China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Pengjiang is a district of Jiangmen, Guangdong province, China
Jiangmen romanized in Cantonese as Kongmoon, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province in southern China. Its 3 urban districts are now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation and the entire prefecture had a population of about 4.45 million in 2010. Jiangmen is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese name 江門 or 江门, based on its pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect, its former Wade-Giles spelling was Chiang-men. The Postal Map spelling "Kongmoon" was based upon the same name's Cantonese pronunciation Gong¹-mun⁴. Other forms of the name include Kong Moon and Kiangmoon. Jiangmen is known as Pengjiang, its rural hinterland is known to the Chinese diaspora as the "Four Counties", although the addition of Heshan to Jiangmen has prompted the remaining locals to begin calling it the "Five Counties" instead. Jiangmen was a community under the administration of nearby Xinhui County. Jiangmen, was forced to open to western trade in 1902. A legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with western-style buildings.
The city has an ongoing renewal project, restoring many of these buildings. Jiangmen was proclaimed a city in 1951 and became the prefectural seat for the Sze Yup region including Taishan, Xinhui, Enping. In 2011, the city banned pet dogs in public after rabies killed 42 people over the preceding 3 years; the city reserved a 13-acre site to allow rural Chinese to adopt the 30,000 dogs, but public outcry led to a softer implementation where violators would be told to leave rather than have the dog confiscated. The city is located on the lower reaches of the Xijiang or West River, in the west of the Pearl River Delta in the middle of southern Guangdong Province, it faces the South China Sea in the south and is 100 kilometres away from Guangzhou and Zhuhai by highway. Jiangmen city has an area of 9,260 square kilometres, about one quarter the size of the Pearl River Delta; the climate is subtropical with monsoonal influences. The annual average temperature is 22.36 °C. Jiangmen was selected by the Chinese state as a pilot city for a nationwide information programme.
It was chosen by the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council as a trial city for the Regional Integration for Sustainable Economics project. According to the "Report on Investment Environment in China 2003" by the World Bank, Jiangmen ranked the fourth after Shanghai and Dalian of 23 cities under evaluation in China. Among various indicators, Jiangmen excelled in infrastructure, labour redundancy, proportion of joint ventures in all firms, informal payments to government, taxation and the investment rate; the economic development strategies within Jiangmen focus on the three urban districts, the south and north lines. It is planned to develop four main economic areas: the central urban district of the city, the Yinzhou Lake economic area, two economic areas along the various transport axes. Similar to other cities in the western Pearl River Delta, the manufacturing sector plays a significant role in Jiangmen's economy; the chief industries include manufacturing of motorcycles, household appliances, paper, food processing, synthetic fibers and garments, as well as textiles and stainless steel products.
Some worldwide brand names have factories in Jiangmen such as Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings, ABB Group and Lee Kum Kee foods. The city was the proposed site of a $6.5 billion, 40 billion renminbi, uranium processing plant which would have supplied about half of the enriched uranium needed by China's nuclear power plants. Announcement of the plant in July 2013 was met by public protests; the proposal was withdrawn out of "respect for public opinion" shortly thereafter. Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province; the local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries to include petrochemical and machinery plants, as well as an ocean-based economy. Jiangmen is the homeland of 3.68 million overseas Chinese, who live in 107 countries and regions throughout the world. Strong oversea connections are found in the villages. A significant amount of historical heritage survives from the period of mass emigration prior to World War II.
The most significant are the fortified multi-story towers found in Kaiping. These are known as "Gold Mountain Towers" or diaolou. A number of natural hotspring resorts has been developed by using its wealthy natural heated ground water resources such as Gudou Hotspring Resort. Guifeng Mountain, a mountain visited by many tourists, is the peak of Jiangmen with an elevation of 545 meters above sea level; the local government's economic development strategies emphasize the development of tourism and protection of the environment. Wuyi University is the main university in Jiangmen; the only international school in Jiangmen is Boren Sino-Canadian School, while bilingual schools include WuYi Country Garden Bilingual School and China-Hong Kong English School. Jiangmen Polytechnic College, located at Chaolian Island, enrolls about 13,000 students in various technical and humanities programs. Jiangmen No. 1 Middle School is claimed to be the top middle school in the district. It used to be one of the best middle schools in Guangdong Province in the 1990s.
However, the quality of its education has been dropping in recent years and within the district of Jiangmen, its status is being challenged by schools such as Xinhui No. 1 Middle School in Xinhui, Kaiqiao Middle School in Kiaping and Heshan No.1 Middle School in Heshan
Chikan is a town in Kaiping, Guangdong Province, China. It is designated as a National Historic and Cultural Town of China, it was a regional maritime hub, center for emigration, emigrant market town, the administrative centre of Kaiping. Chikan town was founded in the year 1649 and was part of Xinhui County. Due to it being surrounded by the Tan River on all sides, it thrived in waterway transport. According to the 1991 town chronicle, a pier was present by the year 1676. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Chikan became the major regional maritime transportation hub in Kaiping county and, through its numerous ferries via the Tan river to Jiangmen, in the Pearl River Delta; this came to an end upon the silting of the Tan River in the 20th century. As a riverport, Chikan became a center for emigration from the Tan river catchment area in the late 19th century, pushed by increasing population pressure, rural poverty and civil disorder, pulled by opportunities elsewhere and overseas. In the early 20th century, Chikan grew from a rural market for nearby villages of two competing clans, the Guan and the Situ, to an emigrant market town for all comers.
