Hurricane Luis was a long-lived, powerful and a destructive Cape Verde hurricane, as well as one of the strongest and most notable hurricanes of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season, with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph – which would nearly be tied with Opal that year but surpassed it by minimum pressure. Luis was the strongest hurricane to make landfall, the third-most intense hurricane recorded during the active season, it was the twelfth tropical storm, sixth hurricane, second major hurricane of the season. At one point, the storm was one of four simultaneous tropical systems in the Atlantic basin, along with Humberto and Karen; the storm lasted for 14 days as a tropical storm between late mid-September. Luis caused catastrophic damage in Barbuda, St. Barthelemy, St Martin and Anguilla as a Category 4 with winds between 130 mph and 135 mph; the storm accounted for 19 deaths, left between 20,000 and 50,000 homeless and caused $3 billion in damage across the affected areas. Hurricane Luis was the most devastating hurricane to strike the northern Leeward Islands in the 20th century and one of the strongest storms to hit the Leeward Islands at the time, along with Hurricane David in 1979 and Hurricane Hugo in 1989.
Additionally, Luis was the second of three tropical cyclones to affect Guadeloupe in a short period of time, the first being Hurricane Iris a week before, the last being Hurricane Marilyn only ten days afterward. During the next year, the Leeward Islands would be struck by Hurricane Bertha, while still repairing from Luis and Marilyn successively hit by Hortense, Georges, Jose and Debby; the system formed from a tropical wave south of Cape Verde islands, west of Africa on August 27 subsequently attained tropical storm status on August 29. Two days the storm reached hurricane status. At this strength, Luis affected much of the Leeward Islands on September 4 to September 6. Throughout the following days, Luis weakened as it accelerated safely to the west of Bermuda; as a Category 1 hurricane, Luis made landfall on Newfoundland before it became extratropical on September 11. Luis was responsible for an intense rogue wave, which struck RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 on Monday, September 11, though the ship pulled through with little damage.
The origins of Hurricane Luis trace back to an area of disturbed weather associated with a tropical wave over the eastern Atlantic Ocean, on August 26. A low-level circulation center formed and moved westward until it developed a weak surface low on August 27; the depression attained 36 hours into a Tropical Storm named "Luis" on August 29. Though convective activity fluctuated for the next two days as a result of nearby wind shear, the storm intensified while pressure rose; the shear relented the next day, allowing an eye to form, the system attained hurricane status thereafter on early August 31 a Category 3 major hurricane 18 hours later. Hurricane Luis continued to strengthen as it tracked west-northwestward into a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale on September 2 and the cyclone turned more towards the west earlier that day as it maintained a rectilinear slow motion. At this time, it was located 540 miles to the east of the Lesser Antilles; the storm began to accelerate as it moved along a subtropical ridge due to the absorption of Karen by the stronger Iris.
By the day of September 4, Luis sustained a large wind field as it approach the Lesser Antilles, its tropical storm-force winds measured from 345 mi to 365 mi in diameter as it begin to affected in the night Antigua, Barbuda and Guadeloupe. On the morning of September 5, islands such as Dominica and the islands of Guadeloupe, where it experienced hurricane-force winds on the northeastern coast of Grande-Terre and Désirade, has been spared by the storm; however the eyewall of the hurricane skimmed Antigua and directly passing over Barbuda while weakened slightly. During the time, it proceeded northwestward affecting Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sint Eustatius and Saba causing moderate damage. Luis moved along St. Barthelemy, St. Martin and crossed Anguilla, where maximum sustained winds within the eyewall were estimated to have reached 135 mph, its central pressure had dropped from 945 to 942 mbar. A large and powerful hurricane, Luis retained Category 4 intensity until September 7, while situated about 150 mi to the north of Puerto Rico.
The storm re-curved over the northern Atlantic as a Category 2 storm, after having spent 7 consecutive days as a major hurricane with maximum sustained winds of at least 115 mph, from September 1 to 8. From there on, the center of the storm passed 200 miles to the west of Bermuda on September 9 causing minor damage, later weakened to a Category 2 hurricane, with winds of 110 mph. Several hours the hurricane made its closest approach to Bermuda, passing about 200 mi west of the island; that day, the storm began to accelerate as it traveled northeast ahead of a strong trough located to the northwest of Luis. During the afternoon of September 10, Hurricane Luis began to undergo an extratropical transition as it approached the Canadian coastline. Due to the rapid movement of the storm, significant weakening did not occur until Luis was at an unusually hi
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
British Overseas Territories
The British Overseas Territories or United Kingdom Overseas Territories are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories; these territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of scientific personnel, they all share the British monarch as head of state. As of April 2018 the Minister responsible for the Territories excluding the Falkland Islands and the Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus, is the Minister of State for the Commonwealth and the UN; the other three territories are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas. The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the term British Dependent Territory, introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981.
Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were referred to as British Crown Colonies. Although the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man are under the sovereignty of the British monarch, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom; the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the Commonwealth realms, a group of 16 independent countries each having Elizabeth II as their reigning monarch, from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of 53 countries with historic links to the British Empire. With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the British Indian Ocean Territory, the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. Permanent residency for the 7,000 civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is limited to citizens of the Republic of Cyprus. Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people and a land area of about 1,727,570 square kilometres.
The vast majority of this land area, 1,700,000 square kilometres, constitutes the uninhabited British Antarctic Territory, while the largest territory by population, accounts for a quarter of the total BOT population. At the other end of the scale, three territories have no civilian population. Pitcairn Islands, settled by the survivors of the Mutiny on the Bounty, is the smallest settled territory with 49 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula; the United Kingdom participates in the Antarctic Treaty System and, as part of a mutual agreement, the British Antarctic Territory is recognised by four of the six other sovereign nations making claims to Antarctic territory. Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were known as "Plantations"; the first, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. It is now a province of Canada known as Labrador.
It retains strong cultural ties with Britain. English colonisation of North America began in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in Virginia, its offshoot, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to include the archipelago in 1612. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World. Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires; these include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas. The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire nearly one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa.
From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the larger settler colonies – in Canada, New Zealand and South Africa – first became self-governing colonies and achieved independence in all matters except foreign policy and trade. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada, South Africa, Rhodesia; these and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. The Dominions achieved full independence with the Statute of Westminster. Through a process of decolonisation following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa and the Caribbean gained independence; some colonies becam
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, to the south by the north coast of South America; the entire area of the Caribbean Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2; the sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m below sea level. The Caribbean coastline has many gulfs and bays: the Gulf of Gonâve, Gulf of Venezuela, Gulf of Darién, Golfo de los Mosquitos, Gulf of Paria and Gulf of Honduras; the Caribbean Sea has the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. It runs 1,000 km along the coasts of Mexico, Belize and Honduras; the name "Caribbean" derives from the Caribs, one of the region's dominant Native American groups at the time of European contact during the late 15th century.
After Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas in 1492, the Spanish term Antillas applied to the lands. During the first century of development, Spanish dominance in the region remained undisputed. From the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Caribbean region identified the "South Sea" as opposed to the "North Sea"; the Caribbean Sea had been unknown to the populations of Eurasia until 1492, when Christopher Columbus sailed into Caribbean waters on a quest to find a sea route to Asia. At that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to most Europeans, although it had been discovered between the years 800 and 1000 by the vikings. Following the discovery of the islands by Columbus, the area was colonized by several Western cultures. Following the colonization of the Caribbean islands, the Caribbean Sea became a busy area for European-based marine trading and transports, this commerce attracted pirates such as Samuel Bellamy and Blackbeard; as of 2015 the area is home to borders 12 continental countries.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Caribbean Sea as follows: On the North. In the Windward Channel – a line joining Caleta Point and Pearl Point in Haïti. In the Mona Passage – a line joining Cape Engaño and the extreme of Agujereada in Puerto Rico. Eastern limits. From Point San Diego Northward along the meridian thereof to the 100-fathom line, thence Eastward and Southward, in such a manner that all islands and narrow waters of the Lesser Antilles are included in the Caribbean Sea as far as Galera Point. From Galera Point through Trinidad to Galeota Point and thence to Baja Point in Venezuela. Note that, although Barbados is an island on the same continental shelf, it is considered to be in the Atlantic Ocean rather than the Caribbean Sea; the Caribbean Sea is an oceanic sea situated on the Caribbean Plate. The Caribbean Sea is separated from the ocean by several island arcs of various ages; the youngest stretches from the Lesser Antilles to the Virgin Islands to the north east of Trinidad and Tobago off the coast of Venezuela.
This arc was formed by the collision of the South American Plate with the Caribbean Plate and includes active and extinct volcanoes such as Mount Pelee, the Quill on Sint Eustatius in the Caribbean Netherlands and Morne Trois Pitons on Dominica. The larger islands in the northern part of the sea Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico lie on an older island arc; the geological age of the Caribbean Sea is estimated to be between 160 and 180 million years and was formed by a horizontal fracture that split the supercontinent called Pangea in the Mesozoic Era. It is assumed the proto-caribbean basin existed in the Devonian period. In the early Carboniferous movement of Gondwana to the north and its convergence with the Euramerica basin decreased in size; the next stage of the Caribbean Sea's formation began in the Triassic. Powerful rifting led to the formation of narrow troughs, stretching from modern Newfoundland to the west coast of the Gulf of Mexico which formed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. In the early Jurassic due to powerful marine transgression, water broke into the present area of the Gulf of Mexico creating a vast shallow pool.
