War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
Yellow Jackets (Indiana)
The Yellow Jackets were a mounted militia company from Harrison County in the Indiana Territory. The company numbered sixty men and officers and saw action as part of the expeditionary force dispatched to put down the American Indian uprising during Tecumseh's War; the company saw additional service as part of a larger militia force that operated during the War of 1812. In September 1811 John Gibson, secretary of the Indiana Territory, called out the militia in response to rising tensions with Native American tribes in the region; the Yellow Jackets were one such company. The company gained its name from the uniforms provided by the county for the men; the cuffs and fringes of their buckskins and wool coats were dyed a bright yellow. The militia of Harrison County was organized into a company of sixty men commanded by Captain Spier Spencer, the county sheriff. Spencer was a veteran of at least forty prior engagements with Native Americans; the second in command was a new settler living near Corydon.
The company had one of each from each township in the county. Among them was Pearse Chamberlain, Henry Batman, William Pennington, the younger brother of Dennis Pennington the speaker of the territorial legislature. Dennis Pennington was a member of the company, but was unable to join the expedition because he was overseeing the construction of the new county courthouse and had to attend a meeting of the legislature who were called into an emergency session; the company had eight ensigns including future U. S. Senator John Tipton. Tipton kept a detailed journal of the company's activities and it is from that source that most knowledge of the company is known; the company contained Daniel Cline serving as a drummer and Isham Stroud as a fifer. Both boys were fifteen years old, the youngest men in the company. There were forty-three privates, including many of the prominent men in the county; the privates were paid between $8 and $6.66 for the duration of their four-month enlistment. The officers were paid between $50 and $26.
All the men were required to supply their own horses and were paid forty cents a day for their horses' fodder. The company first met at Harrison Mill on the western edge of the county. After camping there a night waiting for the entire force to come together the company set out to join the primary camp of the territorial militia. On September 8 the company set out down the Buffalo Trace towards the capital in Vincennes. Traveling along the road they met up with other companies of infantry militia traveling by wagon who they accompanied the remainder of the journey. By the 16th they crossed the White River and met up with the main army commanded by Governor William Henry Harrison on the 18th. For the next twelve days the company remained in camp just north of Vincennes. On September 30 they received orders to march to Maria Creek with the rest of militia gathered in the camp to meet the army regulars stationed near Maria Creek. Upon reaching their destination the Yellow Jackets were removed from the normal chain of command and moved to only answer to Harrison.
Harrison intended to use the company as foragers. He put them in a wide formation around the main body of the army where they kept watch for enemies and gathered wild game to bring back to the main army; the company was successful and was able to find beehives and bring back ten gallons of honey. On October 3 the army reached the site of modern Terre Haute, a strategic location on the Wabash River; the company continued to scout the countryside and forage while the rest of the army constructed Fort Harrison. A small detachment of mounted men under the command of Lieutenant Thomas Berry was added the Yellow Jackets. On October 10 a small group of Indians ambushed sentries at the fort; the Yellow Jackets drew up around the fort preparing to drive off an attack, but it never materialized. On October 22 the company held elections for additional officers, Tipton was promoted to Lieutenant; the army soon resumed its advance, by the end of the month they had arrived in modern Vermillion County. On November 2 Harrison ordered the entire army to parade.
The entire force did so, except the Yellow Jackets. Harrison threatened to demote all of their officers, but never carried through on the threat for fear they would desert. On November 3 the army moved out again and the Yellow Jackets along with the dragoons were put out in a skirmishing formation in front of the army to clear any possible enemies. By November 6, they reached the village of the center of the native resistance; that night the army camped on a hill near the edge of the settlement. The army was camped in a battle formation and the Yellow Jackets were placed on the far right flank. Early on the morning of November 7, the Indians in Prophetstown launched a preemptive strike on the army; the attack took the army by surprise and the brunt of the attack came down on the right flank. Captain Spencer was among the first to be killed. Governor Harrison recorded his death in a dispatch to Washington. Of Spencer he said, "... Spencer was wounded in the head, he exhorted his men to fight valiantly.
