Kayl is a commune and town in south-western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette, part of the district of Luxembourg; as of 2001, the town of Kayl, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 4,237. Other towns within the commune include Tétange; the first surviving written reference to'Keyle' dates from 1235. Since the thirteenth century the name of the town has not changed although more than twenty different spellings have been identified. Media related to Kayl at Wikimedia Commons
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department. Inhabitants of the department are known as Mosellans. Moselle is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from the former province of Lorraine. In 1793, France annexed the enclaves of Manderen, Lixing-lès-Rouhling, Créhange - all possessions of princes of the Duchy of Luxemburg - a state of the Holy Roman Empire, incorporated them into the Moselle département. One of its first prefects was the comte de Vaublanc, from 1805 to 1814. By the Treaty of Paris of 1814 following the first defeat and abdication of Napoleon, France had to surrender all the territory it had conquered since 1792. In northeastern France, the Treaty did not restore the 1792 borders, but defined a new frontier to put an end to the convoluted nature of the border, with all its enclaves and exclaves.
As a result, France ceded the exclave of Tholey as well as a few communes near Sierck-les-Bains to Austria. On the other hand, the Treaty confirmed the French annexations of 1793, furthermore, the south of the Napoleonic département of Sarre was ceded to France, including the town of Lebach, the city of Saarbrücken, the rich coal basin nearby. France thus became a net beneficiary of the Treaty of Paris: all the new territories ceded to her being far larger and more strategic than the few territories ceded to Austria. All these new territories were incorporated into the Moselle department, so Moselle had now a larger territory than since 1790. However, with the return of Napoleon and his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the Treaty of Paris in November 1815 imposed much harsher conditions on France. Tholey and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains were still to be ceded as agreed in 1814, but the south of the Sarre department with Saarbrücken was withdrawn from France. In addition, France had to cede to Austria the area of Rehlingen as well as the strategic fort-town of Saarlouis and the territory around it, all territories and towns which France had controlled since the 17th century, which formed part of the Moselle department since 1790.
At the end of 1815 Austria transferred all these territories to Prussia, making for the first time a shared border for those two states. Thus, by the end of 1815, the Moselle department had the limits that it would keep until 1871, it was smaller than at its creation in 1790, the incorporation of the Austrian enclaves not compensating for the loss of Saarlouis, Rehlingen and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains. Between 1815 and 1871, the department had an area of 5,387 km², its prefecture was Metz. It had four arrondissements: Metz, Briey and Thionville. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 all of the Moselle department, along with Alsace and portions of the Meurthe and Vosges departments, went to the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfurt on the grounds that most of the population in those areas spoke German dialects. Bismarck omitted only one-fifth of Moselle from annexation, The Moselle department ceased to exist on May 18, 1871, the eastern four-fifths of Moselle was annexed to Germany merged with the German-annexed eastern third of the Meurthe Department into the German Department of Lorraine, based in Metz, within the newly established Imperial State of Alsace-Lorraine.
France merged the remaining area of Briey with the truncated Meurthe department to create the new Meurthe-et-Moselle department with its préfecture at Nancy. In 1919, following the French victory in the First World War, Germany returned Alsace-Lorraine to France under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, it was decided not to recreate the old separate departments of Meurthe and Moselle by reverting to the old department borders of before 1871. Instead, Meurthe-et-Moselle was left untouched, the annexed part of Lorraine was reconstituted as the new department of Moselle. Thus, the Moselle department was reborn, but with quite different borders from those before 1871. Having lost the area of Briey, it had now gained the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg which before 1871 had formed one-third of the Meurthe department and, part of the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine since 1871; the new Moselle department now reached its current area of 6,216 km², larger than the old Moselle because the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg were far larger than the area of Briey and Longwy.
When the Second World War was declared on September 3, 1939 around 30% of Moselle's territory lay between the Maginot Line and the German frontier. 302,732 people, around 45% of the department's population, were evacuated to departments in central and western France during September 1939. Of those evacuated, around 200,000 returned after the war. In spite of the June 22, 1940 armistice, Moselle was again annexed by Germany in July of that year by becoming part of the Gau Westmark. Adolf Hitler considered Moselle and Alsace parts of Germany, as a result the inhabitants were drafted into the German Wehrmacht. Several organized groups were formed in resistance to the German occupation, notably the Groupe Mario
Schifflange is a commune and town in south-western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette; as of 2014, the town of Schifflange, which lies in the west of the commune, has a population of 9,332. Schifflange was formed on 15 August 1876; the law forming Schifflange was passed on the 6 July 1876. Schifflange is the birthplace of ATP Tour tennis player Gilles Müller. Footballer Miralem Pjanić grew up in Schifflange after fleeing from the Bosnian War and began his career at local football club FC Schifflange 95. A steelworks in Schifflange was founded in 1871 by the Metz family as Usine METZ, the steelworks became part of ARBED in 1911. In the 1980s the plant was converted to the continuous casting of blooms in the 90s an electric furnace installed. In 1994 the company merged with the Belgian company Métallurgique et Minière de Rodange-Athus forming ARES. In the first decade of the 21st century ownership passed from Arcelor to ArcelorMittal, in 2008 becoming ArcelorMittal Rodange and Schifflange S.
