National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
Fort Hill State Memorial
Fort Hill State Memorial is a Native American earthwork located in Highland County, United States. Built by the Hopewell culture, it is maintained by the Arc of Appalachia Preserve System and the Ohio History Connection; the earthwork, built about 2,000 years ago, is a walled enclosure made of soil on top of a flat summit. It is 800 higher than the Ohio River, it was made by the Hopewell people. It is over 1½ miles in circumference, enclosing 35.3 acres. Thirty-nine "man-made openings" occur throughout the enclosure: thirty-six that are verified as being made by Indians and three others still unknown as to how they were made; the wall is 6–15 feet high and its total length is 8,619 feet. It is 30 feet wide at its base in most areas. Archaeologists believe. In 1846, it was excavated by Edwin Hamilton Davis, it was featured in their book Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, published in 1848. Fort Hill State Memorial contains excellent outcrops of Silurian and Mississippian sedimentary bedrock and a natural bridge.
The site is an example of glacial stream reversal. It was named a National Natural Landmark in 1974. Rocky Fork State Park Paint Creek State Park Official website from Arc of Appalachia Preserve System Fort Hill Earthworks & Nature Preserve - Ohio Historical Society
Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument
The Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument, a National Monument of the United States, commemorates the life of Charles Young, an escaped slave who rose to become a Buffalo Soldier in the United States Army and its first African-American colonel. It is located on United States Route 42 in Wilberforce, Ohio, in a house purchased by Young in 1907, designated a National Historic Landmark in 1974; the monument is administered by the National Park Service. The Charles Young House is located in a rural setting southwest of Wilberforce, on the north side of US 42 between Clifton and Stevenson Roads; the house is an eclectically styled 2-1/2 story brick building, with a gabled roof that has overhanging eaves. A T-shaped porch extends across the middle three bays of the five-bay front facade, supported by square posts. A series of ells extend to the rear. Charles Young was born into slavery in Kentucky in 1864, he was the third African American graduate of West Point, the first black U. S. national park superintendent, the first African American military attaché, the highest ranking black officer in the United States Army until his death in 1922.
He taught military science at Wilberforce University, during which time he purchased this house, which he called "Youngsholm". The house was built in 1832, is reported to have served as a way station on the Underground Railroad. On March 25, 2013, under the Antiquities Act, President Barack Obama designated the house as the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument, a unit of the National Park Service. Operated as a house museum with exhibits about Young and the Buffalo Soldiers, it is open for public visitation by appointment. National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center in Wilberforce List of National Monuments of the United States Official website Historic American Buildings Survey No. OH-2249, "Colonel Charles Young House, Columbia Pike between Clifton & Stevenson Roads, Greene County, OH", 9 photos, 4 data pages, 1 photo caption page
Hopewell Culture National Historical Park
Hopewell Culture National Historical Park is a United States national historical park with earthworks and burial mounds from the Hopewell culture, indigenous peoples who flourished from about 200 BC to AD 500. The park is composed of six separate sites in Ross County, including the former Mound City Group National Monument; the park includes archaeological resources of the Hopewell culture. It is administered by the United States Department of the Interior's National Park Service. In 2008, the Department of the Interior included Hopewell Culture National Historical Park as part of the Hopewell Ceremonial Earthworks, one of 14 sites on its tentative list from which the United States makes nominations for the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. From about 200 BC to AD 500, the Ohio River Valley was a central area of the prehistoric Hopewell culture; the term Hopewell culture is applied to a broad network of beliefs and practices among different Native American peoples who inhabited a large portion of eastern North America.
The culture is characterized by its construction of enclosures made of earthen walls built in geometric patterns, mounds of various shapes. Visible remnants of Hopewell culture are concentrated in the Scioto River valley near present-day Chillicothe, Ohio; the most striking Hopewell sites contain earthworks in the form of squares and other geometric shapes. Many of these sites were built to a monumental scale, with earthen walls up to 12 feet high outlining geometric figures more than 1,000 feet across. Conical and loaf-shaped earthen mounds up to 30 feet high are found in association with the geometric earthworks; the people who built them had a detailed knowledge of the local soils, they combined different types to provide the most stability to the works. It required the organized labor of thousands of man hours, as people carried the earth in handwoven baskets. Mound City, located on Ohio Highway 104 4 miles north of Chillicothe along the Scioto River, is a group of 23 earthen mounds constructed by the Hopewell culture.