He fell. Lieutenants McMahan and Berry were soon wounded and killed; as the Yellow Jackets were overwhelmed a reserve company of regulars came to reinforce their line and turned the tide. The battle lasted three hours; the Yellow Jackets suffered the highest casualties of the army, over 30%. Eleven were
Orange County, Virginia
Orange County is a county located in the Central Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,481, its county seat is Orange. Orange County is home to Montpelier, the 2,700-acre estate of James Madison, the 4th President of the United States and oft-hailed "Father of the Constitution." The county celebrated its 275th anniversary in 2009. The area was inhabited for thousands of years by various cultures of indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, the Ontponea, a sub-group of the Siouan-speaking Manahoac tribe, lived in this Piedmont area; the first European settlement in what was to become Orange County was Germanna, formed when Governor Alexander Spotswood settled 12 immigrant families from Westphalia, Germany there in 1714. Orange County, as a legal entity, was created in August 1734 when the Virginia House of Burgesses adopted "An Act for Dividing Spotsylvania County." Unlike other counties whose boundaries had ended at the Blue Ridge Mountains, Orange was bounded on the west "by the utmost limits of Virginia" which, at that time, stretched to the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.
The colony of Virginia claimed the land, but little of it had yet been occupied by any English. For this reason, some contend that Orange County was at one time the largest county that existed; this situation lasted only four years. The expansiveness of the county boundaries was to encourage settlement further westward as well as to contend against the French claim to the Ohio Valley region. No battles of the American Revolution were fought in Orange County. However, two companies of 50 men each were recruited from Orange county to the Culpeper Minutemen. One was led by Col. Lawrence Taliaferro. In December 1775, this company fought in the Battle of Great Bridge Orange County's Committee of Safety was active in providing money, horses, guns and other supplies to Continental forces. Orange County prospered with the development of several railroad routes through Orange and Gordonsville in the 1840s and 1850s, they succeeded the plank road between Fredericksburg and Orange, which connected with two important roads: the Richmond Road between the state capital and the Shenandoah Valley and a stage coach route to Charlottesville and points south.
The Orange and Alexandria Railroad and Virginia Central Railroad helped foster a diversified agricultural economy in Orange County, bringing produce and timber to markets in Richmond, Washington D. C. and Norfolk as well as more industrial products. The final adjustment of the county's boundaries occurred in 1838, when Greene County was created from the western portion of Orange; the Town of Orange was established in 1834 and had served as the county seat for nearly a century. During the Civil War, the towns of Orange and Gordonsville continued as important railroad hubs and hospital centers for the Confederacy. Confederate military companies recruited from the county included three companies of the 13th Virginia Infantry, the Gordonsville Grays, two artillery companies, one cavalry company, many soldiers in the 7th Virginia Infantry, Wise Artillery, 6th Virginia Cavalry. General Robert E. Lee rode through the county and wintered the Army of Northern Virginia in Orange County during 1863-64, the Rapidan River becoming a defensive line.
Cavalry raids against the railroad supply lines occurred, including several at Rapidan on the border with Culpeper County. Troops crossed the Rapidan River at Germanna Ford near Locust Grove. After Fredericksburg fell to Union forces, Mosby's Rangers were formed and conducted some operations in Orange County; the 1863 Battle of Mine Run and the 1864 Battle of the Wilderness both occurred in eastern Orange County, as Union troops drove toward the Confederacy's capitol. The latter became a significant turning point in the war. Following Virginia's readmission to the Union in 1870, the railroads were rebuilt; the county was divided into Barbour, Madison and Gordon townships, named after important prewar citizens. The agricultural economy resumed despite the loss of slave labor, with more livestock and dairy farming both because such required less physical labor and because the railroads could deliver those agricultural products to larger markets quickly and cheaply. Virginia Governor James L. Kemper moved from Madison County to near Orange.
