Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational professional services network. Deloitte is one of the "Big Four" accounting organizations and the largest professional services network in the world by revenue and number of professionals. Deloitte provides audit, consulting, enterprise risk and financial advisory services with more than 286,200 professionals globally. In FY 2018, the network earned a record $43.2 billion USD in aggregate revenues. As of 2017, Deloitte is the 4th largest owned company in the United States; as of 2015, Deloitte has the highest market share in auditing among the top 500 companies in India. Deloitte has been ranked number one by market share in consulting by Gartner, for the fourth consecutive year, Kennedy Consulting Research and Advisory ranks Deloitte number one in both global consulting and management consulting based on aggregate revenue. In 1845, William Welch Deloitte opened an office in United Kingdom. Deloitte was the first person to be appointed an independent auditor of a public company, namely the Great Western Railway.
He went on to open an office in New York in 1880. In 1890, Deloitte opened a branch office on Wall Street headed by Edward Adams and P. D. Griffiths as branch managers; that was Deloitte's first overseas venture. Other branches were soon opened in Chicago and Buenos Aires. in 1898 P. D. Griffiths became a partner in the London office. In 1896, Charles Waldo Haskins and Elijah Watt Sells formed Sells in New York, it was described as "the first major auditing firm to be established in the country by American rather than British accountants". In 1898, George Touche established an office in London and in 1900, joined John Ballantine Niven in establishing the firm of Touche Niven in the Johnston Building at 30 Broad Street in New York. On 1 March 1933, Colonel Arthur Hazelton Carter, President of the New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants and managing partner of Haskins & Sells, testified before the U. S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency. Carter helped convince Congress. In 1947, Detroit accountant George Bailey president of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, launched his own organization.
The new entity enjoyed such a positive start that in less than a year, the partners merged with Touche Niven and A. R. Smart to form Touche, Bailey & Smart. Headed by Bailey, the organization grew in part by creating a dedicated management consulting function, it forged closer links with organizations established by the co-founder of Touche Niven, George Touche: the Canadian organization Ross and the British organization George A. Touche. In 1960, the firm was renamed Touche, Bailey & Smart, becoming Touche Ross in 1969. In 1968 Nobuzo Tohmatsu formed Tohmatsu Aoki & Co, a firm based in Japan, to become part of the Touche Ross network in 1975. In 1972 Robert Trueblood, Chairman of Touche Ross, led the committee responsible for recommending the establishment of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. In 1952, Deloitte's firm merged with Sells to form Deloitte Haskins & Sells. In 1989, Deloitte Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross in the USA to form Touche; the merged firm was led jointly by Edward A. Kangas.
Led by the UK partnership, a smaller number of Deloitte Haskins & Sells member firms rejected the merger with Touche Ross and shortly thereafter merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte. Some member firms of Touche Ross rejected the merger with Deloitte Haskins & Sells and merged with other firms. In UK, Touche Ross merged with Spicer & Oppenheim in 1990. At the time of the US-led mergers to form Deloitte & Touche, the name of the international firm was a problem, because there was no worldwide exclusive access to the names "Deloitte" or "Touche Ross" – key member firms such as Deloitte in the UK and Touche Ross in Australia had not joined the merger; the name DRT International was therefore chosen, referring to Deloitte and Tohmatsu. In 1993, the international firm was renamed Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. In 1995, the partners of Deloitte & Touche decided to create Touche Consulting Group. In 2000, Deloitte acquired Eclipse to add Internet design-based solutions to its consulting capabilities.
Eclipse was separated into Deloitte Online and Deloitte Digital. In 2002, Arthur Andersen's UK practice, the firm's largest practice outside the US, agreed to merge with Deloitte's UK practice. Andersen's practices in Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Mexico and Canada agreed to merge with Deloitte; the spinoff of Deloitte France's consulting division led to the creation of Ineum Consulting. In 2005, Deloitte acquired Beijing Pan-China CPA to become the largest accountancy firm in China. Just prior to this acquisition Deloitte China had about 3,200 employees; this acquisition was part of a five-year plan to invest $150 million in China. Deloitte has had a presence in China since 1917. In 2007, Deloitte began hiring former employees of the Central Intelligence Agency for their competitive intelligence unit known as Deloitte Intelligence. In 2009, Deloitte purchased the North American public service practice of BearingPoint for $350 million after it filed for bankruptcy protection. Deloitte LLP took over the UK property consultants Drivers Jonas in January 2010.
