The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire. The leadership of the movement was educated at Aligarh Muslim University. From the Aligarh Movement, the Indian Muslim community developed a secular political identity; the Pakistan Movement progressed within India alongside the Indian independence movement, but the Pakistan Movement sought to establish a new nation-state that protected the religious identity and political interests of Muslims in Indian subcontinent. Urdu poets such as Iqbal and Faiz used literature and speech as a powerful tool for political awareness; the driving force behind the Pakistan Movement was the Muslim community of the Muslim minority provinces, United Provinces and Bombay Presidency, rather than that of the Muslim majority provinces. During this time, Lord Macaulay's radical and influential educational reforms led to the numerous changes to the introduction and teaching of Western languages and philosophy.
Religious studies and the Arabic and Persian languages were barred from the state universities. In a short span of time, the English language had become not only the medium of instruction but the official language in 1835 in place of Persian, disadvantaging those who had built their careers around the latter language. Traditional Hindu and Islamic studies were no longer supported by the British Crown, nearly all of the madrasahs lost their waqf. Few Muslim families had their children sent at the English universities. On the other hand, the effects of Bengali renaissance made the Hindus population to be more educated and gained lucrative positions at the Indian Civil Service; the success of All India Muhammadan Educational Conference as a part of the Aligarh Movement, the All-India Muslim League, was established with the support provided by Syed Ahmad Khan in 1906. It was founded in Dhaka in a response to reintegration of Bengal after a mass Hindu protest took place in the subcontinent. Earlier in 1905, viceroy Lord Curzon partitioned the Bengal, favoured by the Muslims, since it gave them a Muslim majority in the eastern half.
In 1909, Lord Minto promulgated the Council Act and met with a Muslim delegation led by Aga Khan III to meet with Viceroy Lord Minto, a deal to which Minto agreed. The delegation consisted of 35 members, who each represented their respective region proportionately, mentioned hereunder. Sir Aga Khan III. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk. Maulvi Hafiz Hakim Ajmal Khan. Maulvi Syed Karamat Husain. Maulvi Sharifuddin. Nawab Syed Sardar Ali Khan. Syed Abdul Rauf. Maulvi Habiburrehman Khan. Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan. Abdul Salam Khan. Raees Muhammed Ahtasham Ali Khan Bahadur Muhammad Muzammilullah Khan.. Haji Muhammed Ismail Khan. Shehzada Bakhtiar Shah. Malik Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana. Khan Bahadur Muhammed Shah Deen. Khan Bahadur Syed Nawab Ali Chaudhary. Nawab Bahadur Mirza Shuja'at Ali Baig. Nawab Nasir Hussain Khan Bahadur. Khan Bahadur Syed Ameer Hassan Khan. Syed Muhammed Imam. Nawab Sarfaraz Hussain Khan Bahadur. Maulvi Rafeeuddin Ahmed. Khan Bahadur Ahmed Muhaeeuddin. Ibraheem Bhai Adamjee Pirbhai. Maulvi Abdul Raheem.
Syed Allahdad Shah. Maulana H. M. Malik. Khan Bahadur Col. Abdul Majeed Khan. Khan Bahadur Khawaja Yousuf Shah. Khan Bahadur Mian Muhammad Shafi.. Khan Bahadur Shaikh Ghulam Sadiq.. Syed Nabiullah.. Khalifa Syed Muhammed Khan Bahadur.. Until 1937 the Muslim League had remained an organisation of elite Indian Muslims; the Muslim League leadership began mass mobilisation and the League became a popular party with the Muslim masses in the 1940s after the Lahore Resolution. Under Jinnah's leadership its membership grew to over two million and became more religious and separatist in its outlook; the Muslim League's earliest base was the United Provinces. From 1937 onwards, the Muslim League and Jinnah attracted large crowds throughout India in its processions and strikes. At the 1940 Muslim League conference in Lahore in 1940, Jinnah said: "Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, social customs and literature.... It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.