Agriculture and manufacturing continued to expand into the twentieth century, with a peak of 1279 farms and 20 manufacturing companies located within the county as of 1929. A manufacturing survey taken during the Great Depression noted that Orange County's economy remained healthy due to its accessibility; the county's population fluctuated following the Civil War up through the 1930s. From that point forward, the population continued to grow representing an 300% increase through the 2010 Census. In 1991, the Virginia Landmarks Register designated 31,200 acres in the county's western portion as the Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District; the largest such district in the Commonwealth includes James Madison's Montpelier, James Barbour's Thomas Jefferson-designed Barboursville mansion, several plantations, portions of the Mon
The Indiana Territory was created by a congressional act that President John Adams signed into law on May 7, 1800, to form an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1800, to December 11, 1816, when the remaining southern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Indiana. The territory contained 259,824 square miles of land, but its size was decreased when it was subdivided to create the Michigan Territory and the Illinois Territory; the Indiana Territory was the first new territory created from lands of the Northwest Territory, organized under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. William Henry Harrison, the territory's first governor, oversaw treaty negotiations with the native inhabitants that ceded tribal lands to the U. S. government, opening large parts of the territory to further settlement. In 1809 the U. S. Congress established a bicameral legislative body for the territory that included a popularly-elected House of Representatives and a Legislative Council.
In addition, the territorial government began planning for a basic transportation network and education system, but efforts to attain statehood for the territory were delayed due to war. At the outbreak of Tecumseh's War, when the territory was on the front line of battle, Harrison led a military force in the opening hostilities at the Battle of Tippecanoe and in the subsequent invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. After Harrison resigned as the territorial governor, Thomas Posey was appointed to the vacant governorship, but the opposition party, led by Congressman Jonathan Jennings, dominated territorial affairs in its final years and began pressing for statehood. In June 1816 a constitutional convention was held at Corydon, where a state constitution was adopted on June 29, 1816. General elections were held in August to fill offices for the new state government, the new officeholders were sworn into office in November, the territory was dissolved. On December 11, 1816, President James Madison signed the congressional act that formally admitted Indiana to the Union as the nineteenth state.
When the Indiana Territory was formed in 1800 its original boundaries included the western portion the Northwest Territory. This encompassed an area northwest of a line beginning at the Ohio River, on the bank opposite to the mouth of the Kentucky River, extending northeast to Fort Recovery, in present-day western Ohio, north to the border between the United States and Canada along a line 84 degrees 45 minnutes West longitude; the territory included most of the present-day state of Indiana, all of present-day states of Illinois and Wisconsin, fragments of present-day Minnesota that were east of the Mississippi River, nearly all of the Upper Peninsula the western half of the Lower Peninsula of present-day Michigan, a narrow strip of land in present-day Ohio, northwest of Fort Recovery. This latter parcel became part of Ohio when it attained statehood in 1803; the Indiana Territory's southeast boundary was shifted in 1803, when Ohio became a state, to the mouth of the Great Miami River from its former location opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River.
In addition, the eastern part of present-day Michigan was added to the Indiana Territory. The territory's geographical area was further reduced in 1805 with the creation of the Michigan Territory to the north, in 1809, when the Illinois Territory was established to the west; the Indiana Territory's government passed through a non-representative phase from 1800 to 1804. Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance, during the non-representative phase of territorial government the U. S. Congress, after 1789, the president with congressional approval, appointed a governor and three judges to govern each new territory. Local inhabitants did not elect these territorial officials. During the second, or semi-legislative phase of government, the territory's adult males who owned at least fifty acres of land elected representatives to the lower house of the territorial legislature. In addition, the Congress, the president with congressional approval, appointed five adult males who owned at least five hundred acres of land to the upper house of the territorial legislature from a list of ten candidates that the lower house submitted for consideration.