As of 2013, this business unit was known as Deloitte Real Estate. In 2011, Deloitte acquired DOMANI Sustainability Consulting and ClearCarbon Consulting in orde
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people. It is used in this regard to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants; the terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D. C. in 2001. There are different definitions of terrorism. Terrorism is a charged term, it is used with the connotation of something, "morally wrong". Governments and non-state groups denounce opposing groups. Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives; these organizations include right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups and ruling governments.
Legislation declaring terrorism a crime has been adopted in many states. There is no consensus as to; the Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths between 2000 and 2014. Etmologically, the word terror is derived from the Latin verb Tersere, which becomes Terrere; the latter form appears in European languages as early as the 12th century. By 1356 the word terreur is in use. Terreur is the origin of the Middle English term terrour, which becomes the modern word "terror"; the term terroriste, meaning "terrorist", is first used in 1794 by the French philosopher François-Noël Babeuf, who denounces Maximilien Robespierre's Jacobin regime as a dictatorship. In the years leading up to the Reign of Terror, the Brunswick Manifesto threatened Paris with an "exemplary, never to be forgotten vengeance: the city would be subjected to military punishment and total destruction" if the royal family was harmed, but this only increased the Revolution's will to abolish the monarchy.
Some writers attitudes about French Revolution grew less favorable after the French monarchy was abolished in 1792. During the Reign of Terror, which began in July 1793 and lasted thirteen months, Paris was governed by the Committee of Public safety who oversaw a regime of mass executions and public purges. Prior to the French Revolution, ancient philosophers wrote about tyrannicide, as tyranny was seen as the greatest political threat to Greco-Roman civilization. Medieval philosophers were occupied with the concept of tyranny, though the analysis of some theologians like Thomas Aquinas drew a distinction between usurpers, who could be killed by anyone, legitimate rulers who abused their power – the latter, in Aquinas' view, could only be punished by a public authority. John of Salisbury was the first medieval Christian scholar. Most scholars today trace the origins of the modern tactic of terrorism to the Jewish Sicarii Zealots who attacked Romans and Jews in 1st century Palestine, they follow its development from the Persian Order of Assassins through to 19th-century anarchists.
The "Reign of Terror" is regarded as an issue of etymology. The term terrorism has been used to describe violence by non-state actors rather than government violence since the 19th-century Anarchist Movement. In December 1795, Edmund Burke used the word "Terrorists" in a description of the new French government called'Directory': At length, after a terrible struggle, the Troops prevailed over the Citizens To secure them further, they have a strong corps of irregulars, ready armed. Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people; the terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" gained renewed currency in the 1970s as a result of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Northern Ireland conflict, the Basque conflict, the operations of groups such as the Red Army Faction. Leila Khaled was described as a terrorist in a 1970 number of Life magazine. A number of books on terrorism were published in the 1970s.
The topic came further to the fore after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the 2001 September 11 attacks and the 2002 Bali bombings. There are over 109 different definitions of terrorism. American political philosopher Michael Walzer in 2002 wrote: "Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders". Bruce Hoffman, an American scholar, has noted that It is not only individual agencies within the same governmental apparatus that cannot agree on a single definition of terrorism. Experts and other long-established scholars in the field are incapable of reaching a consensus. C. A. J. Coady has written that the question of how to define terrorism is "irresolvable" because "its natural home is in polemical and propagandist contexts". French historian Sophie Wahnich distinguishes between the revolutionary terror of the French Revolution and the terrorists of the September 11 attacks: Revolutionary terror is not terrorism.
