Universities in the United Kingdom
Universities in the United Kingdom have been instituted by Royal Charter, Papal Bull, Act of Parliament, or an instrument of government under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 or the Higher Education and Research Act 2017. Degree awarding powers and university title are protected by law, although the precise arrangements for gaining these vary between the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. Institutions that hold degree awarding powers are termed recognised bodies, this list includes all universities, university colleges and colleges of the University of London, some higher education colleges, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Degree courses may be provided at listed bodies, leading to degrees validated by a recognised body. Undergraduate applications to all UK universities are managed by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service. While legally,'university' refers to an institution, granted the right to use the title, in common usage it now includes colleges of the University of London, including in official documents such as the Dearing Report.
The representative bodies for higher education providers in the United Kingdom are Universities UK and GuildHE. Universities in Britain date back to the dawn of mediaeval studium generale, with Oxford and Cambridge taking their place among the world's oldest universities. No other universities were founded in England during this period. Medical schools in London, though not universities in their own right, were among the first to provide medical teachings in England. In Scotland, St Andrew's, Glasgow and King's College, Aberdeen were founded by Papal Bull. Post-Reformation, these were joined by Edinburgh, Marischal College and the short-lived Fraserburgh University. In England, Henry VIII's plan to found a university in Durham came to nothing and a attempt to found a university at Durham during the Commonwealth was opposed by Oxford and Cambridge. Gresham College was, established in London in the late 16th century, despite concerns expressed by Cambridge. In Ireland, Trinity College Dublin was founded as "the mother of a University" by a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth.
The 18th century saw the establishment of medical schools at Edinburgh and Glasgow universities and at hospitals in London. A number of dissenting academies were established, but the next attempt to found a university did not come until the Andersonian Institute was established in Glasgow in 1798. The French Revolution and the ensuing Napoleonic wars led to over 40% of universities in Europe closing. From 153 universities in 1789, numbers fell to only 83 in 1815; the next quarter century saw a rebound, with 15 new universities founded, bringing numbers back to 98 by 1840. In England, the late 18th and early 19th centuries saw the arrival of Catholic seminaries driven from the continent by the French Revolution and the establishment of the St Bees Theological College to train Anglican priests in 1816; the first Anglican college to move beyond specialist training to provide a more general university education in Arts was in Wales: St David's College, Lampeter was founded in 1822, opened in 1827, gained a royal charter in 1828.
By the higher education revolution was well under way. Between 1824 and 1834 ten medical schools were established in provincial cities; this would, have required government support. The opinion of Robert Peel – cabinet minister and MP for Oxford University – was sought, he advised against proceeding; this period saw the establishment of Mechanics Institutes in a number of cities. The first of these, established in Edinburgh in 1821, would become Heriot-Watt University, while the London Mechanics Institute, established in 1823, developed into Birkbeck, University of London. Many others would become polytechnics and in 1992, universities; the Polytechnic Institution opened at 309 Regent Street, London, in August 1838, to provide "practical knowledge of the various arts and branches of science connected with manufacturers, mining operations and rural economy". Soon after news of the York scheme broke, Thomas Campbell wrote to The Times proposing a university be founded in London; this would become UCL, founded in 1826 as a joint stock company under the name of London University.
Due to its lack of theology teaching, its willingness to grant degrees to non-Anglicans, its unauthorised assumption of the title of "university", this inspired calls in 1827 for the foundation of a'true and genuine "London University"' by royal charter, to be known as "The College of King George IV in London". This became King's College London, granted a royal charter in 1829 – but as a college rather than a university. UCL was revolutionary not just in admitting non-Anglicans. Neither of the Colleges was residential – a break from the two ancient English un
Northumbria University, is a university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North East of England. A former polytechnic, it was established as one of the new universities in 1992. Northumbria University has its origins in three Newcastle colleges: Rutherford College of Technology, established by John Hunter Rutherford in 1880 and opened formally in 1894 by the Duke of York, the College of Art & Industrial Design and the Municipal College of Commerce. In 1969, the three colleges were amalgamated to form Newcastle Polytechnic; the Polytechnic became the major regional centre for the training of teachers with the creation of the City College of Education in 1974 and the Northern Counties College of Education in 1976. In 1992, Newcastle Polytechnic was reconstituted as the new University of Northumbria, as part of a nationwide process in which polytechnics became new universities, it was styled, its official name still is, the University of Northumbria at Newcastle but the trading name was simplified to Northumbria University in 2002.
In 1995, it was awarded responsibility for the education of healthcare professionals, transferred from the National Health Service. The university has two large campuses situated in one in London. City Campus, located in the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, is divided into City Campus East and City Campus West by the city's central motorway and linked by a £4 million bridge which in 2008 was opened by the former Minister of State for Trade and Investment, Lord Digby Jones. City Campus East is home to the Schools of Law and the Newcastle Business School. NBS and Law are housed in one building, the School of Design is across a courtyard. City Campus East, designed by Atkins, opened in September 2007, winning awards from The Journal newspaper and the Low Carbon New Build Project of the Year accolade. City Campus West is home to the Schools of Arts & Social Sciences, Built & Natural Environment, Engineering & Information Sciences and Life Sciences. Located on this campus is the University Library, Students' Union building and Sport Central, a £31m sports facility for students and the community which opened in 2010.
