The Pottawatomi spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi, are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak a member of the Algonquian family; the Potawatomi called. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa. In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples. In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century and removed from their lands in the Great Lakes region to reservations in Oklahoma. Under Indian Removal, they ceded many of their lands, most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma; some bands today are federally recognized as tribes. In Canada, there are over 20 First Nation bands.
The English "Potawatomi" is derived from the Ojibwe Boodewaadamii. The Potawatomi name for themselves is a cognate of the Ojibwe form, their name means "those who tend the hearth-fire," which refers to the hearth of the Council of Three Fires. The word comes from "to tend the hearth-fire,", bodewadm in the Potawatomi language. Alternatively, the Potawatomi call themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of Ojibwe Anishinaabe, meaning "original people"; the Potawatomi teach their children about the "Seven Grandfather Teachings" of wisdom, love, humility and truth toward each other and all creation. Each one of which teachings them the equality and importance of their fellow tribesman and respect for all of natures creations; the story itself teaches the importance of patience and listening as it follows the Water Spider's journey to retrieve fire for the other animals to survive the cold. As the other animals step forth one after another to proclaim that they shall be the one's to retrieve the fire, the Water spider sits and waits while listening to her fellow animals.
As they finish and wrestle with their fears, she steps forward and announces that she will be the one to bring it back. As they laugh and doubt her she weaves a bowl out of her own web that sails her across the water to retrieves the fire, she brings back a hot coal that they make fire out of and they celebrate her honor and bravery. The Potawatomi are first mentioned in French records, which suggest that in the early 17th century, they lived in what is now southwestern Michigan. During the Beaver Wars they fled to the area around Green Bay to escape attacks by both the Iroquois and the Neutral Nation, who were seeking expanded hunting grounds; as an important part of Tecumseh's Confederacy, Potawatomi warriors took part in Tecumseh's War, the War of 1812 and the Peoria War. Their alliances switched between Great Britain and the United States as power relations shifted between the nations, they calculated effects on their trade and land interests. At the time of the War of 1812, a band of Potawatomi inhabited the area near Fort Dearborn, where Chicago developed.
Led by the chiefs Blackbird and Nuscotomeg, a force of about 500 warriors attacked the United States evacuation column leaving Fort Dearborn. George Ronan, the first graduate of West Point to be killed in combat, died in this ambush; the incident is referred to as the "Fort Dearborn Massacre". A Potawatomi chief named Mucktypoke, counseled his fellow warriors against the attack, he saved some of the civilian captives who were being ransomed by the Potawatomi. The French period of contact began with early explorers who reached the Potawatomi in western Michigan, they found the tribe located along the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin. By the end of the French period, the Potawatomi had begun a move to the Detroit area, leaving the large communities in Wisconsin. Madouche during the Fox Wars Millouisillyny Onanghisse at Green Bay Otchik at Detroit The British period of contact began when France ceded its lands after the defeat in the French and Indian War. Pontiac's Rebellion was an attempt by Native Americans to push the British and other European settlers out of their territory.
The Potawatomi captured every British Frontier Garrison but the one at Detroit. The Potawatomi nation continued to grow and expanded westward from Detroit, most notably in the development of the St. Joseph villages adjacent to the Miami in southwestern Michigan; the Wisconsin communities moved south along the Lake Michigan shoreline. Nanaquiba at Detroit Ninivois at Detroit Peshibon at St. Joseph Washee at St. Joseph during Pontiac's Rebellion The United States Treaty period of Potawatomi history began with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War and established the United States' interest in the lower Great Lakes, it lasted. The US recognized the Potawatomi as a single tribe, they had a few tribal leaders whom all villages accepted. The Potawatomi had a decentralized society, with several main divisions based on geographic locations: Milwaukee or Wisconsin area, D
Sangamon County Courthouse
The Sangamon County Courts Complex, located at 200 S. 9th Street in Springfield, is the county courthouse serving Sangamon County, Illinois. The Complex is made up of two adjacent buildings, one used for county offices and courtroom operations and the other one housing the sheriff's office and county jail. Both buildings have secured entrances/exits, as well as internal security separating the two buildings; the 340,000 ft2 Courts Complex contains offices and support spaces designed to house the operations of 27 separate departments and offices of Sangamon County government. The Complex houses the meeting room of the Sangamon County Board, the county legislative body; the Courts Complex centers on the work of local justice and the judiciary, the complex contains court rooms, court support spaces, the sheriff's office and the county jail. The Sangamon County jail has 314 beds for persons awaiting trail or sentenced to short terms of imprisonment for misdemeanors; the complex was designed by FWAI Architects Inc.