Each mound within the group covered the remains of a charnel house. After the Hopewell people cremated the dead, they burned the charnel house, they constructed a mound over the remains. They placed artifacts, such as copper figures, projectile points and pipes in the mounds. European Americans first mapped the site in the 1840s; the archaeologists Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis were the first excavators of the site and amassed a large collection of Mound artifacts, now preserved at the British Museum. Much of it was destroyed during World War I when the United States Army constructed a military training base, Camp Sherman, on the site. After the war, they razed the camp; the Ohio Historical Society conducted an archaeological excavation of the site from 1920–1922, followed by reconstruction of the mounds. In 1923, the Department of Interior declared the Mound City Group a National Monument, to be administered by the Federal government. In 1992, Mound City Group was expanded as Hopewell Culture National Historic Park.
Its definition included remnants of four other nearby mound systems. Two Ross County sites open to the public. Seip Earthworks is located 17 miles west of Chillicothe on U. S. Route 50. Hopewell Mound Group is the site of the 1891 excavation on the land of Mordecai Hopewell. Hopeton Earthworks located across the Scioto River from Mound City and High Bank Works, closed to the public; the Ohio Historical Society maintains a number of mound systems and elaborate earthworks in the southern Ohio area, including the National Historic Landmarks of Fort Ancient, Newark Earthworks, Serpent Mound. Fifteen mound complexes earlier identified in the county have been lost to agriculture or urban development; the national park contains nationally significant archaeological resources, including large earthwork and mound complexes. These provide insight into the sophisticated and complex social, ceremonial and economic life of the Hopewell people; the park visitor's center features museum exhibits with artifacts excavated from the Mound City Group, an orientation film, book sales area, self-guided and guided tours.
List of Hopewell sites Squier, Ephraim G. and Davis, Edwin H. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. Woodward, Susan L. and McDonald, Jerry N. Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley, Blacksburg, VA: McDonald & Woodward Publishing, 1986. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Mound City, Ancient Ohio Trail Hopewell Ceremonial Earthworks UNESCO World Heritage Nomination Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley which features Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, as Mound City
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial
Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial commemorates the Battle of Lake Erie that took place near Ohio's South Bass Island, in which Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry led a fleet to victory in one of the most significant naval battles to occur in the War of 1812. Located on an isthmus on the island, the memorial celebrates the lasting peace between Britain and the United States that followed the war. A 352-foot monument — the world's most massive Doric column — was constructed in Put-in-Bay, Ohio by a multi-state commission from 1912 to 1915 "to inculcate the lessons of international peace by arbitration and disarmament." The memorial was designed after an international competition from which the winning design by Joseph H. Freelander and A. D. Seymour was chosen. Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial was established to honor those who fought in the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812, to celebrate the long-lasting peace among Britain and the U. S; the Memorial column, rising over Lake Erie, is situated five miles from the longest border in the world.
Although the monument bears the name of Oliver Hazard Perry and six officers slain during the battle are buried under its rotunda, Perry himself is buried in Newport Rhode Island. Beneath the stone floor of the monument lie the remains of those three American officers and three British officers. Carved into the walls inside the rotunda are the names of soldiers and sailors who were killed or injured in the Battle of Lake Erie and the text of the Rush-Bagot Treaty; the Doric Column is the only international peace memorial in the United States National Park System and stands 47 feet taller than the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor. The upper deck platform is 12 feet higher than the statue of Liberty's torch. To visit the observation deck near the top, visitors must walk up 37 steps, pay the minimal admission cost a National Park Ranger will transport them by elevator to the top. Rangers are stationed at the observation deck to answer questions and speak about the history and surrounding area.
Views span Lake Erie, the islands and mainland of Ohio, nearby islands in Ontario, including Middle Island, the southernmost point of land in Canada, part of Point Pelee National Park. The column is among the tallest monuments in the United States. Although completed in 1915, funding problems prevented the proper completion of a realized memorial complex. In 1919 the federal government provided additional funding; the official dedication was celebrated on July 31, 1931. In 2002, 2.4 million dollars was spent on a new visitor center. The memorial is visited by 200,000 people each year. Established as Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial National Monument by Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 2, 1936; as with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial were selected to represent Ohio in the multi-year America the Beautiful Quarters series, honoring a national site from every US state, district, or territory.
Its design shows Oliver Hazard Perry on the coin's reverse, depicting the site's statue of Perry with the International Peace Memorial in the distance. The design was selected from eleven proposals; the Memorial had been closed for most of the summer of 2006 after a 500-pound piece of granite broke off the southeast face of the observation deck, falling 315 feet and leaving a crater in the plaza in June. No one was injured. Following a structural assessment that deemed it safe for visitors, the memorial reopened on August 26, 2006, with a fence surrounding it; the monument closed on September 30, 2009 for repairs, reopened on July 3, 2012. The monument was closed once again for the summer of 2017 for repairs and cleaning. Other Navy memorials Downloadable resources regarding Oliver Hazard Perry, including orations at the opening of the Put-in-Bay monument, American Library Association; the National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service: Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial Perry's Monument Photo Gallery