Sanjak of Novi Pazar
The Sanjak of Novi Pazar was an Ottoman sanjak, created in 1865. It was reorganized in 1880 and 1902; the Ottoman rule in the region lasted until the First Balkan War. The Sanjak of Novi Pazar included territories of present-day northeastern Montenegro and southwestern Serbia including some northern parts of Kosovo; the region is known as Raška, called Sandžak. During the Middle Ages, Raška was one of the central regions of Medieval Serbia. Incursions by Ottoman Turks began in late 14th century, following the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 and the creation of the Turkish frontier march of Skopje in 1392; the final conquest of the Raška region occurred in 1455, when Isa-Beg Isaković, the Turkish governor of Skopje, captured the south-western parts of the Serbian Despotate. At first, Raška was included in the frontier march of Skopje, the governor of which, Isa-Beg Isaković, decided to create a new stronghold near the old market site of Staro Trgovište; the new site was therefore called Novi Pazar. Isaković built a mosque here, a public bath, a hostel, a compound.
Novi Pazar belonged to the Jeleč vilayet of the Skopsko Krajište. Other vilayets were Sjenica. By 1463, the region had been incorporated into the newly created Sanjak of Bosnia; the seat of the kadı was subsequently transferred from Jeleč to Novi Pazar not long before 1485, from that time the city became the most important centre in the southeastern parts of the Bosnian Sanjak. The region of Novi Pazar remained part of the Sanjak of Bosnia until 1864. Following the promulgation in 1864 of the Vilayet Law and the reorganization of the Eyalet of Bosnia in 1865, the region of Novi Pazar became a separate sanjak with its administrative seat in the city of Novi Pazar, it comprised the kazas of Yenivaroş, Mitroviça, Trgovište, Kolaşin, Taşlıca. The Sanjak of Novi Pazar belonged to the Vilayet of Bosnia, prior to becoming a part of the newly established Kosovo Vilayet in 1878, it included most of the present day Sandžak region – known as Raška – as well as northeastern parts of Montenegro and some northern parts of Kosovo.
At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Andrássy obtained, in addition to the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the right to station garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, which remained under Ottoman administration. The Sanjak continued to separate Serbia from Montenegro, it was envisaged that the Austro-Hungarian garrisons there would open the way for a dash to Salonika aimed at "bring the western half of the Balkans under permanent Austrian influence." "High military authorities desired immediate major expedition with Salonika as its objective." On 28 September 1878 the Finance Minister, Koloman von Zell, threatened to resign if the army, behind which stood the Archduke Albert, were allowed to advance to Salonika. In the session of the Hungarian Parliament held on 5 November 1878 the Opposition proposed that the Foreign Minister should be impeached for violating the constitution by his policy during the Near East Crisis and by the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
The motion was lost by 179 to 95. The gravest accusations were raised against Andrassy were file. On 10 October 1878 the French diplomat Melchior de Vogüé described the situation as follows: Particularly in Hungary the dissatisfaction caused by this "adventure" has reached the gravest proportions, prompted by that strong conservative instinct which animates the Magyar race and is the secret of its destinies; this vigorous and exclusive instinct explains the historical phenomenon of an isolated group, small in numbers yet dominating a country inhabited by a majority of peoples of different races and conflicting aspirations, playing a role in European affairs out of all proportions to its numerical importance or intellectual culture. This instinct is to-day awakened and gives warning that it feels the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to be a menace which, by introducing fresh Slav elements into the Hungarian political organism and providing a wider field and further recruitment of the Croat opposition, would upset the unstable equilibrium in which the Magyar domination is poised.
This Austro-Hungarian expansion southward at the expense of the Ottoman Empire was designed to prevent the extension of Russian influence and the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In order to counter the Austro-Hungarian influence in the region of Raška, the Ottoman government made a new administrative change: the Sanjak of Novi Pazar was removed from the Bosnia Vilayet and attached to the Kosovo Vilayet, established in 1877. Further administrative changes soon followed. In 1880, the entire western part of Novi Pazar Sanjak was reorganized and a separate Sanjak of Pljevlja was established there, which included the kazas of Pljevlja and the mundirate in Priboj. Another important administrative change was made in 1902, when the kaza of Novi Pazar was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Sanjak of Priština, the rest of Novi Pazar Sanjak was reorganized as the Sanjak of Sjenica, which included the districts of Sjenica, Nova Varoš, Bijelo Polje, Lower Kolašin (part of modern Bijelo Polje and Moj
The Eyalet of Egypt was the result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516. Egypt was administered as an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 until 1867, with an interruption during the French occupation of 1798 to 1801. Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluks, the Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries; as such, Egypt remained semi-autonomous under the Mamluks until it was invaded by the French forces of Napoleon I in 1798. After the French were expelled, power was seized in 1805 by Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian military commander of the Ottoman army in Egypt. Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty remained nominally an Ottoman province, it was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state or Khedivate in 1867. Isma'il Pasha and Tewfik Pasha governed Egypt as a quasi-independent state under Ottoman suzerainty until the British occupation of 1882.
