Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of 570–590 nm, it is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, canaries and lemons, as well as egg yolks and bananas, they protect plants from photodamage. Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue, due to the surface temperature of the sun; because it was available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art. Ochre and orpiment pigments were used to represent gold and skin color in Egyptian tombs in the murals in Roman villas. In the early Christian church, yellow was the color associated with the Pope and the golden keys of the Kingdom, but was associated with Judas Iscariot and was used to mark heretics.
In the 20th century, Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were forced to wear a yellow star. In China, bright yellow was the color of the Middle Kingdom, could be worn only by the Emperor and his household. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, yellow is the color people most associate with amusement, gentleness and spontaneity, but with duplicity, jealousy, and, in the U. S. with cowardice. In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness, but wisdom and connection. In China and many Asian countries, it is seen as the color of happiness, glory and wisdom; the word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel -, as yell; the English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, Swedish and Norwegian gul. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700.
Yellow is found between orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is the color the human eye sees when it looks at light with a dominant wavelength between 570 and 590 nanometers. In color printing, yellow is one of the three colors of ink, along with magenta and cyan, along with black, can be overlaid in the right combination, along with black, to print any full color image.. A particular yellow is used, called Process yellow subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. Process yellow is not an RGB color, there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color, pure yellow ink; the yellow on a color television or computer screen is created in a different way. Traditionally, the complementary color of yellow is purple. Vincent Van Gogh, an avid student of color theory, used combinations of yellow and purple in several of his paintings for the maximum contrast and harmony. Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."
That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet or purple. Helmholtz says "indigo blue" are complements. Grassmann reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower.
More with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow. Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet. Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors. In commercial products diode pumped. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and induces it to emit at
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of 495–570 nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by a combination of yellow and blue, or yellow and cyan. By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants photosynthesize and convert sunlight into chemical energy. Many creatures have adapted to their green environments by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage. Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald, colored green by its chromium content. During post-classical and early modern Europe, green was the color associated with wealth, merchants and the gentry, while red was reserved for the nobility. For this reason, the costume of the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci and the benches in the British House of Commons are green while those in the House of Lords are red, it has a long historical tradition as the color of Ireland and of Gaelic culture.
It is the historic color of Islam, representing the lush vegetation of Paradise. It was the color of the banner of Muhammad, is found in the flags of nearly all Islamic countries. In surveys made in American and Islamic countries, green is the color most associated with nature, health, spring and envy. In the European Union and the United States, green is sometimes associated with toxicity and poor health, but in China and most of Asia, its associations are positive, as the symbol of fertility and happiness; because of its association with nature, it is the color of the environmental movement. Political groups advocating environmental protection and social justice describe themselves as part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties; this has led to similar campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold green, or environmentally friendly, products. Green is the traditional color of safety and permission; the word green comes from the Middle English and Old English word grene, like the German word grün, has the same root as the words grass and grow.
It is from a Common Germanic *gronja-, reflected in Old Norse grænn, Old High German gruoni from a PIE root *ghre- "to grow", root-cognate with grass and to grow. The first recorded use of the word as a color term in Old English dates to ca. AD 700. Latin with viridis has a genuine and used term for "green". Related to virere "to grow" and ver "spring", it gave rise to words in several Romance languages, French vert, Italian verde; the Slavic languages with zelenъ. Ancient Greek had a term for yellowish, pale green – χλωρός, cognate with χλοερός "verdant" and χλόη "chloe, the green of new growth". Thus, the languages mentioned above have old terms for "green" which are derived from words for fresh, sprouting vegetation. However, comparative linguistics makes clear that these terms were coined independently, over the past few millennia, there is no identifiable single Proto-Indo-European or word for "green". For example, the Slavic zelenъ is cognate with Sanskrit hari "yellow, golden"; the Turkic languages have jašɨl "green" or "yellowish green", compared to a Mongolian word for "meadow".
In some languages, including old Chinese, old Japanese, Vietnamese, the same word can mean either blue or green. The Chinese character 青 has a meaning that covers both green. In more contemporary terms, they are 綠 respectively. Japanese has two terms that refer to the color green, 緑 and グリーン. However, in Japan, although the traffic lights have the same colors as other countries have, the green light is described using the same word as for blue, because green is considered a shade of aoi. Vietnamese uses a single word for both blue and green, with variants such as xanh da trời, lục. "Green" in modern European languages corresponds to about 520–570 nm, but many historical and non-European languages make other choices, e.g. using a term for the range of ca. 450–530 nm and another for ca. 530–590 nm. In the comparative study of color terms in the world's languages, green is only found as a separate category in languages with the developed range of six colors, or more in systems with five colors; these languages have introduced supplementary vocabulary to denote "green", but these terms are recognizable as recent adoptions that are not in origin color terms.