They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes.... To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state." At Lahore the Muslim League formally recommitted itself to creating an independent Muslim state, including Sindh, Baluchistan, the North West Frontier Province and Bengal, that would be "wholly autonomous and sovereign". The resolution guaranteed protection for non-Muslim religions; the Lahore Resolution, moved by the sitting Chief Minister of Bengal A. K. Fazlul Huq, was adopted on 23 March 1940, its principles formed the foundation for Pakistan's first constitution. In opposition to the Lahore Resolution, the All India Azad Muslim Conference gathered in Delhi in April 1940 to voice its support for a united India, its members included se
Bagh Ibne Qasim
Bagh Ibne Qasim is a beachside park in Karachi, Pakistan. The park is located near the Clifton beach and is Karachi's largest urban park, covering 130 acres and visited by over 10 million people each year; the park has a turtle pond, murals of dinosaurs, 24 washrooms, 20 stone canopies and a large rose garden. It overlooks the 90 meter Port Fountain of Karachi Port Trust; the park's name commemorates the 8th century Arab conqueror, Muhammad Bin Qasim of the Ummayad empire. Events that have taken place in the park include the Sindh Festival 2014; the park was ceremonially opened by President Pervez Musharraf on February 27, 2007. It was created by the Clifton Beach Development Project on the location of the former Toyland Theme Park at a cost of PKR 600 million. Many large public gatherings and events are held here due to its huge size of park grounds, for example the centennial celebrations for the renowned Pakistani poet Faiz Ahmad Faiz in November 2011. Bagh-e-Ibne Qasim – DAWN.com Bagh-e-Ibne Qasim – DAWN.com Park in Karachi – CDGK.com
Cantonments in Pakistan are permanent military bases of Pakistan Army, which are administered by Cantonment Boards under the control of the Military Lands & Cantonments Department, Ministry of Defence, Government of Pakistan. Cantonments are established under and governed by the Cantonments Act 1924. In recent times, the demographic character of most independence era cantonments has changed, as they are no longer "garrison" areas, include significant civilian populations and private businesses. Based on the strength of civil population, the cantonments have been divided into three classes. Class I Cantonments, in which the civil population is one hundred thousand or more. There are a total of 56 Cantonments in Pakistan; as of 2013, the greatest amount 27 is in Punjab 10 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 10 in Sindh, 7 in Balochistan and 2 in Gilgit Baltistan. Prior to 1864, cantonments used to be administered by military authorities under various government orders. In 1864, for the first time, an act was adopted for improving the administration of the cantonments.
A magistrate was appointed to administer the area. The act regulated the funds granted by Government for the purpose of bettering the various facilities. In 1880, another act was passed that empowered the cantonment authority to impose taxes, as well as granting legal status to the cantonment committee; the act gave power to impose fines and penalties for non-payment of taxes, for encroachments. After World War I, political changes took place in South Asia that affected the administration of the cantonments; the changes became part of day-to-day life in cantonments, as it had to do with its working. The Cantonments Act of 1924 was a landmark in the history of cantonments, as it brought in its wake some sweeping changes; the act introduced the representative local government system, under which elected representative of the civil population became members of the Cantonment Boards. The Boards were created as autonomous statutory local bodies for providing civil services; the powers and functions of the Cantonment Board are synonymous to Municipal Committees in the cities.
The members constituting the Board are both nominated as well as elected through a direct vote on the basis of adult franchise. Officials nominated; the station commander, a senior military officer, is the ex officio President of the Board. This is to protect the interest of troops, ensure their welfare and discipline; the administration of cantonments and management of the military lands inside and outside the cantonments is centrally controlled and supervised by the Military Lands and Cantonments Department, an attached department of the Ministry of Defense headed by a Director General. The Director General is assisted by an Additional Director and a Deputy Director at the headquarters. In addition, five Regional Deputy Directors based at Peshawar, Lahore and Quetta supervise the respective cantonment boards in their jurisdiction; the Cantonment Executive Officer is the principal executive at the local level. The Board decides and lays down policies, while the executive officer executes these policies.
He is the chief exponent of the Board’s policies. He is a permanent officer specially trained in local administration, he is empowered to carry out the policies and decisions and ensure adherence to the various laws and bylaws. The presence of elected members in the board has a salutary effect, is most beneficial for the civilian residents because the elected members are the medium to convey their views; the elected members play an important role in the development of public services in their respective areas. Development works are carried out in consultation with the respective elected members. Major development schemes are finalized in the budget meeting held before the beginning of the fiscal year, with the consent of all the members; the Cantonment Board is an organ of the local government and is free to formulate policies for local development within the frame work of the Cantonments Act and other government regulations. The board ordinarily holds one meeting each month. All matters are decided by majority, but in case of a tie, the matter is decided through the President's vote.
All meetings of the board are open meetings, unless directed otherwise by the President of the Board. All Cantonments Boards work under the administrative control of the Director General of Military Lands and Cantonments; the Director General may issue various directives on important policy matters, the Cantonment Boards comply with the same. All accounts are audited annually by the Audit Department of the Government of Pakistan. Local government elections have not been held in the cantonments since year 2000 in Pakistan; the absence of local government across the various cantonments board in Pakistan was challenged in the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 2009. The Government of Pakistan has responded by stating that changes to the Cantonment Boards Act of 1924 are pending at the National Assembly of Pakistan, as of 2014. Many of the identified anomalies in the existing Act of 1924 are in direct conflict with the Constitution of Pakistan; the Government of Pakistan has responded by saying that: "The presence of a number of laws made it difficult to hold free and fair elections in the areas as required by the Constitution."