The Khedivate of Egypt remained a de jure Ottoman province until 5 November 1914, when it was declared a British protectorate in reaction to the decision of the Young Turks of the Ottoman Empire to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. After the conquest of Egypt in 1517, the Ottoman Sultan Selim I left the country. Grand Vizier Yunus Pasha was awarded the governorship of Egypt. However, the sultan soon discovered that Yunus Pasha had created an extortion and bribery syndicate, gave the office to Hayır Bey, the former Mamluk governor of Aleppo, who had contributed to the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Marj Dabiq; the history of early Ottoman Egypt is a competition for power between the Mamluks and the representatives of the Ottoman Sultan. The register by which a great portion of the land was a fief of the Mamluks was left unchanged, allowing the Mamluks to return to positions of great influence; the Mamluk emirs were to be retained in office as heads of 12 sanjaks. Six regiments were constituted by the conqueror Selim for the protection of Egypt.
It was the practice of the Sublime Porte to change the governor of Egypt at short intervals, after a year or less. The fourth governor, Hain Ahmed Pasha, hearing that orders for his execution had come from Constantinople, endeavoured to make himself an independent ruler and had coins struck in his own name, his schemes were frustrated by two of the emirs whom he had imprisoned and who, escaping from their confinement, attacked him in his bath and attempted to kill him. In 1527, the first survey of Egypt under the Ottomans was made, the official copy of the former registers having perished by fire. Egyptian lands were divided into four classes: the sultan's domain, land for the maintenance of the army, lands settled on religious foundations; the constant changes in the government seem to have caused the army to get out of control at an early period of the Ottoman occupation, at the beginning of the 17th century mutinies became common. The reason for these mutinies was the attempt made by successive pashas to put a stop to the extortion called the tulbah, a forced payment exacted by the troops from the inhabitants of the country by the fiction of debts requiring to be discharged, which led to grievous ill-usage.
In 1609, something like civil war broke out between the army and the pasha, who had loyal regiments on his side and the Bedouins. The soldiers went so far as to choose a sultan, to provisionally divide the regions of Cairo between them, they were defeated by the governor Kara Mehmed Pasha, who, on 5 February 1610, entered Cairo in triumph, executed the ringleaders, banished others to Yemen, earning him the nickname Kul Kıran. Historians speak of this event as a second conquest of Egypt for the Ottomans. A great financial reform was effected by Kara Mehmed Pasha, who readjusted the burdens imposed on the different communities of Egypt in accordance with their means. With the troubles that beset the metropolis of the Ottoman Empire, the governors appointed thence came to be treated by the Egyptians with continually decreasing respect. In July 1623, an order came from the Porte dismissing Kara Mustafa Pasha, appointing Çeşteci Ali Pasha governor in his place; the officers met the deputy of the newly appointed governor and demanded from him the customary gratuity.
Meanwhile, Çeşteci Ali Pasha had arrived at Alexandria and was met by a deputation from Cairo telling him that he was not wanted. He returned a mild answer; the garrison of Alexandria attacked the castle and rescued the prisoner, whereupon Çeşteci Ali Pasha was compelled to reembark on his ship and escape. Shortly thereafter, a rescript arrived from Constantinople confirming Kara Mustafa Pasha in the governorship. Mustafa was s
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
The regency of Algiers, was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French. Situated between the regency of Tunis in the east and the Sharifian Empire in the west, the Regency extended its borders from La Calle to the east to Trara in the west and from Algiers to Biskra, after spread to the present eastern and western borders of Algeria; the Regency was governed by beylerbeys, pashas and deys, was composed of various beyliks under the authority of beys: Constantine in the east, Medea in the Titteri and Mazouna Mascara and Oran in the west. Each beylik was divided into various outan with at their head the caïds directly under the bey. To administer the interior of the country, the administration relied on the tribes said makhzen; these tribes were responsible for securing order and collecting taxes on the tributary regions of the country. It was through this system that, for three centuries, the State of Algiers extended its authority over the north of Algeria.