Thus, the Thai word เขียว kheīyw, besides mean
Academy (English school)
Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are set out in individual Academy Funding Agreements. Most academies are secondary schools; however more than 25% of primary schools, as well as some of the remaining first and secondary schools, are academies. Academies are self-governing non-profit charitable trusts and may receive additional support from personal or corporate sponsors, either financially or in kind, they do not have to follow the National Curriculum, but do have to ensure that their curriculum is broad and balanced, that it includes the core subjects of mathematics and English. They are subject to inspection by Ofsted; the following are all types of academy: Sponsored academy: A maintained school, transformed to academy status as part of a government intervention strategy. They are run by a Government-approved sponsor, they are sometimes referred to as traditional academies.
Converter academy: A maintained school that has voluntarily converted to academy status. It is not necessary for a converter academy to have a sponsor. Free school: Free schools are new academies established since 2011 via the Free School Programme. From May 2015, usage of the term was extended to new academies set up via a Local Authority competition; the majority of free schools are similar in shape to other types of academy. However, the following are distinctive sub-types of free school:Studio school: A small free school with around 300 pupils, using project-based learning University Technical College: A free school for the 14-18 age group, specialising in practical, employment focused subjects, sponsored by a university, employer or further education college. Faith academy:An academy with an official faith designation. Co-operative academy: An academy that uses an alternative co-operative academy agreement. An academy trust that operates more than one academy is known as an Academy Chain, although sometimes the terms Academy Group or Academy Federation are used instead.
An Academy Chain is a group of schools working together under a shared academy structure, either an Umbrella Trust or a Multi-Academy Trust. An academy is governed by the Academy Agreement it makes with the Department for Education, at that point it severs connections with the local education authority; the current advisory text is the Academy and free school: master funding agreement dated March 2018. The governors of the academy are obliged to publish an annual report and accounts, that are open to scrutiny. All academies are expected to follow a broad and balanced curriculum but many have a particular focus on, or formal specialism in, one or more areas such as science. Although academies are required to follow the National Curriculum in the core subjects of maths and science, they are otherwise free to innovate. Like other state-funded schools, academies are required to adhere to the National Admissions Code, although newly established academies with a faith designation are subject to the 50% Rule requiring them to allocate at least half of their places without reference to faith.
In terms of their governance, academies are established as companies limited by guarantee with a Board of Directors that acts as a Trust. The Academy Trust has exempt charity status, regulated by the Department for Education; the trustees are but not financially, accountable for the operation of the academy. The Trust serves as the legal entity; the trustees oversee the running of the school, sometimes delegating responsibility to a local governing body which they appoint. The day-to-day management of the school is, as in most schools, conducted by the Head Teacher and their senior management team. In Sponsored Academies, the sponsor is able to influence the process of establishing the school, including its curriculum, ethos and building; the sponsor has the power to appoint governors to the academy's governing body. The Labour Government under Tony Blair established academies through the Learning and Skills Act 2000, which amended the section of the Education Act 1996 relating to City Technology Colleges.
They were first announced in a speech by David Blunkett Secretary of State for Education and Skills, in 2000. He said that their aim was "to improve pupil performance and break the cycle of low expectations." As of 2018 many academies are running deficits. The chief architect of the policy was Andrew Adonis in his capacity as education advisor to the Prime Minister in the late 1990s. Academies were known as City Academies for the first few years, but the term was changed to Academies by an amendment in the Education Act 2002; the term Sponsored Academies was applied retrospectively to this type of academy, to distinguish it from other types of academy that were enabled later. Sponsored Academies needed a private sponsor who could be an individual, organisations such as the United Learning Trust, mission-driven businesses such as The Co-operative Group or outsourcing for-profit businesses such as Amey plc); these sponsors were expected to bring "the best o
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'
The Abbey School, Faversham
The Abbey School is a non-selective secondary school in the town of Faversham in Kent, United Kingdom. Founded with the amalgamation of Ethelbert Road Boys School and Lady Capel School for Girls in 1983, the school consists of 1056 pupils from the ages of 11-19; the school became an Academy in August 2011. The School was opened in September 1983 with the amalgamation of Ethelbert Road Boys School and Lady Capel School for Girls with the whole process being overseen by its first head, Vin Thomas; the Boys school was decommissioned with students moving to the south side of Faversham where the school stands. In 1987, Peter Walker became the school's 2nd headteacher. In February 2000, Walker reported to Ofsted about the deteriorating conditions of the former canteen, built in the 1940s; the roof had become a thick layer of moss with asbestos. In September 2004, with the support of parents, the school became the first to introduce random drug tests which commenced in January 2005; the tests could be performed only.