The emergence of deep basins in the Caribbean occurred during the Middle Jurassic rifting. The emergence of these basins marked the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean and contributed to the destruction of Pangaea at the end of the late Jurassic. During the Cretaceous the Caribbean acquired the shape close to that seen today. In the early Paleogene due to Marine regression the Caribbean became separated from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean by the land of Cuba and Haiti; the Caribbean remained like this for most of the Cenozoic until the Holocene when rising water levels of the oceans restored communication with the Atlantic Ocean. The Caribbean's floor is composed of sub-oceanic sediments of deep red clay in the deep basins and troughs. On continental slopes and ridges calcareous silts are found. Clay minerals having been deposited by the mainland river Orinoco and the Magdalena River. Deposits on th
Hurricane Irma was an powerful and catastrophic Cape Verde hurricane, the strongest observed in the Atlantic in terms of maximum sustained winds since Wilma, the strongest storm on record to exist in the open Atlantic region. Irma was the first Category 5 hurricane to strike the Leeward Islands on record, followed by Maria two weeks and is the second-costliest Caribbean hurricane on record, after Maria; the ninth named storm, fourth hurricane, second major hurricane, first Category 5 hurricane of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Irma caused widespread and catastrophic damage throughout its long lifetime in the northeastern Caribbean and the Florida Keys. It was the most intense hurricane to strike the continental United States since Katrina in 2005, the first major hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Wilma in the same year, the first Category 4 hurricane to strike the state since Charley in 2004; the word Irmageddon was coined soon after the hurricane to describe the damage caused by the hurricane.
Irma developed from a tropical wave near Cape Verde on August 30. Favorable conditions allowed Irma to intensify into a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson wind scale by late on August 31. However, the storm's intensity fluctuated between Categories 2 and 3 for the next several days, due to a series of eyewall replacement cycles. On September 4, Irma resumed intensifying, becoming a Category 5 hurricane by early on the next day, acquiring annular characteristics. Early on September 6, Irma peaked with 180 mph winds and a minimum pressure of 914 hPa, making it the second most intense tropical cyclone worldwide in 2017, behind only Hurricane Maria, the strongest worldwide in 2017, in terms of wind speed. Another eyewall replacement cycle caused Irma to weaken back to a Category 4 hurricane, but the storm re-attained Category 5 status before making landfall in Cuba. Although land interaction weakened Irma to a Category 2 storm, the system re-intensified to Category 4 status as it crossed the warm waters of the Straits of Florida, before making landfall on Cudjoe Key with winds at 130 mph, on September 10.
Irma weakened to Category 3 status, prior to another landfall in Florida on Marco Island that day. The system degraded into a remnant low over Alabama and dissipated on September 13 over Missouri; the storm caused catastrophic damage in Barbuda, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin and the Virgin Islands as a Category 5 hurricane. The hurricane caused at least 134 deaths: one in Anguilla. S. Virgin Islands. Hurricane Irma was the top Google searched term in the US and globally in 2017; the National Hurricane Center began monitoring a tropical wave over western Africa on August 26. The tropical wave moved off the coast of the continent late on August 27. Throughout the next two days and thunderstorms associated with the wave became better organized and coalesced into a low-pressure area, as the system passed just south of and through the Cape Verde Islands on August 29, with the NHC stating that any significant organization of the disturbance would result in the classification of a tropical depression.
Further organization over the next 24 hours or so led to classification of the disturbance as Tropical Storm Irma, at 06:00 UTC on August 30, based on scatterometer data and satellite estimates. With warm sea surface temperatures and low wind shear, strengthening was anticipated, with the only hindrance being cooler waters and drier air; the nascent storm began developing upper-level poleward outflow, as an anticyclone became established over the system, with banding features becoming evident in satellite images. Early on August 31, shortly after the development of a central dense overcast and an eye feature, Irma underwent rapid intensification, becoming a Category 2 hurricane at 18:00 UTC and a Category 3 hurricane, becoming a major hurricane – around 00:00 UTC on September 1. In a 48-hour period, the hurricane's intensity had increased by 65 mph. On September 2, a ship passed 60 mi to the west of the center of Irma, recording maximum winds of 45 mph, which indicated that the eye of Irma remained compact.