In the semi-legislative phase of government, the upper and lower houses could legislate for the territory, but the territorial governor retained absolute veto power. When the territory reached a population of 60,000 free inhabitants, it entered the final phase that included its successful petition to Congress for statehood. In 1803, when the Indiana Territory was formed from the remaining Northwest Territory after Ohio attained statehood, the requirement for proceeding to the second or semi-legislative phase of territorial government was modified. Instead of requiring the territory's population to reach 5,000 free adult males, the second phase could be initiated when the majority of territory's free landholders informed the territorial governor that they wanted to do so. In 1810 the requirement for voters to be landholders was replaced with a law granting voting rights to all free adult males who paid county or territorial taxes and had resided in the territory for at least a year; because of William Henry Harrison's leadership in securing passage of the Land Act of 1800 and his help in forming the Indiana Terri
Floyd County, Indiana
Floyd County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2012, the population was 75,283; the county seat is New Albany. Floyd County is the county with the second-smallest land area in the entire state, it was formed in the year 1819 from neighboring Clark, Harrison counties. Floyd County is part of KY -- IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Floyd County the Shawnee Indians hunting ground, was conquered for the United States by George Rogers Clark during the American Revolutionary War from the British, he was awarded large tracts of land in Indiana, including all of present-day Floyd County. Clark sold land to the settlers. In 1818, New Albany was a large enough to form a new county. New Albany leaders sent Nathaniel Scribner and John K. Graham to the capital at Corydon to petition the General Assembly. Legislation was passed on January 2, 1819 by the General Assembly, the county was established on February 1; the origin of the county's name is debated. According to the State Library, it was named for John Floyd, a leading Jefferson County, Kentucky pioneer and uncle of Davis Floyd.
John Floyd was killed in 1783 when his party was attacked by Indians in Kentucky. However, some maintain the county was named for Davis Floyd, convicted of aiding Aaron Burr in the treason of 1809. Davis Floyd had been a leading local political figure and was the county's first circuit court judge. In 1814, New Albany was platted and was established as the county seat on March 4, 1819. There was an attempt in 1823 to move the county seat. New Albany would be the largest city in the state for much of the early 19th century being overtaken by Indianapolis during the Civil War. Between 1800 and 1860, Floyd County experienced a huge boom in population. A survey in the 1850s found that over half of Indiana's population that made more than $100,000 per year lived in Floyd County, establishing it as having the richest population in the state; the Duncan Tunnel, the longest tunnel in Indiana, was built in Floyd County in 1881 between New Albany and Edwardsville. Because no route over the Floyds Knobs was suitable for a railroad line, civil engineers decided to tunnel through them.
The project was started by the Air Line but was completed by Southern Railway. It took five years to bore at a cost of $1 million; the Tunnel is 4,311 feet long. Floyd County, during the 19th century, attracted immigrants of Irish, German and African American origins; the French settlers located in Floyds Knobs, Indiana. The Irish began arriving in 1817 and settled in large numbers between 1830 and 1850. German immigrants settled in New Albany. By 1850, about one in six county residents had been born in other countries. Mount Saint Francis, a multi-purpose complex owned and administered by the Conventual Franciscan Friars of the Province of Our Lady of Consolation, is located in Floyds Knobs along Highway 150; the property includes 400 acres of woods and Mount Saint Francis Lake, both which are open to the public. Numerous hiking trails meander through the fields containing native prairie grasses. No hunting is allowed on the property. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 148.96 square miles, of which 147.94 square miles is land and 1.02 square miles is water.
It is the second smallest county in area, behind only Ohio County. New Albany Floyds Knobs Georgetown Greenville Galena Floyd County is divided into five townships: Franklin Georgetown Greenville Lafayette New Albany Floyds Knobs was named after the most prominent geographical feature of the county which are the knobs: many steep hills which dot the midsection of the county; the highest point is South Skyline Drive, at just over 1,000 ft. The Knobs Unit, which includes Floyd County, contains some of the hilliest country in Indiana; as a result, the area supports trees that prefer dry sites and ridgetops, as well as those that prefer wet sites, ravines, or “bottomland.” Tree types unique to the unit swamp tupelo. Part of the unit stands on sandstone bedrock; this difference accommodates their associated flowering plants and shrubs. Trees found in Floyd County include the Sycamore, Flowering Dogwood, Virginia Pine, Easter Redcedar, American Beech, Sugar Maple, American Elm and Chestnut Oak; the lowest point in the county is the shore of the Ohio River near New Albany at an elevation of 380 ft. Interstate 64 Interstate 265 U.