In 1907 the Chikan Chamber of Commerce was founded jointly by a Situ. The rapid growth of Chikan was fueled by local merchants prospering from trade along the Tan, emigrants investing in the local shops, in modern roads to supplant the Tan River trade route, in new local schools, young locals graduating from modern schools. In addition to investing, emigrants started to return. Thus, by the 1930s, Chikan became one of the largest market towns in South China with about 1,000 shops, the vast majority of them operated by emigrants or their families. Chikan is located on the Tan River near the geographical center of Kaiping, about 12 kilometres southwest of Kaiping city center. Chikan is located between the Majianglong diaolous. Main roads that run through the town include Dixi Lu and Didong Lu on either sides of the Tan river, Er Malu and Zhonghua Lu. There are 19 villages within Chikan as of 2013. There are over 600 late-Qing and early-Republic historic Tong laus or Qilous spanning over a length of 3 kilometers in the old town of Chikan.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, Chikan was a regional market town, a center for emigration abroad, a melting pot of ideas and trends brought back by overseas Chinese, "Huaqiao". As a consequence, many qilou built during that period in Chikan incorporated architectural features from China and the West and were examples of the Qiaoxiang architecture; as a result of the concentration of historical buildings in Chikan, part of the old town was made into Chikan Studio City in 2005, for filming of historical scenes. Movies least filmed in Chikan Studio City include The Grandmaster and Drunken Master II. Jinghui Lou is a Qilou on Dixi Road and was the former residence of Zhang Jinghui, a noted clinic in the early 20th century. Now converted into a museum. There are about 200 diaolous still standing in Chikan township, most built during the early 20th century chaos, most abandoned and in need of restoration; the oldest extant diaolou in Kaiping is found in northeast Chikan township, one restored diaolou is located right in Chikan town.
Nan Lou is a defensive diaolou in Chikan. Seven Situ Clan members fought against Japanese invasion into Chikan atop Nan Lou for 7 consecutive days, they were only killed after the invading Japanese fired poison gas. A monument was built on the Tanjiang riverside in their memory. Yinglong Lou, one of the earliest Diaolou in Kaiping, was built by the Guan clan during Jiaqing years of the Ming dynasty in the village of Sanmenli in northeast Chikan township. Unlike the thousands of high tower diaolous constructed in the 20th century, Yinglong Lou is a massive three-storey rectangular fortress with one-meter thick walls and is not influenced by western architectural styles, it was rebuilt in 1919 with grey bricks and new roof, it stands 11.4 meters high. In 2007 it was included in the "Kaiping Diaolou & Villages", collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Canada Village was known as Yaohua Fang, when the "new" village, located south of Sanmenli, was established in 1923 by oversea Chinese returned from Canada.
The ten houses and one five-storey diaolou watch tower were built integrating foreign and local architectures. Since many of its villagers now reside in Canada, it has become colloquially known as Canada Village. In 2007 it was included in the "Kaiping Diaolou & Villages", collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Chikan town was largely ran by two clans, the Situ and the Guan, who resided in the lower and upper reaches of the Tan River; the two were under constant rivalry and competition. In 1923 the Situ clan built their own, though public, "Situ's Library", which opened in 1926, costing more than 30,000 silver dollars. To save their reputation, the Guan clan built their own "Guan's Library", which opened in 1931, at a similar scale to Situ's. Both libraries were funded by overseas Chinese in the 1920s and incorporated architecture features including large clocks from overseas. With the ascent of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the influence of the two clans began to wane.
By 1958 both the Situ and Guan libraries were converted to gove
Guanghai is a town in Taishan Prefecture in Guangdong, China. Interactive China province map with more. Scenes of Guanghai Town Map of Guanghai Town
Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year. This makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh; the provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015. Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China. However, the archipelagos of Pratas in the South China Sea are controlled by the Republic of China, were part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War.
Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2017 reached 1.42 trillion US dollars, making its economy the same size as Mexico. The province contributes 12% of the PRC's national economic output, is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou. "Guǎng" means "wide" or "vast", has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. The name "Guang" came from Guangxin, an outpost established in Han dynasty near modern Wuzhou, whose name is a reference to an order by Emperor Wu of Han to "widely bestow favors and sow trust". Together and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù and Guǎngnán Xīlù, which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù and Guǎngxī Lù. "Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão, refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries.