The architectural style is functionalist, with exterior postmodern detailing on the west entrance facade
Illinois's 18th congressional district
The 18th Congressional District of Illinois covers central and western Illinois, including all of Jacksonville and Quincy and parts of Bloomington and Springfield. Republican Aaron Schock had represented the district since January 2009, but resigned March 31, 2015. Special elections were called to select Schock's replacement, with a primary on July 7 and the main election on September 10, 2015. Republican State Senator Darin LaHood, son of former Rep. Ray LaHood, won the special election and reelection in 2016 and 2018. Abraham Lincoln served much of the area, it contains most of the territory, represented by future United States Senate Minority Leader Everett Dirksen and longtime House Minority Leader Bob Michel. From 1949 to 2015, the district was represented by someone who either attended or graduated from Bradley University; the district covers parts of McLean, Sangamon and Tazewell counties, all of Adams, Cass, Logan, Mason, McDonough, Morgan, Schuyler and Woodford counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census.
All or parts of Bloomington, Jacksonville, Macomb, Normal, Peoria and Springfield are included. The representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. * Write-in and minor candidate notes: In 1994, write-ins received 955 votes. In 1998, write-ins received 2 votes. In 2008, Green Party candidate Sheldon Schafer received 9,857 votes. In 2010, Schafer received 11,256 votes. Ray LaHood decided not to seek re-election in 2008 and was chosen by Barack Obama to serve as U. S. Secretary of Transportation. Illinois State Representative Aaron Schock of Peoria won the seat for the Republicans in the November 4, 2008 election, his main opponent was Democrat Colleen Callahan, of a radio and television broadcaster. Green Party candidate and educator Sheldon Schafer, of Peoria, was in a distant third place on the ballot; as of January 2017, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 18th congressional district are alive.
Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2006 election from The Washington Post 18th District census profile, 2006 18th District Fact Sheet from the United States Census Bureau "U. S. Census Bureau - 18th District map". Campaign contributions from OpenSecrets.org
Illinois General Assembly
The Illinois General Assembly is the bicameral legislature of the U. S. comprises the Illinois House of Representatives and the Illinois Senate. The General Assembly was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the State Senate has 59 members while the House has 118 members, all elected from single-member districts. A Senate district is formed by combining two adjacent House districts; the current General Assembly is Illinois's 100th. The General Assembly meets in the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois, its session laws are adopted by majority vote in both houses, upon gaining the assent of the Governor of Illinois. They are published in the official Laws of Illinois; the Illinois General Assembly was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818. The state did not have organized political parties, but the Democratic and Whig parties began to form in the 1830s. Future U. S. President Abraham Lincoln campaigned as a member of the Whig Party to serve in the General Assembly in 1834.
He served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives, supporting expanded suffrage and economic development. The Illinois Republican Party was organized at a conference held in Major's Hall in Bloomington, Illinois on May 29, 1856, its founding members came from the former Whig Party in Illinois after its members joined with several powerful local political factions including, the Independent Democrat movement of Chicago that helped elect James Hutchinson Woodworth as mayor in 1848. During the election of 1860 in which Lincoln was elected president, Illinois elected a Republican governor and legislature, but the trials of war helped return the state legislature to the Democrats in 1861; the Democratic-led legislature investigated the state's war expenditures and the treatment of Illinois troops, but with little political gain. They worked to frame a new state constitution that gave the southern portion of the state increased representation and included provisions to discourage banking and the circulation of paper currency.