S. Route 150 Indiana State Road 11 Indiana State Road 62 Indiana State Road 64 Indiana State Road 111 Indiana State Road 335 Clark County Jefferson County, Kentucky Harrison County Washington County In recent years, average temperatures in New Albany have ranged from a low of 25 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July; the record low temperature was −22 °F, recorded in January, 1994, a record high was 107 °F, recorded in July, 1936. On July 4, 2012, the record for highest temperature in the county was broken. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.79 inches in October of last year to 4.88 inches in May of last year. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the cou
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison Sr. was a United States military officer and politician who served as the ninth president of the United States in 1841. He died of paratyphoid fever 31 days into his term, he became the first president to die in office. His death sparked a brief constitutional crisis regarding succession to the presidency, as the Constitution was unclear as to whether Vice President John Tyler should assume the office of President or execute the duties of the vacant office. Tyler claimed a constitutional mandate to carry out the full powers and duties of the presidency and took the presidential oath of office, setting an important precedent for an orderly transfer of presidential power when a president leaves office. Harrison was a son of Founding Father Benjamin Harrison V and the paternal grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd president, he was the last president born as a British subject in the Thirteen Colonies before the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775. During his early military career, he participated in the 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers, an American military victory that ended the Northwest Indian War.
He led a military force against Tecumseh's Confederacy at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, where he earned the nickname "Old Tippecanoe". He was promoted to major general in the Army in the War of 1812, in 1813 led American infantry and cavalry at the Battle of the Thames in Upper Canada. Harrison began his political career in 1798, when he was appointed Secretary of the Northwest Territory in 1798, in 1799 he was elected as the territory's delegate in the House of Representatives. Two years President John Adams named him governor of the newly established Indiana Territory, a post he held until 1812. After the War of 1812, he moved to Ohio where he was elected to represent the state's 1st district in the House in 1816. In 1824, the state legislature elected him to the United States Senate. Afterward, he returned to private life in Ohio until he was nominated as the Whig Party candidate for president in the 1836 election. Four years the party nominated him again with John Tyler as his running mate, the Whig campaign slogan was "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too".
They defeated Van Buren in the 1840 election. Harrison was 68 years, 23 days old at the time of his inauguration, the oldest person to have assumed office until Ronald Reagan in 1981 at 69 years, 349 days, Donald Trump in 2017 at 70 years, 220 days. Due to his brief tenure and historians forgo listing him in historical presidential rankings. However, historian William W. Freehling calls him "the most dominant figure in the evolution of the Northwest territories into the Upper Midwest today". Harrison was the seventh and youngest child of Benjamin Harrison V and Elizabeth Harrison, born on February 9, 1773 at Berkeley Plantation, the Harrison family home along the James River in Charles City County, Virginia, he was a member of a prominent political family of English descent whose ancestors had been in Virginia since the 1630s and the last American president born as a British subject. His father was a Virginia planter who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and who signed the Declaration of Independence.
His father served in the Virginia legislature and as the fifth governor of Virginia in the years during and after the American Revolutionary War. Harrison's older brother Carter Bassett Harrison represented Virginia in the House of Representatives. Harrison was tutored at home until age 14 when he entered Hampden–Sydney College, a Presbyterian college in Virginia, he studied there for three years, receiving a classical education which included Latin, French and debate. His Episcopalian father removed him from the college for religious reasons, he attended a boys' academy in Southampton County, Virginia before being transferred to Philadelphia in 1790, he boarded with Robert Morris and entered the University of Pennsylvania in April 1791, where he studied medicine under Doctor Benjamin Rush and William Shippen Sr. His father died in the spring of 1791, shortly, he was only 18 and Morris became his guardian. Governor Henry Lee III of Virginia was a friend of Harrison's father, persuaded Harrison to join the military.