Students who refused to be available for testing or tested positive would undergo a counselling program. Critics of the program stated. At the school, 20 students were tested weekly and were given a mouth swab for cannabis and heroin. Supporters of the program including former Prime Minister Tony Blair who endorsed Walker's efforts and called for the program to be expanded. In 2005, the school reported that the scheme helped to boost examination results to 40% compared with 32% in 2004, 28% in 2003. In 2006, headteacher Peter Walker retired from his position to become Britain's official ambassador for drug testing and gave a presentation to John Walters, the director of the White House drug policy office, his position was taken over by Jenny James. The scheme was ended in 2008, due to other schools not performing the tests. Within the space of four years, only one student tested positive. James was succeeded by Catrin Woodend after some months and oversaw the school's transition to an academy in 2011.
Woodend organised the building of the school's all-weather pitch, completed in 2012. The Governors are responsible for the school on behalf of the Members of the Academy Trust; the school has 2 Parent Governors and 2 staff Governors. As of 2014, the lower school has an annual intake of 210 students at the beginning of Year Seven; the lower school is 865 students strong, for whom the school uniform for boys consists of a black jacket accompanied with the school badge on the breast pocket, with black trousers and a white shirt. Socks must be black, shoes must be black and plain and shirts must be worn with a tie; the uniform for girls consists of a fitted black jacket accompanied with the school badge on the breast pocket, with black trousers and a white blouse with no tie. In keeping with line with the school's ethos of Business and Enterprise, students have the expectation to dress in clothing suitable for the school's ethos; the school maintains a Football Academy in Association with Dover Athletic F.
C. and is run by coach Michael Sandmann. In 2012, two academy players Tom Axford and Lloyd Harrington, were selected for the England Schoolboy Internationals for the spring and the matches were broadcast live on Sky Sports; as of 2010, the school follows the National Curriculum in Years 7–11 and offers a broad range of GCSEs and A-levels. The school has no affiliation with a particular religious denomination, but religious education is given throughout the school. Students in Key Stage 3 are taught within the national curriculum with timetables arranged to allow students to work at the level of their ability. Students with learning disabilities receive additional support such as teaching in small groups, help from Learning Support Assistants or computer packages which aim to improve literacy and numeracy skills. Students in Key Stage 4 continue to study within the national curriculum but they are able to select a range of additional subjects they wish to study; the school year runs from September to July, split across three terms: the autumn term, spring term and the summer term.
Students receive two weeks off for Christmas and Easter, a six-week summer break, three "half term" breaks. League tables published by The Daily Telegraph based on 2013 A-level results rank Abbey as the 34th best school in Kent. According to the Department of Education, in 2013 A-level students achieved an average of 520.9 QCDA points, against a national average of 796.6 and 51 percent of students achieved five or more grade C results at GCSE, including Maths and English. The school has many clubs that use the Sport Centre of the school:- Alert Goal Keeping - www.alertgk.co.uk Comets Netball - www.pitchero.com/clubs/cometsnetballclub Danketsu - www.freewebs.com/danketsu Faversham Judo Club - www.favershamjudo.org Faversham Table Tennis Club - Jim Sixsmith - 01795 535884 Faversham Town Youth & Juniors - www.upthetown.com Herne Hill Herons - dawesca.co.uk/herons-football Invicta Roller Hockey - www.rhcinvicta.co.uk Invicta Roller Skating - www.invictarsc.co.uk Just 4 Keepers - www.just4keepers.co.uk/goalkeeper-training-kent Kent Roller Girls - www.kentrollergirls.com Pitch Invasion - www.pitch-invasion.com Shotokhan Karate - karateinfaversham.clubbz.com Strike Force FC - www.favershamstrikeforce.co.uk TSA Taekwondo - www.tsatkd.org Zumba - www.milesdanceandfitness.com The school runs a restaurant called 14-19 which opened in 2005 with food prepared and ser
Sandwich is a historic town and civil parish on the River Stour in the non-metropolitan district of Dover, within the ceremonial county of Kent, south-east England. It has a population of 4,985. Sandwich was one of the Cinque Ports and still has many original medieval buildings, including several listed public houses and gates in the old town walls, churches and the White Mill. While once a major port, it is now two miles from the sea due to the disappearance of the Wantsum Channel, its historic centre has been preserved. Sandwich Bay is home to nature reserves and two world-class golf courses, Royal St George's and Prince's; the town is home to educational and cultural events. Sandwich gave its name to the bread snack by way of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, the word sandwich is now found in many languages; the place-name'Sandwich' is first attested in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, where it appears as Sondwic in 851 and Sandwic in 993. In the Domesday Book of 1086 it appears as Sandwice; the name -wich comes from the Anglo Saxon -wīc, meaning a dwelling or fortified place where trade takes place.