To make a moral equivalence between the Revolution's year II and September 2001 is historical and philosophical nonsense... The violence exercised on 11 September 2001 aimed neither at liberty. Nor did the preventive war announced by the president of the United States. Experts
Bank of England
The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker, still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom, it is the world's eighth-oldest bank, it was owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946. The Bank became an independent public organisation in 1998, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government, but with independence in setting monetary policy; the Bank is one of eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the United Kingdom, has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales and regulates the issue of banknotes by commercial banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Bank's Monetary Policy Committee has a devolved responsibility for managing monetary policy; the Treasury has reserve powers to give orders to the committee "if they are required in the public interest and by extreme economic circumstances", but such orders must be endorsed by Parliament within 28 days.
The Bank's Financial Policy Committee held its first meeting in June 2011 as a macroprudential regulator to oversee regulation of the UK's financial sector. The Bank's headquarters have been in London's main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734, it is sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street, a name taken from a satirical cartoon by James Gillray in 1797. The road junction outside is known as Bank junction; as a regulator and central bank, the Bank of England has not offered consumer banking services for many years, but it still does manage some public-facing services such as exchanging superseded bank notes. Until 2016, the bank provided personal banking services as a privilege for employees. England's crushing defeat by France, the dominant naval power, in naval engagements culminating in the 1690 Battle of Beachy Head, became the catalyst for England rebuilding itself as a global power. England had no choice. No public funds were available, the credit of William III's government was so low in London that it was impossible for it to borrow the £1,200,000 that the government wanted.
To induce subscription to the loan, the subscribers were to be incorporated by the name of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England. The Bank was given exclusive possession of the government's balances, was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue bank notes; the lenders would give the government cash and issue notes against the government bonds, which can be lent again. The £1.2m was raised in 12 days. As a side effect, the huge industrial effort needed, including establishing ironworks to make more nails and advances in agriculture feeding the quadrupled strength of the navy, started to transform the economy; this helped the new Kingdom of Great Britain – England and Scotland were formally united in 1707 – to become powerful. The power of the navy made Britain the dominant world power in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; the establishment of the bank was devised by Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, in 1694. The plan of 1691, proposed by William Paterson three years before, had not been acted upon.
58 years earlier, in 1636, Financier to the king, Philip Burlamachi, had proposed the same idea in a letter addressed to Sir Francis Windebank. He proposed a loan of £1.2m to the government. The royal charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694. Public finances were in such dire condition at the time that the terms of the loan were that it was to be serviced at a rate of 8% per annum, there was a service charge of £4,000 per annum for the management of the loan; the first governor was Sir John Houblon, depicted in the £50 note issued in 1994. The charter was renewed in 1742, 1764, 1781; the Bank's original home was in Walbrook, a street in the City of London, where during reconstruction in 1954 archaeologists found the remains of a Roman temple of Mithras. The Bank moved to its current location in Threadneedle Street in 1734, thereafter acquired neighbouring land to create the site necessary for erecting the Bank's original home at this location, under the direction of its chief architect Sir John Soane, between 1790 and 1827.
When the idea and reality of the national debt came about during the 18th century, this was managed by the Bank. During the American war of independence, business for the Bank was so good that George Washington remained a shareholder throughout the period. By the charter renewal in 1781 it was the bankers' bank – keeping enough gold to pay its notes on demand until 26 February 1797 when war had so diminished gold reserves that – following an invasion scare caused by the Battle of Fishguard days earlier – the government prohibited the Bank from paying out in gold by the passing of the Bank Restriction Act 1797; this prohibition lasted until 1821. The 1844 Bank Charter Act tied the issue of notes to the gold reserves and gave the Bank sol
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom. PwC ranks as the largest professional services firm in the world after Deloitte, is one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, EY and KPMG. PwC is a network of firms in 721 locations, with 250,930 people; as of 2015, 22% of the workforce worked in Asia, 26% in North America and the Caribbean and 32% in Western Europe. The company's global revenues were $37.7 billion in FY 2017, of which $16 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $9.46 billion by its Tax practice and $12.25 billion by its Advisory practice. PwC provides services to 420 out of 500 Fortune 500 companies; the firm was formed in 1998 by a merger between Lybrand and Price Waterhouse. Both firms had histories dating back to the 19th century; the trading name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a rebranding effort. As of 2017, PwC is the 5th-largest owned company in the United States; the firm was created in 1998 when Lybrand merged with Price Waterhouse.