A. together with the plant in Rodange. Media related to Schifflange at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages; the status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.
The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Additionally, in the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects.
Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.
The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Conseil permanent de la langue luxembourgeoise and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".
In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as among many native German-speakers, it tends to be simplified to word-initia
Chauffailles is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France. Chauffailles was the base of the Congrégation des Soeurs de l'Enfant-Jésus de Chauffailles, an order of teaching nuns founded by Reine Antier. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE
Dudelange is a commune with town status in southern Luxembourg. It is the fourth-most populous commune, with 19,734 inhabitants. Dudelange is situated close to the border with France; as of 2015, the town of Dudelange, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 19,734, making it Luxembourg's third-most populous town. The commune includes the smaller town of Budersberg, to the north-west; the Mont Saint-Jean, close to Budersberg, hosts the ruins of a medieval castle. Dudelange is an important industrial town that grew out of the three villages and a steel mill in 1900; the D in the name of the ARBED steel company merged into ArcelorMittal, stood for Dudelange. As well as the Dudelange Radio Tower, an FM radio and television transmitter, it is the site of the Centre national de l’audiovisuel, a cultural institute founded in 1989 under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture in order to preserve and exhibit Luxembourg's audiovisual and photographic heritage; the centre hosts a restaurant and a library focused on the visual arts.
Dudelange is home to the Luxembourg's most successful football club in recent times. F91 Dudelange won nine national titles between 2000 and 2011. Dominique Lang, Impressionist painter Jean Hengen was a Luxembourgian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church, Bishop of Luxembourg 1971-1990 Pierre Cao a Luxembourgian composer and conductor Germaine Goetzinger a Luxembourg writer, historian and feminist Jean Back a Luxembourg writer and civil servant Roland Bombardella a Luxembourgian soldier and retired sprinter, competed in the 1976 Summer Olympics Andy Bausch studied painting and photography, interested in rock musicSportErnest Mengel a Luxembourgian footballer, competed at the 1936 Summer Olympics Jos Romersa a Luxembourgian gymnast who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics Camille Libar a football player and manager from Luxembourg Nicolas Pauly a Luxembourgian footballer, competed at the 1948 Summer Olympics Raymond Wagner a Luxembourgian footballer, competed at the 1948 Summer Olympics Bernard Michaux a Luxembourgian footballer, competed in the 1948 Summer Olympics Victor Feller a Luxembourgian footballer, competed at the 1948 Summer Olympics Bruno Mattiussi a Luxembourgian boxer, competed at light middleweight at the 1952 Summer Olympics Fred Stürmer a Luxembourgian boxer, competed in the middleweight at the 1952 Summer Olympics Jean Schmit a Luxembourgian cyclist, competed in the individual and team road race events at the 1952 Summer Olympics Jean Aniset a Luxembourgian long-distance runner, competed in the marathon at the 1964 Summer Olympics Robert Schiel a Luxembourgian fencer, competed at the 1960, 1972 and 1976 Summer Olympics Roger Gilson a Luxembourgian cyclist, competed in the individual road race at the 1968 Summer Olympics René Peters a Luxembourgish football player, former captain of the national team Kari Peters a Luxembourger cross-country skier, competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics Ben Gastauer, professional cyclist Fleur Maxwell a Luxembourgian figure skater, competed in the 2006 Winter OlympicsPoliticsNicolas Biever a Luxembourgian politician Nicolas Estgen a retired Luxembourgish politician Bernard Berg a Luxembourgish politician and trade unionist Colette Flesch a Luxembourgish politician and former fencer, competed at the 1960, 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics Erna Hennicot-Schoepges a Luxembourgish politician Mars Di Bartolomeo a Luxembourgish politician Alex Bodry a politician from Luxembourg.
Lydia Mutsch a Luxembourgish politician Etienne Schneider a Luxembourg politician and economist, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Economy. Dudelange is twinned with: List of mayors of Dudelange Media related to Dudelange at Wikimedia Commons Commune of Dudelange official website Miscellaneous links
Bettembourg is a commune and town in southern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette, part of the district of Luxembourg; as of 2005, the town of Bettembourg, which lies in the east of the commune, has a population of 7,157. Other towns within the commune include Abweiler, Fennange and Noertzange; the Parc Merveilleux children's amusement park is located just outside Bettembourg. Bettembourg Castle, located in the centre of the town, has a history starting in 1733 when it was built as the residence of a farming family. Today it houses the offices and services of the local commune and acts as the town hall of Bettembourg. Media related to Bettembourg at Wikimedia Commons Official website