A strong high pressure system to the north of Irma caused the storm to move west-southwestward between September 2 and September 4. The first aircraft reconnaissance mission departed from Barbados on the afternoon of September 3, discovering an eye 29 mi in diameter and surface winds of 115 mph. On September 4, after moving into more favorable conditions, Irma strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane; as it continued approaching the Leeward Islands, Irma underwent a second and more robust period of rapid intensification, becoming a Category 5 hurricane by 12:00 UTC on the following day, with winds of 175 mph. As it began to take on annular characteristics, the powerful hurricane continued to intensify, with maximum sustained winds peaking at 180 mph near 18:00 UTC on September 5 – although it was operationally assessed at 185 mph. Irma continued to intensity. Eight hours around 05:45 UTC on September 6, Irma made landfall along the northern coast of Barbuda at peak intensity, with the storm's central minimum pressure having bottomed out at 914 mbar – this was the lowest in the Atlantic since Dean in 2007.
Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean. It is one of the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles, lying east of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and directly north of Saint Martin; the territory consists of the main island of Anguilla 16 miles long by 3 miles wide at its widest point, together with a number of much smaller islands and cays with no permanent population. The island's capital is The Valley; the total land area of the territory is 35 square miles, with a population of 14,764. Anguilla has become a popular tax haven, having no capital gains, profit, sales, or corporate taxes. In April 2011, faced with a mounting deficit, it introduced a 3% "Interim Stabilisation Levy", Anguilla's first form of income tax. Anguilla has a 0.75% property tax. The name Anguilla is from the Italian anguilla meaning "eel" in reference to the island's shape, it is believed by most sources to have been named by Christopher Columbus. For similar reasons, it was known as Snake or Snake Island.
Anguilla was first settled by Indigenous Amerindian peoples. The earliest Native American artefacts found on Anguilla have been dated to around 1300 BC; the Arawak name for the island seems to have been Malliouhana. The date of European colonisation is uncertain: some sources claim that Columbus sighted the island during his second voyage in 1493, while others state that the island's first European explorer was the French Huguenot nobleman and merchant mariner René Goulaine de Laudonnière in 1564; the Dutch West India Company established a fort on the island in 1631. The Dutch withdrew after the destruction of the fort by Spanish forces in 1633. Traditional accounts state that Anguilla was first colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts beginning in 1650. In this early colonial period, Anguilla sometimes served as a place of refuge and recent scholarship focused on Anguilla has placed greater significance on other Europeans and creoles migrating from St. Christopher, Barbados and Antigua.
The French temporarily took over the island in 1666 but returned it to English control under the terms of the Treaty of Breda the next year. A Major John Scott who visited in September 1667, wrote of leaving the island "in good condition" and noted that in July 1668, "200 or 300 people fled thither in time of war", it is that some of these early Europeans brought enslaved Africans with them. Historians confirm. For example, Africans from Senegal lived in St. Christopher in 1626. By 1672 a slave depot existed on the island of Nevis. While the time of African arrival in Anguilla is difficult to place archival evidence indicates a substantial African presence of at least 100 enslaved people by 1683; these seem to have come from Central Africa as well as West Africa. Attempts by the French to capture the island during the War of Austrian Succession and the Napoleonic Wars ended in failure. During the early colonial period, Anguilla was administered by the British through Antigua. In 1967, Britain granted Saint Nevis full internal autonomy.
Anguilla was incorporated into the new unified dependency, named Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, against the wishes of many Anguillians. This led to two Anguillian Revolutions in 1969 headed by Atlin Harrigan and Ronald Webster; the island operated as the independent "Republic of Anguilla". The goal of the revolution was not independence per se, but rather independence from Saint Kitts and Nevis and a return to being a British colony. British authority was restored in July 1971. Anguilla is an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom, its politics take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Chief Minister is the head of government, of a pluriform multi-party system. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Anguilla on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories; the territory's constitution is Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the House of Assembly.
The judiciary is independent of the legislature. As a dependency of the UK, the UK is responsible for Anguilla's military defence, although there are no active garrisons or armed forces present. Anguilla has a small marine police force, comprising around 32 personnel, which operates one VT Halmatic M160-class 52-foot fast patrol boat; the majority of residents are black, the descendants of slaves transported from Africa. Minorities include whites at 3.74% and people of mixed race at 4.65%. 72 % of the population is Anguillian. Of the non-Anguillian population, many are citizens of the United States, United Kingdom, St Kitts & Nevis, the Dominican Republic and Nigeria. 2006 and 2007 saw an influx of large numbers of Chinese and Mexican workers, brought in as labour for major tourist developments due to the local population not being large enough to support the labour requirements. Christian churches did not have a consistent or strong presence during the initial period of English colonisation. Spiritual and religious practic