In 1854 William Cooper founded an accountancy practice in London, which became Cooper Brothers seven years when his three brothers joined. In 1898, Robert H. Montgomery, William M. Lybrand, Adam A. Ross Jr. and his brother T. Edward Ross formed Lybrand, Ross Brothers and Montgomery in the United States. In 1957 Cooper Brothers. In 1973 the three member firms in the UK, US and Canada changed their names to Lybrand. In 1980 Coopers & Lybrand expanded its expertise in insolvency by acquiring Cork Gully, a leading firm in that field in the UK. In 1990 in certain countries including the UK, Coopers & Lybrand merged with Deloitte Haskins & Sells to become Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte: in 1992 they reverted to Coopers & Lybrand. Samuel Lowell Price, an accountant, founded an accountancy practice in London in 1849. In 1865 Price went into partnership with William Hopkins Edwin Waterhouse. Holyland left shortly afterwards to work alone in accountancy and the firm was known from 1874 as Price, Waterhouse & Co.
The original partnership agreement, signed by Price and Waterhouse could be found in Southwark Towers, one of PwC's important legacy offices. By the late 19th century, Price Waterhouse had gained significant recognition as an accounting firm; as a result of growing trade between the United Kingdom and the United States, Price Waterhouse opened an office in New York in 1890, the American firm itself soon expanded rapidly. The original British firm opened an office in Liverpool in 1904 and elsewhere in the United Kingdom and worldwide, each time establishing a separate partnership in each country: the worldwide practice of PW was therefore a federation of collaborating firms that had grown organically rather than being the result of an international merger. In a further effort to take advantage of economies of scale, PW and Arthur Andersen discussed a merger in 1989 but the negotiations failed because of conflicts of interest such as Andersen's strong commercial links with IBM and PW's audit of IBM as well as the radically different cultures of the two firms.
It was said by those involved with the failed merger that at the end of the discussion, the partners at the table realized they had different views of business, the potential merger was scrapped. In 1998, Price Waterhouse merged with Lybrand to form PricewaterhouseCoopers. After the merger the firm had a large professional consulting branch, as did other major accountancy firms, generating much of its fees. Management Consulting Services was the fastest growing and most profitable area of the practice, though it was cyclical; the major cause for growth in the 1990s was the implementation of complex integrated ERP systems for multi-national companies. PwC came under increasing pressure to avoid conflicts of interests by not providing some consulting services financial systems design and implementation, to its audit clients. Since it audited a large proportion of the world's largest companies, this was beginning to limit its consulting market; these conflicts increased as additional services including outsourcing of IT and back office operations were developed.
For these reasons, in 2000, Ernst & Young was the first of the Big Four to sell its consulting services, to Capgemini. The fallout from the Enron and other financial auditing scandals led to the passage of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act limiting interaction between management consulting and auditing services. PwC Consulting began to conduct business under its own name rather than as the MCS division of PricewaterhouseCoopers. PwC therefore planned to capitalize on MCS's rapid growth through its sale to Hewlett Packard but negotiations broke down in 2000. In 2000, PwC acquired Canada's largest SAP consulting partner Omnilogic Systems. In March 2002 Arthur Andersen, LLP affiliates in Hong Kong and China completed talks to join PricewaterhouseCoopers, China. PwC announced in May 2002 that its consulting activities would be spun off as an independent entity and hired an outside CEO to run the global firm. An outside consultancy, Wolff Olins, was hired to create a brand image for the new entity, called "Monday".
The firm's CEO, Greg Brenneman described the unusual name as "a real word, recognizable and the right fit for a company that works hard to deliver results." These plans were soon revised, however. In October 2002, PwC sold
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The International (2009 film)
The International is a 2009 political thriller film directed by Tom Tykwer. The film follows an Interpol agent and an American district attorney who investigate corruption within the IBBC, a fictional merchant bank based in Luxembourg, it serves organized crime and corrupt governments as an arms broker. The bank's ruthless managers assassinate potential threats including their own employees. Inspired by the Bank of Credit and Commerce International scandal of the 1980s, the film's script, written by Eric Warren Singer, raises concerns about how global finance affects international politics across the world. Production began in Berlin in September 2008, including the construction of a life-size replica of New York's Guggenheim Museum for the film's climactic shoot-out scene; the film opened the 59th Berlin International Film Festival on 5 February 2009. Reviews were mixed: some praised the sleek appearance and prescient themes—The Guardian called it a thriller with "brainpower as well as firepower"—but The New Yorker criticised the development of the characters.
Louis Salinger, an Interpol detective, Eleanor Whitman, an Assistant District Attorney from Manhattan, are investigating the International Bank of Business and Credit, which funds activities such as money laundering, arms trading, the destabilization of governments. Salinger's and Whitman's investigation takes them from Berlin to Milan, where the IBBC assassinates Umberto Calvini, an arms manufacturer, an Italian prime ministerial candidate; the bank's assassin diverts suspicion to a local assassin with political connections, promptly killed by a corrupt policeman. Salinger and Whitman get a lead on the second assassin, but the corrupt policeman shows up again and orders them out of the country. At the airport they are able to check the security camera footage for clues on the whereabouts on the bank's assassin, follow a suspect to New York City. In New York and Whitman are met by two New York Police Department detectives, Iggy Ornelas and Bernie Ward, who have a photograph of the assassin's face when he arrived in New York airport.
Salinger and Ward locate Dr. Isaacson to whose practice the assassin's leg brace has been traced, they follow him to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Jonas Skarssen, the chairman of the IBBC, reveals to his senior men White and Wexler that the bank had Calvini killed so that they could deal with his sons to buy missile guidance systems in which the bank has invested. Since the bank knows that Salinger and Whitman are close to finding their assassin, they send a hit team to kill him at a meeting between him and his handler, Wexler. Wexler is arrested by Ornelas; as Salinger speaks to the assassin, a shootout at the Guggenheim erupts when a number of gunmen attempt to kill them with automatic weapons. They escape. In interrogation, Wexler, a former Stasi colonel, explains to Salinger that the IBBC is untouchable because of its utility to terrorist organizations, drug cartels and powerful corporations of all complexions. If he succeeds in bringing the IBBC down there are hundreds of other banks which will replace them.
If Salinger wants justice, he needs to go outside the system, Wexler indicates a willingness to help. Salinger persuades Whitman to let him go on alone. In Italy, Salinger tells the Calvini brothers of the IBBC's responsibility for their father's murder, prompting them to cancel the deal with the bank and have White killed. Salinger accompanies Wexler to Istanbul, where Skarssen is buying the crucial components from their only other manufacturer. Salinger attempts to record the conversation so that he can obstruct the deal by proving to the buyers that the missiles will be useless, but he fails. Both Wexler and Skarssen are killed by a hitman contracted by Enzo and Mario Calvini to avenge their father's murder by the bank. Salinger is left stunned, his investigation and determination to bring down the IBBC, have led him to nothing. During the closing credits, it is indicated that the bank is continuing with its operations despite the death of its Chairman—as Skarssen had predicted to Salinger before he was killed.
However, with the new and more aggressive chairman, it is hinted that the IBBC's increased expansion and aggression will lead to its downfall, as shown by the last panel, revealing the beginnings of a United States Senate investigation, headed by Whitman. The screenplay was written by Eric Warren Singer after he developed an interest in the banking scandals from the 1980s and 90s, he was looking for "a paranoid thriller vibe" from that period. Reviewers compared it directly to The Parallax View and All The President's Men. Ridley Scott expressed an interest in directing the film, the studio agreed to finance the project, only for Scott to drop out. A year Tom Tykwer got involved through his agent, but decided a contemporary setting would work better. In April 2007, Clive Owen agreed to perform in The International, he said the script interested him because he was reminded of "those'70s paranoia pictures" and because it combined a factual, intelligent basis with an international thriller plot.
The following July, actress Naomi Watts was cast opposite Owen. In August, the film received US$5.4 million from the German Federal Film Fund toward its budget. The following month its funding increased to $7.9 million, based on the board's assessment that two-thirds of The International would