The Sutherland Building the Medical School of Durham University, a naval warehouse during World War II, the Dental School of Durham University is the home of Administrative Departments including Finance & Planning and Human Resources, using the space vacated when the School of Law moved to City Campus East. The Students' Union building, at City Campus West, underwent a multimillion-pound makeover with new lobby and recreational facilities, a refurbished bar and cafe space, in summer 2010. In September 2016 the Sandyford Building was acquired from Newcastle College. A second campus is located 2.6 miles outside of Newcastle, on Coach Lane, is known as the Coach Lane Campus at Cochrane Park near the A188. It round the corner from Tyneview Park; the Coach Lane Campus is home to School of Health and Education Studies. Coach Lane Campus has library services. A free shuttle bus scheme runs between the two campuses; the London Campus offers full-time or part-time programmes, from a range of Business, Cyber, Project Management and Technology focused programmes.
Ideally situated just minutes away from Liverpool Street station, students can benefit from studying in a location where the financial district meets the heart of London’s digital and technology sector. This Campus offers an excellent base from which to take full advantage of all that studying in one of the world’s leading cities has to offer, including work experience and networking opportunities. Northumbria describes itself as a comprehensive university, offering 30 of Britain's 32 most chosen academic disciplines, it specialises in law and business and design, environmental science, built environment, applied healthcare, sports science and psychology, teacher education. Northumbria offers'clinical' courses in law accredited by the Law Society and Bar Council; these allow graduates direct entry to the profession. The institution's Student Law Office is a clinical legal education enterprise, where law students participate in a legal advice and representation scheme on behalf of real clients, under the supervision of practising lawyers.
Northumbria University employs more than 3,200 people and offers 500 study programmes through four Faculties: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Faculty of Business and Law Faculty of Engineering and Environment Faculty of Health and Life SciencesNorthumbria University Press is the university press, established in 2002. It is based in Newcastle upon Tyne and publishes a diverse range of books, including publications on language, biography and music. In the Research Assessment Exercise 2008 a small amount of research in nine of twelve areas submitted was described as "world leading". Under Vice Chancellor Andrew Wathey, Northumbria University has remained ranked between 48 and 60 for the past ten years in the Guardian University League Tables; the Times Higher Education Supplement's World University Ranking places Northumbria University in the 401-500 range. In the 2014 REF, along with Allied Health Professions, Dentistry and Pharmacy, humanities and arts subjects were
Rick Dickinson was a British industrial designer who developed pioneering computer designs in the 1980s. Notable examples of his design work include the ZX81 case and touch-sensitive keyboard and the ZX Spectrum rubber keyboard. Dickinson graduated from Newcastle Polytechnic in 1979 with a First Class Bachelor of Arts honours degree in Design for Industry; the "Design for Industry" degree was the first of its kind a three-year "Industrial Design" degree. The new course, with two additional terms for industrial placements, extended the degree to four years and popularised the term "sandwich course". Dickinson joined Sir Clive Sinclair's Sinclair Research Ltd in December 1979, replacing John Pemberton, leaving Sinclair to head up a new design centre for ITT in Harlow. Sinclair Research offices were at 6 Kings Cambridge. Dickinson was the in-house industrial designer of Sinclair Research Ltd, he saw John Pemberton's design for the ZX80 case through to completion and designed a memory expansion. He went on to design the ZX81, including its touch-sensitive keyboard, a "clear step forward" in home computer design.
In the rubber keyboard for the ZX Spectrum, he replaced the hundreds of components of a conventional keyboard with a design using "maybe four or five moving parts". Along with its colour display, engineered by Richard Altwasser, commercialisation by Sir Clive Sinclair, the Spectrum popularised home computing and gaming. Dickinson designed the TV80 casing and Sinclair QL; the ZX81 won a British Design Council award in 1981. It is in a permanent collection in Essen; the Sinclair QL won an Italian design award at the Smau Industrial Design Award. In 1986, he founded an industrial design consultancy based in Cambridge; that year he produced the industrial design for an early laptop computer, the Cambridge Z88. In 1987 he was commissioned by Alan Sugar to create the industrial design concept for Amstrad's first portable computer. In 1989, Christopher Curry, Keith Dunning re-thought the MacArthur field microscope and Dickinson designed the Lensman microscope, a portable field microscope. In 1990–91 the Lensman microscope won the BBC design awards, The Prince Of Wales Award For Industrial Innovation And Production, the Archimedes award for Engineering Excellence.
Dickinson met Apple founder Steve Jobs numerous times as they shared ideas for the MacBook in 1994. He produced the industrial design concepts and models of the first "Broad Band phone" for AT&T. Dickinson Associates created the industrial design, mechanical design, production engineering design for the first GSM mobile phone "reference phone" design, for Rockwell. Dickinson Associates were the designers of the Gizmondo handheld console. In 2014, he published concept designs for modern Sinclair microcomputers; the following year, Dickinson published a series of images of the ZX Spectrum Next re-imagining the original Spectrum design. In 2016, he designed a wireless patch for a medical system to allow expectant mothers to monitor fetal heart rates, he worked on the design of the ZX Spectrum Vega+ handheld games console. One source reported the ZX Spectrum Next was entering production in 2018. Dickinson had two daughters and Daisy, with his first wife Kim, he is survived by his second wife Elizabeth.