Voters rejected each of the constitution's provisions, except the bans on black settlement and office holding. The Democratic Party came to represent skepticism in the war effort, until Illinois' Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas changed his stance and pledged his full support to Lincoln; the Democratic Party swept the 1862 election. They passed resolutions denouncing the federal government's conduct of the war and urging an immediate armistice and peace convention in the Illinois House of Representatives, leading the Republican governor to suspend the legislature for the first time in the state's history. In 1864, Republicans swept the state legislature and at the time of Lincoln's assassination, Illinois stood as a solidly Republican state. In 1922, Lottie Holman O'Neill was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives, becoming the first woman to serve in the Illinois General Assembly. From 1870 to 1980, the state was divided into 59 legislative districts, each of which elected one senator and three representatives.
The representatives were elected by cumulative voting, in which a voter had three votes that could be distributed to either one, two, or three candidates. This system was abolished with the Cutback Amendment in 1980. Since the House has been elected from 118 single-member districts formed by dividing the 59 Senate districts in half; each senator is "associated" with two representatives. Barack Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, he served in the Senate until 2004. In 2002, a Democrat won a gubernatorial election for the first time since 1972. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to a two-year term without term limits. Members of the Illinois Senate serve one two-year term each decade; this ensures that Senate elections reflect changes made when the General Assembly is redistricted following each United States Census. To prevent complete turnovers in membership, not all Senators are elected simultaneously; the term cycles for the Senate are staggered, with the placement of the two-year term varying from one district to another.
Each district's terms are defined as 2-4-4, 4-2-4, or 4-4-2. Like House members, Senators are elected without term limits; the officers of the General Assembly are elected at the beginning of each number year. Representatives of the House elect from its membership a Speaker and Speaker pro tempore, drawn from the majority party in the chamber; the Illinois Secretary of State convenes and supervises the opening House session and leadership vote. State senators elect from the chamber a President of the Senate and under the supervision of the governor. Since the adoption of the current Illinois Constitution in 1970, the Lieutenant Governor of Illinois does not serve in any legislative capacity as Senate President, has had its office's powers transferred to other capacities; the Illinois Auditor General is a legislative officer appointed by the General Assembly that reviews all state spending for legality. The General Assembly's first official working day is the second Monday of January each year, with the Secretary of State convening the House, the governor convening the Senate.
In order to serve as a member in either chamber of the General Assembly, a person must be a U. S. citizen, at least 21 years of age, for the two years preceding his election or appointment a resident of the district which they represent. In the general election following a redistricting, a candidate for any chamber of the General Assembly may be elected from any district which contains a part of the district in which he or she resided at the time of the redistrictin
Springfield is the capital of the U. S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County. The city's population of 116,250 as of the 2010 U. S. Census makes it the state's sixth most populous city, it is the largest city in central Illinois. As of 2013, the city's population was estimated to have increased to 117,006, with just over 211,700 residents living in the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Sangamon County and the adjacent Menard County. Present-day Springfield was settled by European Americans in the late 1810s, around the time Illinois became a state; the most famous historic resident was Abraham Lincoln, who lived in Springfield from 1837 until 1861, when he went to the White House as President. Major tourist attractions include multiple sites connected with Lincoln including his presidential library and museum, his home, his tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery; the capital is centrally located within the state. The city lies in a plain near the Sangamon River. Lake Springfield, a large artificial lake owned by the City Water, Light & Power company, supplies the city with recreation and drinking water.
Weather is typical for middle latitude locations, with hot summers and cold winters. Spring and summer weather is like that of most midwestern cities. Tornadoes hit the Springfield area in 1957 and 2006; the city governs the Capital Township. The government of the state of Illinois is based in Springfield. State government entities include the Illinois General Assembly, the Illinois Supreme Court and the Office of the Governor of Illinois. There are three private high schools in Springfield. Public schools in Springfield are operated by District No. 186. Springfield's economy is dominated by government jobs, plus the related lobbyists and firms that deal with the state and county governments and justice system, health care and medicine. Springfield was named "Calhoun", after Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina; the land that Springfield now occupies was settled first by trappers and fur traders who came to the Sangamon River in 1818. The first cabin was built by John Kelly, it was located at what is now the northwest corner of Jefferson Street.
In 1821, Calhoun was designated as the county seat of Sangamon County due to fertile soil and trading opportunities. Settlers from Kentucky and North Carolina came to the developing city. By 1832, Senator Calhoun had fallen out of the favor with the public and the town renamed itself as Springfield after Springfield, Massachusetts. At that time, the New England city was known for industrial innovation, concentrated prosperity, the Springfield Armory. Kaskaskia was the first capital of the Illinois Territory from its organization in 1809, continuing through statehood in 1818, through the first year as a state in 1819. Vandalia was the second state capital of Illinois from 1819 to 1839. Springfield became the third and current capital of Illinois in 1839; the designation was due to the efforts of Abraham Lincoln and his associates. The Potawatomi Trail of Death passed through here in 1838, as the Native Americans were forced west to Indian Territory by the government's Indian Removal policy. Lincoln arrived in the Springfield area when he was a young man in 1831, though he did not live in the city until 1837.
He spent the ensuing six years in New Salem, where he began his legal studies, joined the state militia and was elected to the Illinois General Assembly. In 1837 Lincoln spent the next 24 years as a lawyer and politician. Lincoln delivered his Lyceum address in Springfield, his farewell speech when he left for Washington is a classic in American oratory. Winkle examines the historiography concerning the development of the Second Party System and applies these ideas to the study of Springfield, a strong Whig enclave in a Democratic region, he chiefly studied poll books for presidential years. The rise of the Whig Party took place in 1836 in opposition to the presidential candidacy of Martin Van Buren and was consolidated in 1840. Springfield Whigs tend to validate several expectations of party characteristics as they were native-born, either in New England or Kentucky, professional or agricultural in occupation, devoted to partisan organization. Abraham Lincoln's career reflects the Whigs' political rise, but by the 1840s, Springfield began to be dominated by Democratic politicians.
Waves of new European immigrants changed the city's demographics and became aligned with the Democrats. By the 1860 presidential election, Lincoln was able to win his home city. Winkle examines the impact of migration on political participation in Springfield during the 1850s. Widespread migration in the 19th-century United States produced frequent population turnover within Midwestern communities, which influenced patterns of voter turnout and office-holding. Examination of the manuscript census, poll books, office-holding records reveals the effects of migration on the behavior and voting patterns of 8,000 participants in 10 elections in Springfield. Most voters were short-term residents who participated in only one or two elections during the 1850s. Fewer than 1% of all voters participated in all 10 elections. Instead of producing political instability, rapid turnover enhanced the influence of the more stable residents. Migration was selective by age, occupation and birthplace. Longer-term or persistent voters, as he terms them, tended to be wealthier, more skilled, more native-born, more stable than non-persisters.
Officeholders were particularly
Illinois's 13th congressional district
The 13th congressional district of Illinois is represented by Republican Rodney L. Davis; the congressional district covers parts of Bond, Madison, McLean and Sangamon counties, all of Christian, Calhoun, De Witt, Jersey, Macoupin and Piatt counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Bloomington, Decatur, Godfrey and Urbana are included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. The Republican and Democratic primaries took place on March 18, 2014. In the Republican primary, incumbent Rodney L. Davis defeated fellow Republicans Erika Harold and Michael Firsching. In the Democratic primary, Ann Callis defeated David Green. Bill Byrnes had withdrawn from the Democratic primary. Josh Dill ran in the district as an Independent. In the 2004 U. S. General Election, this district voted for George W. Bush with 55% to 45% for John Kerry. However, in 2008, the district voted for Barack Obama.
As of May 2015, three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 13th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Phil Crane on November 8, 2014. The most serving representative to die was John N. Erlenborn on October 30, 2005. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present U. S. Census Bureau – 13th District Fact Sheet Ann Callis 2014 Democratic candidate – Campaign Site David Green 2014 Democratic candidate – Campaign Site Rodney Davis Incumbent Republican – Campaign Site "United States House of Representatives elections in Illinois, 2014". Ballotpedia
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c