The local people of the city of Guangzhou and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital; the Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta 7,000 years before present, with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP, the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP. In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was introduced from the middle Yangtze River area. In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present; the Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture, which occurred from 4600–4200 BP. Inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue, the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou.
The region was a independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE; as time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong shifted to Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s; as more migrants arrived, the local population was assimilated to Han Chinese culture or displaced.
Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit, or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song dynasty. "Guangnan East" is the source of the name "Guangdong". As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou; the defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty. During the Mongol Yuan dynas
Kaiping romanized in Cantonese as Hoiping, is a county-level city in Guangdong Province, China. It is located west of the Pearl River Delta and administered as part of the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen; the surrounding area Sze Yup, is the ancestral homeland of many overseas Chinese in the United States. Kaiping has an area of 1,659 square kilometres; the locals speak a variant of the Toishan dialect. During the Northern Song dynasty, Kaipjng was under the administration of Xin'an county (信安縣） Under the Qing, Kaiping County made up part of the commandery of Zhaoqing, it was promoted to county-level city status in 1993. Administratively, Kaiping is administered as part of the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen. Kaiping city centre is located on the Tanjiang River, 140 kilometres away from Guangzhou, on the edge of the county Kaiping west of the Pearl River Delta. Kaiping consists of broken terrain either rocky or swampy, with only a third of the land arable; the county is shaped like a giant question mark and includes rural areas as well as three port cities: Changsha and Dihai.
Kaiping Diaolous are fortified multi-storey towers constructed in the village countryside of the Kaiping area. They were built from the early Qing Dynasty to the early 20th century, reaching a peak in the 1920s and 1930s, with the financial aid of overseas Chinese, when there were more than three thousand of these structures. Today 1,800 diaolou are still standing, with the most in the towns of Tangkou, Baihe and Xiangang, in that order. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Kaiping was a region of major emigration abroad, a melting pot of ideas and trends brought back by overseas Chinese, made good; as a consequence, many watchtowers incorporated architectural features from the West. These were examples of the Qiaoxiang architecture; the diaolou were built by villagers during a time of chaos and served two purposes: housing and protecting against forays by bandits. In 2007, the Kaiping diaolou and villages were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and consist of four separate restored village areas: Zilicun village in Tangkou, Sanmenli village in Chikan, Jinjiangli village in Xiangang, Majianglong village cluster in Baihe township.
The Kaiping diaolou was the location for parts of the filming of 2010 movie Let the Bullets Fly. Examples of diaolous include: Yinglonglou, oldest extant diaolou in Kaiping, in the village of Sanmenli built by the Guan lineage during the Jiajing era of the Ming dynasty, is a massive three-storey fortress with one-meter thick walls, in contrast with the high tower diaolou built much with the aid of Huaqiao. Jinjiangli Diaolou Cluster, situated behind Jinjiangli Village, includes three exquisite diaolous: Ruishi Lou, Shengfeng Lou, Jinjiang Lou. Ruishi Diaolou, constructed in 1921, is the tallest diaolou in Kaiping, it features a Roman dome. The Majianglong diaolou cluster is spread across five villages in a bamboo forest: Yong'an and Nan'an Villages of the Huang family. Zilicun Diaolou Cluster, located in Zilicun Village, includes nine diaolous, the largest number among the four Kaiping villages designated by UNESCO, they feature the fusion of Chinese and various Western architectural styles and rise up surrealistically over the rice paddy fields.
Fangshi Denglou - Built in 1920 after contributions from villagers, this denglou is five storeys high. It is referred to as the "Light Tower" because it had an enormous searchlight as bright as the beam of a lighthouse. Li Garden, in Beiyi Xiang, was constructed in 1936 by Mr. Xie Weili, a Chinese emigrant to the United States. Bianchouzhu Lou, located in Nanxing Village was constructed in 1903, it has seven floors. Nan Lou, or the "Southern Diaolou", located on the riverbank in Chikan township, known for seven local soldiers by the surname Situ who died defending Chikan from the Japanese. Chikan is designated as a National Historic and Cultural Town of China; the old town of Chikan has many historical sites. For example, it has over 600 late-Qing and early-Republic historic Tong laus or Qilous continuous, spanning over a length of 3 kilometers, including the riverside stretch along Dixi Lu, sometimes referred to as'European Styled Street'. Part of old Chikan town has been designated Chikan Studio City for filming of historical scenes.
Chikan township has two restored diaolous: Yinglonglou, built by the Guan lineage in the Ming dynasty, Nanlou, memorialized by the martyrdom of seven Situ clan members in the early 20th century. Chikan has been shaped by these two competing clans. One example is the existence of two libraries: the Situ's library, opened in 1926, not to be outdone, the Guan's library, opened in 1931, it is a well-known location for braised pork in noodles to locals. Chikan is to become a tourist destination and the closing of local stores, dining posts, streets are scheduled for the summer of 2017. Kaiping has been twinned with Mesa, United States, since October 18, 1993. Kaiping was a major source of emigrants at the turn of the 20th century; as a resu