Dickinson died on 24 April 2018 while in Texas receiving further treatment for cancer first diagnosed in 2015. List of English inventors and designers Rick Dickinson interview: The Enigma of Design Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3 Rick Dickinson interview: Designer Update Part 1 and Part 2 Planet Sinclair – Rick Dickinson Sinclair User magazine, Modest award winner sets the pace in micro design, August 1982 Patents: ZX80, ZX81 and ZX Spectrum The Brits Who Designed the Modern World Artsnight – Series 4: 7, BBC Two
Sir Jonathan Paul "Jony" Ive, is a British industrial designer, the chief design officer of Apple and Chancellor of the Royal College of Art in London. He joined Apple in 1992. Following ten years of service, he was promoted to senior vice president of design, overseeing the design of the iPod, iPhone, iPad, MacBook, parts of Apple's user interface, iOS. Born and raised in London, Ive studied design at University of Northumbria at Newcastle and had his work displayed at the Design Museum. After graduating, he was hired by a start-up design firm called Tangerine to work in their industrials group. Ive Macs, he was invited to join the Royal College of Art in May 2017 as its head-of-college, serving a fixed five-year term until May 2022. His body of work–from his university years to present–has been influenced by the Bauhaus design tradition, in particular its focus on the credos "form follows function" and "less is more". German designer Dieter Rams has noted Ive's work as in-line with his ten principles of good design.
Parallels in color stencil and lighting design can be found with the luxury German automotive, Audi. Ive lends his voice–noted for its Essex accent and reserved, loquacious style of speech–to Apple's marketing and promotional videos. Ive has received a number of accolades and honors for his patents. In the United Kingdom, he has been appointed a Royal Designer for Industry, an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In 2018 he was awarded the Professor Hawking Fellowship. In a 2004 BBC poll of cultural writers, Ive was ranked the most influential person in British culture, his designs have been noted as integral to the successes of Apple. Jonathan Paul Ive was born on 27 February 1967 in Chingford, England, his father, Michael Ive, was a silversmith who lectured at Middlesex Polytechnic, his grandfather was an engineer. Raised just outside of London, Ive attended the Chingford Foundation School and Walton High School in Stafford where he studied sculpture and chemistry.
After graduating from high school he explored the option of studying automotive design in London at some of the city's major universities. He considered the Royal College of Art. Noises as they drew", he attended Newcastle Polytechnic during the late-1980s. While at university, some of his more notable designs–including a hearing aid design–were exhibited at the Design Museum in London. Ive graduated with a first class B. A. in industrial design in 1989. His designs in university garnered him the RSA Student Design Award which afforded him a small stipend and a travel expense account to use on a trip to the United States. Ive traveled to Palo Alto, where he met with various design experts including Robert Brunner–a designer who ran a small consultancy firm that would join Apple Computers. After returning to England six weeks Ive interned at product design agency Roberts Weaver Group where he impressed executives with a pronounced attention to detail and work ethic. After a year with Roberts Weaver, Ive joined a London startup design agency called Tangerine, located in Hoxton Square where he designed a diverse array of products, such as microwave ovens, toilets and toothbrushes.
However, his frustration with the position reached a turning point after he designed a toilet and sink for client Ideal Standard, the company's boss rejected Ive's work, stating that the products were too costly and looked too modern. Ive was unhappy working for clients who didn't possess the same principles. From 1990 to 1992, Robert Brunner unsuccessfully attempted to recruit Ive to Apple, as he was ascending the corporate ladder. During this time Apple became a client of Tangerine's and Ive spearheaded the firm's initial PowerBook designs, he was formally recruited to Apple as a full-time employee in September 1992. Ive was apprehensive about leaving Tangerine for Apple as he thought the move from Britain to California would be tolling on his family, his first major assignment in Apple's industrial design group regarded the second generation of the Newton and the MessagePad 110. Initial design failures and lack of commercial success during the early 1990s, prompted Ive to nearly quit on multiple occasions.
Jobs, ousted by other Apple executives in 1985, was staging a return to the company and recruited Ive to join him in taking the firm in a different direction. Jon Rubinstein, Ive's boss at the time, managed to retain Ive as an employee by explaining that Apple was "going to make history" following the revival of the company in 1996, he became the senior vice president of industrial design in 1997 after the return of Jobs, subsequently headed the industrial design team responsible for most of the company's significant hardware products. Ive's first design assignment in this capacity was the iMac. Ive explained the close rapport that existed in his working relationship with Jobs in 2014: "When we were looking at objects, what our eyes physically saw and what we came to perceive were the same, and we would have the same curiosity about things. Ive was given his own design office at Apple during the early 2000s in which he oversees the work of his appointed design team, he is the only Apple designer with a private office
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar