main bicycle routes include an East-West route from Five Dock to the Anzac Bridge cycleway, a Northwest route from Gladesville Bridge to Anzac Bridge, a Southwest Route from Marrickville to the City via Newtown. Groups of local bicycle user groups provide help for new cyclists, under the parent banner of Bicycle New South Wales; the local government areas with responsibility for the Inner West are Burwood, Inner West Council, Strathfield. Parts of Canterbury-Bankstown and the City of Sydney are sometimes considered to be part of the Inner West region. In the state parliament, the region is represented by the electoral districts of Balmain, Drummoyne, Newtown and Summer Hill. Following the 2015 state election, these seats were divided amongst the three main parties with Drummoyne represented by the Liberal Party, Canterbury and Summer Hill represented by the Austral
The Angels (Australian band)
The Angels are an Australian rock band which formed in Taperoo, a small beach side suburb in Adelaide in 1974 as The Keystone Angels by John Brewster on rhythm guitar and vocals, his brother Rick Brewster on lead guitar and vocals, Bernard "Doc" Neeson on lead vocals and guitar. They were joined by Graham "Buzz" Bidstrup on drums and vocals, Chris Bailey on bass guitar and vocals. In 1981 Bidstrup was replaced on drums by Brent Eccles, their studio albums on the Kent Music Report Albums Chart top 10 are No Exit, Dark Room, Night Attack, Two Minute Warning and Beyond Salvation. Their top 20 singles are "No Secrets", "Into the Heat", "We Gotta Get out of This Place", "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again", "Let the Night Roll On" and "Dogs Are Talking". In the international market, to avoid legal problems with named acts, their records have been released under the names, Angel City and The Angels from Angel City; the Angels have been cited by Guns N' Roses, Seattle grunge bands Pearl Jam and Nirvana, as having influenced their music.
Neeson left the group in 1999 due to spinal injuries sustained in a car accident and they disbanded in the following year. Subsequently, competing versions of the group performed using the Angels name, until April 2008 when the original 1970s line-up reformed for a series of tours until 2011, when Neeson left again. Alternative versions continued with new members; the Angels were inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame in October 1998 with the line-up of Bailey and Rick Brewster and Neeson. Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, declared that "The Angels had a profound effect on the Australian live music scene of the late 1970s/early 1980s. Helped redefine the Australian pub rock tradition... brand of no-frills, hard-driving boogie rock attracted pub goers in unprecedented numbers. In turn, The Angels' shows raised the standard expected of live music. After 20 years on the road, the band showed little sign of easing up on the hard rock fever." Chris Bailey died on 4 April 2013, aged 62, after being diagnosed with throat cancer.
Doc Neeson died on 4 June 2014, aged 67, of a brain tumour. In November 1970 future member of the Angels, John Brewster on guitar, harp, backing vocals and washboard, his brother Rick on violin, jug, backing vocals and percussion formed the Moonshine Jug and String Band, an acoustic ensemble, in Adelaide. Fellow members were Craig Holden on guitar, Bob Petchell on banjo and harp, Pete Thorpe on tea chest bass, bass guitar, wash tub and backing vocals. In 1971 they were joined by Belfast-born immigrant, Bernard "Doc" Neeson, on guitar and lead vocals, an arts student and former Army sergeant, who performed locally as Doc Talbot; the folk band gigged at local university cafes. Holden left in 1972. In 1973 Spencer Tregloan joined Moonshine Jug and String Band on banjo, jug and backing vocals, they released their debut four-track extended play, Keep You on the Move, which made the top 5 in Adelaide. It contained a cover version of Canned Heat's "On the Road Again" and three original tracks: one written by John, one by John and Rick, one by Neeson.
It was followed in 1974 by a single, "That's All Right with Me". Both releases were on the Sphere Organisation label owned by John Woodruff, who became the Angels' talent manager for two decades. In 2015 the group were inducted into the Adelaide Music Collective Hall of Fame. In mid-1974 Moonshine Jug and String Band changed their name to the Keystone Angels, with the line up of John Brewster on lead vocals and bass guitar, Rick on guitar, Neeson on bass guitar and vocals, Peter Christopolous on drums and Laurie Lever on keyboards, they began playing 1950s rock and roll on the pub circuit. Rick recalled "There was a cult following with The Jug Band but if we wanted any real success we had to start an electric band. So we threw ourselves in the deep end. I went from playing washboard to playing lead guitar. I hadn't played an electric guitar before then!"During July and August 1974 they ran a series of ads in Go-Set, the national teen pop music magazine, announcing that "The Keystone Angles are coming".
Lever left during that year. In January 1975 the remaining members performed, as a four-piece, at the Sunbury Pop Festival they supported AC/DC during a South Australian tour, that year they were the backing band for Chuck Berry; the Keystone Angels issued a sole single, "Keep on Dancin'", on Sphere during that year. In 1976 the Angels signed a recording deal with the Albert Productions label, upon the recommendation of Bon Scott and Malcolm Young; the group dropped "Keystone" from their name and became the Angels, relocated to Sydney with the line-up of Neeson on lead vocals and bass guitar, King on drums, Rick on lead guitar and John Brewster on lead vocals and rhythm guitar. According to Ian McFarlane, an Australian musicologist, the group "had toughened its sound into a unique brand of beefy hard rock."The Angels' first single, "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again", was released in April 1976, produced by Vanda & Young. It was co-written by the Neeson, they made their TV debut on Countdown.