He was commissioned as an ensign in the Army in the 1st Infantry Regiment within 24 hours of meeting Lee. He was assigned to Fort Washington, Cincinnati in the Northwest Territory where the army was engaged in the ongoing Northwest Indian War. Harrison was promoted to lieutenant after Major General "Mad Anthony" Wayne took command of the western army in 1792 following a disastrous defeat under Arthur St. Clair. In 1793, he learned how to command an army on the American frontier. Harrison was a signatory of the Treaty of Greenville as witness to Wayne, the principal negotiator for the U. S. Under the terms of the treaty, a coalition of Indians ceded a portion of their lands to the federal government, opening ⅔ of Ohio to settlement. Following his mother's death in 1793, Harrison inherited a portion of his family's Virginia estate
Vigo County, Indiana
Vigo County is a county located along the western border of the U. S. state of Indiana. According to the 2010 census, the population was 107,848; the county seat is Terre Haute. Vigo County is included in the Terre Haute, Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county contains four incorporated settlements with a total population of nearly 63,000, as well as several unincorporated communities. It is divided into twelve townships; the county is one of the best bellwether regions for voting in U. S. presidential elections. Only one county in the United States has voted for the winning candidate longer. Sullivan County was formed in 1817, the area that became Vigo County was part of it until 1818, when the county was created by an act of the Indiana General Assembly which took effect on February 1, its borders changed several times. The final change came in 1873; the county is named in honor of Colonel Francis Vigo, of Italian heritage but a citizen of Spain due to residence in St. Louis, he is credited with great assistance to George Rogers Clark both in financing Clark's exploration and American Revolutionary War efforts, in service as an agent obtaining military information for Clark against British campaigns on the frontier.
To the north of Vigo County, the Wabash River defines the boundary between Vermillion and Parke counties. Vigo County is thus the southernmost county in Indiana on the right bank of the Wabash. Clay County lies to the east. Across the state line are Edgar County to the northwest and Clark County to the southwest. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 410.45 square miles, of which 403.31 square miles is land and 7.14 square miles is water. In 1819, the year after the county was formed, it was divided into four townships: Honey Creek, Wabash and Independence. Prairie Creek Township was formed that year. In the following years more townships were formed and township borders were altered several times. Otter Creek and Sugar Creek townships were created in 1820, Independence Township became known as Paris Township. Raccoon and Wabash townships became part of Parke County when it was split from Vigo County in 1821. Nevins and Riley were formed in 1822. In 1824, Paris Township was renamed again to Fayette Township.
Pierson Township was created in 1829 Lost Creek in 1831 Linton in 1841 and Prairieton in 1857, for a total of twelve townships. There are four incorporated settlements within Vigo County; the largest, Terre Haute, has a population of 60,000 and covers all of Harrison Township and extends into several surrounding townships. West Terre Haute, as its name indicates, lies to the west, along U. S. Route 40; the town of Seelyville lies to the east of Terre Haute along U. S. Route 40, with a population of about 1,200; the smallest town, Riley, is southeast of Terre Haute and has a population of only 160. Interstate 70 passes through the southern part of Terre Haute from east to west on its way from Indianapolis to Saint Louis, Missouri. S. Route 40 parallels Interstate 70 and passes through the middle of the city. Both highways intersect U. S. Route 41. S. Route 150 enters from Paris, Illinois to the northwest and joins U. S Route 41 in downtown Terre Haute, both continue south toward Vincennes. State Road 42 State Road 46 State Road 63 State Road 159 State Road 246 State Road 340 State Road 641* Several CSX Transportation railroad lines meet in Terre Haute.
There is an Indiana Rail Road line which runs southeast from Terre Haute toward Bedford. The following public-use airports are located in the county: Terre Haute International Airport in Terre Haute Sky King Airport in North Terre Haute The public schools in the county are part of the Vigo County School Corporation. During the 2009–10 school year, the schools served a total of 16,014 students. Vigo County is served by the Vigo County Public Library. Colleges in Vigo County include Indiana State Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. For a fuller list, see the List of schools in metropolitan Terre Haute. In recent years, average temperatures in Terre Haute have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −24 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in September 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.13 inches in January to 4.46 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code.
The county council is the fiscal body of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the coun