The Provincial governments are bound b
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Frere Hall is a building in Karachi, Pakistan that dates from the early British colonial-era in Sindh. Completed in 1865, Frere Hall was intended to serve as Karachi's town hall, now serves as an exhibition space and library, it is considered one of Karachi's most iconic buildings. Frere Hall is located in central Karachi's colonial-era Saddar Town, in the Civil Lines neighbourhood, home to several consulates; the Hall is located between Fatima Jinnah Road. It lies adjacent to the colonial-era Sind Club; the building was intended to serve as Karachi's town hall, was designed by Henry Saint Clair Wilkins, after having been chosen from among 12 possible choices. The building's land was purchased at a cost of 2,000 British Indian rupees, donated by WP Andrew of the Scinde Railway, Sir Frederick Arthur Bartholomew; the total cost of the Hall was about 180,000 rupees, out of which the Government contributed 10,000 rupees, while the rest was paid for by Karachi municipality. Work commenced in August 1863, completed in October 1865, though work on the building had not been completed by the time of its inauguration.
In 1877 at Frere Hall, the first attempt was made to form a consistent set of rules of badminton. Following the death of Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere in 1884, the building was renamed in his honour. Frere was a British administrator, known for promoting economic development in Sindh, as well as for making the Sindhi Language the language of administration in Sindh, rather than the Persian language, favoured by the Mughals. Following the independence of Pakistan, the hall's library was renamed as Liaquat National Library; the library is one of Karachi's largest, houses a collection of more than 70,000 books, including rare and hand-written manuscripts. The hall's ceilings were decorated by the world-renowned Pakistani artist Sadequain in the 1980s, with one mural remaining incomplete after his death in 1987. Several other works by Sadequain are found in the hall, form what is known as the "Galerie Sadequain." The hall was closed periodically between 2002 and 2011 due to numerous attempted terrorist attack on the nearby US consulate, was not reopened permanently until 2011 when the consulate was relocated to a site further away.
It is now directly administered by the Karachi Municipal Corporation, hosts several festivals. Frere Hall was built in the Venetian-Gothic style that blends elements of British architecture with local architectural elements; the building features multiple pointed arches, ribbed vaults and flying buttresses. Carving on the walls and beautifully articulated mosaic designs are visible on multiple walls and pillars; the building is built out of local yellow-toned limestone, with stone details formed from white oolite stone quarried from the nearby town of Bholari. Red and grey sandstone is used in the building, quarried from the Sindhi town of Jungshahi. A tall octagonal tower is located in one of the building's corner, crowned by an iron cage; the roof of the hall is coated with Muntz metal. The Hall is surrounded by two lawns known as "Queen's Lawn" and "King's Lawn" which after independence were renamed as Bagh-e-Jinnah, or "Jinnah Gardens". Frere Hall houses a number of stone busts, including that of King Edward VII, a gift from local Parsi philanthropist Seth Edulji Dinshaw.
Frere Hall houses oil paintings by Sir Charles Pritchard, a former Commissioner of Sindh. As of 2018, Frere Hall is still open for public and it is one of the most important places for tourism not only because of the building's notable architecture, but for its association with British rule in sub-continent. DAWN.com: "Frere Hall stands in need of repairs"
Shah Faisal Town
Shah Faisal Town is a small, densely populated town in Karachi, Pakistan. It is named after the late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia; the town is bordered by Malir Town to the northeast, Bin Qasim Town to the east, Korangi Town and Landhi Town to the south, Faisal Cantonment and Malir Cantonment to the west and northwest. The Malir River forms the southern boundary of the town and the Shahrah-e-Faisal highway forms much of the northern boundary with the Jinnah International Airport at the northern end of the town. Muhajirs form the majority in the town, followed by Punjabi, Sindhi and Pakhtoons; the federal government introduced local government reforms in 2000, which eliminated the previous third tier of government and raised the fourth tier to become the new third tier. The effect in Karachi was the dissolution of the former Karachi Division and the merger of its five districts to form a new Karachi City-District with eighteen autonomous constituent towns including Shah Faisal Town. Shah Faisal Town has twenty-one densely populated neighborhoods: The Wireless Gate serves as a major entrance way to Shah Faisal Town.
The name is derived from the abundance of telecommunication offices in the area. The area hosted a radio station until the early 1980s. City District Government Karachi Lahore Shah Faisal Town website Karachi City Government Bright Scope College of Business & I. T
Hawke's Bay Beach
Hawke's Bay Or Hawkesbay is a beach in Karachi, Pakistan located 20km at south-west of Karachi. This beach is named after Bladen Wilmer Hawke. Hundreds of people visit here daily for swimming and horse riding and for vacations; this beach is known for being a nesting ground of Green sea turtle and Olive ridley sea turtle during winter months. WWF has organised a "wetland centre" on this beach for informations regarding turtles. Various accidents have occurred due to lack of proper security and damaged boats used for giving rides to people. In February 1983, a Shia pilgrim was drowned at this beach. On 19th July 2015, four boys drowned in this beach. On 9th September 2017, 12 people from three different families drowned in this beach of Karachi. Hawke's Bay Town Mubarak Goth