In August King was replaced by Graham "Buzz Throckman" Bidstrup on drums. In January 1977 Chris Bailey joined on bass guitar, which allowed Neeson to concentrate on lead vocals. Bailey had been a member of Mount Lofty Rangers, with Bon Scott
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, launched in October 2010 on iOS. A version for Android devices was released a year and half in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited website interface in November 2012, apps for Windows 10 Mobile and Windows 10 in April 2016 and October 2016 respectively; the app allows users to upload photos and videos to the service, which can be edited with various filters, organized with tags and location information. An account's posts can be shared publicly or with pre-approved followers. Users can browse other users' content by tags and locations, view trending content. Users can "like" photos, follow other users to add their content to a feed; the service was distinguished by only allowing content to be framed in a square aspect ratio, but these restrictions were eased in 2015. The service added messaging features, the ability to include multiple images or videos in a single post, as well as "Stories"—similar to its main competitor Snapchat—which allows users to post photos and videos to a sequential feed, with each post accessible by others for 24 hours each.
After its launch in 2010, Instagram gained popularity, with one million registered users in two months, 10 million in a year, 800 million as of September 2017. In April 2012, Facebook acquired the service for US$1 billion in cash and stock; as of October 2015, over 40 billion photos had been uploaded to the service. Although praised for its influence, Instagram has been the subject of criticism, most notably for policy and interface changes, allegations of censorship, illegal or improper content uploaded by users; as of 14 January 2019, the most liked photo on Instagram is a picture of an egg, posted by the account @world_record_egg, created with a sole purpose of surpassing the previous record of 18 million likes on a Kylie Jenner post. The picture has over 50 million likes. Instagram began development in San Francisco, when Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger chose to focus their multi-featured HTML5 check-in project, Burbn, on mobile photography; as Krieger reasoned, Burbn became too similar to Foursquare, both realized that it had gone too far.
Burbn was pivoted to become more focused on photo-sharing. The word Instagram is a portmanteau of instant telegram. On March 5, 2010, Systrom closed a $500,000 seed funding round with Baseline Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz while working on Burbn. Josh Riedel joined the company in October as Community Manager, Shayne Sweeney joined in November as an engineer, Jessica Zollman joined as a Community Evangelist in August 2011. Kevin Systrom posted the first photo to Instagram on July 16, 2010; the photo shows Systrom's girlfriend's foot. On October 6, 2010, the Instagram iOS app was released through the App Store. In February 2011, it was reported that Instagram had raised $7 million in Series A funding from a variety of investors, including Benchmark Capital, Jack Dorsey, Chris Sacca, Adam D'Angelo; the deal valued Instagram at around $20 million. On April 3, 2012, Instagram was released for Android phones, it was downloaded more than one million times in less than one day. In March 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Instagram was raising a new round of financing that would value the company at $500 million, details that were confirmed the following month, when Instagram raised $50 million from venture capitalists with a $500 million valuation.
The same month, Facebook bought Instagram for $1 billion in cash and stock, with a plan to keep the company independently managed. Britain's Office of Fair Trading approved the deal on August 14, 2012, on August 22, 2012, the Federal Trade Commission in the U. S. closed its investigation. On September 6, 2012, the deal between Instagram and Facebook was closed; the deal, made just prior to Facebook's scheduled IPO, cost about a quarter of Facebook's cash-on-hand, according to figures documented at the end of 2011. The deal was for a company characterized as having "lots of buzz but no business model", the price was contrasted with the $35 million Yahoo! paid for Flickr in 2005. Mark Zuckerberg noted that Facebook was "committed to building and growing Instagram independently", in contrast to its past practices. According to Wired, the deal netted Systrom $400 million based on his ownership stake in the business; the exact purchase price was 23 million shares of stock. In November 2012, Instagram launched website profiles, allowing anyone to see users' feeds from their web browsers.
However, the website interface was limited in functionality, with notable omissions including the lack of a search bar, a news feed, the ability to upload photos. In February 2013, the website was updated to offer a news feed, in June 2015, the website was redesigned to offer bigger photos. On October 22, 2013, during the Nokia World event held in Abu Dhabi, Systrom confirmed the upcoming release of the official Instagram app for Windows Phone, after pressure from Nokia and the public to develop an app for the platform; the app was released as a beta version on November 21, 2013, was lacking the ability to record and upload video, though an Instagram spokesperson stated that "We're not finished, our team will continue developing the Windows Phone app to keep releasing features and bringing you the best Instagram possible". In April 2016, Instagram upgraded the app to Windows 10 Mobile, adding support for video and direct messages, followed by updates in October 2016 that