The name means "market town on sandy soil". Before Sandwich became a Cinque Port, the ancient Saxon town of Stonar on the bank of the Wantsum estuary, but on the opposite side of the mouth of the River Stour, was well established, it remained a place of considerable importance but it disappeared without trace in the 14th century. The ruins of the major Roman fort of Richborough are close by, it was the landing place of the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. In 2008, an archaeological dig proved that this was a defensive site of a Roman beachhead, protecting 700 metres of coast. In 1028 King Canute granted a charter to the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury, to operate a ferry across the river and collect tolls. In 1192, returning from the Third Crusade, Richard the Lionheart was jailed by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. Henry released Richard in February 1194. On 13 March 1194, Richard came back to England. On 21 May 1216, Prince Louis of France landed at Sandwich in support of the First Barons' War against King John.
The Battle of Sandwich occurred just off the coast in 1217. The Port of Sandwich is no stranger to odd events in English history, it was here. Another elephant was landed here, in 1255; the prize beast arrived at Sandwich quayside, delivered as a gift to the English monarch Henry III from the French king, was taken on foot to the king's menagerie in the Tower of London. The journey through Kent is reported to have proceeded without incident, except when a bull in a field by the roadside took umbrage at the great beast passing and attacked it. In one move, the animal was killed outright; the Fisher Gate on the quay dates from 1384, has been scheduled as an Ancient Monument. It is the only one of the original mediaeval town gates to survive, it is a Grade I listed building. The nearby Barbican dates from the 14th century and stands at the end of the bridge over the River Stour where it was used as a toll house. On 28 August 1457, after four years of uneasy peace in England the king presided over a wasting realm, with feudal barons lording it over the population of the north and the west.
The French took advantage of the situation by sending a raiding party to Kent, burning much of Sandwich to the ground. A force of around 4,000 men from Honfleur, under the command of Pierre de Brézé, Marshal of France, came ashore to pillage the town, in the process murdering the mayor, John Drury, it thereafter became an established tradition, which survives to this day, that the Mayor of Sandwich wears a black robe in mourning for this ignoble deed. Sandwich gained from the skills brought to the town by many Flemish settlers, who were granted the right to settle by letters patent from Elizabeth I, dated 6 July 1561. Sandwich was the only town in England that housed more so-called "strangers" than native Englishmen in the 16th century. Historian Marcel Backhouse estimated there were at least 2,400 Flemish and 500 Walloon exiles living in Sandwich at the time; these settlers brought with them techniques of market gardening, were responsible for growing the first English celery, still popular in Flanders.
Elizabeth I granted 25 Flemish families permission to live in Sandwich, St Peter became the "Stranger's Church" in 1564 when the plague came to the town, in an effort to halt the spread of the disease. The 1661 tower collapse was repaired by the Flemish community, the distinctive tower reflects their work; the Huguenot refugees brought over Flemish architectural techniques, that are now as much a part of Kent as the thatched cottage. One can still see the difference between the Flemish of the tower. In addition techniques of silk manufacture were imported; the coat of arms of Sandwich is Per pale Gules and Azure three demi-Lions passant guardant in pale Or conjoined with as many sterns of demi-Ships Argent. It is one of the earliest heraldic examples of dimidiation, an early method of combining two different coats of arms: in this case the Royal Arms of England, Gules three lions passant guardant Or langued and armed Azure, the Arms of the Cinque Ports, Azure three ships Or; the title Earl of Sandwich was created in 1660 for the prominent naval commander Admiral Sir Edward Montagu.
In 1759, Thomas Paine had his shop in a house at 20 New Street. The house is a listed building. In 1912 Sir Edwin Lutyens built The Salutation in Queen Anne style; the gardens w