However, society was still divided into tribes and dominated by maraboutics brotherhoods or local djouads. Several regions of the country thus only recognised the authority of Algiers. Throughout its history, they formed numerous revolts, tribal fiefs or sultanates that fought with the regency for control. Before 1830, out of the 516 political units, a total of 200 principalities or tribes were considered independent because they controlled over 60% of the territory in Algeria and refused to pay taxes to Algiers. From 1496, the Spanish conquered numerous possessions on the North African coast, captured since 1496: Melilla, Mers El Kébir, Bougie, Algiers, Shershell and Tenes. Around the same time, the Ottoman privateer brothers Oruç and Hayreddin—both known to Europeans as Barbarossa, or "Red Beard"—were operating off Tunisia under the Hafsids. In 1516, Oruç moved his base of operations to Algiers and asked for the protection of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, but was killed in 1518 during his invasion of the Kingdom of Tlemcen.
Hayreddin succeeded him as military commander of Algiers. Oruç, Hayreddin Barbarossa's brother, captured Algiers in 1516, apart from the Spanish Peñón of Algiers. Following the death of Oruç in 1518 at the hand of the Spanish in the Fall of Tlemcen, Barbarossa requested the assistance of the Ottoman Empire, in exchange for acknowledging Ottoman authority in his dominions. Before Ottoman help could arrive, the Spanish retook the city of Algiers in 1519. Barbarossa recaptured the city definitively in 1525, in 1529 the Spanish Peñon in the capture of Algiers. Hayreddin Barbarossa established the military basis of the regency; the Ottomans provided a supporting garrison of 2,000 Turkish troops with artillery. He left Hasan Agha in command as his deputy when he had to leave for Constantinople in 1533; the son of Barbarossa, Hasan Pashan was in 1544, when his father retired, the first governor of the Regency to be directly appointed by the Ottoman Empire. He took the title of beylerbey. Algiers became a base in the war against Spain, in the Ottoman conflicts with Morocco.
Beylerbeys continued to be nominated for unlimited tenures until 1587. After Spain had sent an embassy to Constantinople in 1578 to negotiate a truce, leading to a formal peace in August 1580, the Regency of Algiers was a formal Ottoman territory, rather than just a military base in the war against Spain. At this time, the Ottoman Empire set up a regular Ottoman administration in Algiers and its dependencies, headed by Pashas, with 3 year terms to help considate Ottoman power in the Maghreb. Despite the end of formal hostilities with Spain in 1580, attacks on Christian and Catholic shipping, with slavery for the captured, became prevalent in Algiers, were the main industry and source of revenues of the Regency. In the early 17th century, Algiers became, along with other North African ports such as Tunis, one of the bases for Anglo-Turkish piracy. There were as many as 8,000 renegades in the city in 1634. Hayreddin Barbarossa is credited with tearing down the Peñón of Algiers and using the stone to build the inner harbor.
A contemporary letter states: "The infinity of goods, merchandise jewels and treasure taken by our English pirates daily from Christians and carried to Allarach and Tunis to the great enriching of Mores and Turks and impoverishing of Christians" Privateer and slavery of Christians originating from Algiers were a major problem throughout the centuries, leading to regular punitive expeditions by European powers. Spain, France, all led naval bombardments against Algiers. Abraham Duquesne fought the Barbary pirates in 1681 and bombarded Algiers between 1682 and 1683, to help Christian captives. In the mid-1700s Dano-Norwegian trade in the Mediterranean expanded. In order to protect the lucrative business against piracy, Denmark–Norway had secured a peace deal with the states of Barbary Coast, it involved paying an annual tribute to the individual rulers and additionally to the States. In 1766, Algiers had dey Baba Mohammed ben-Osman, he demanded that the annual payment made by Denmark-Norway should be increased, he should receive new gifts.
Denmark–Norway refused the demands. Shortly after, Algerian pirates hijacked three Dano-Norwegian ships and allowed the crew to be sold as slave
The Yemen Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. In 1872, most of it became Yemen Vilayet after a land reform in the empire. In 1516, the Mamluks of Egypt annexed Yemen, they were challenged by the Zaidi Imam, Qasim the Great, by 1636, the Zaydi tribesmen had driven the Ottomans out of the country completely. Mustafa Pasha al-Nashshar Özdemir Pasha Mustafa Pasha al-Nashshar Kara Shahin Mustafa Pasha Mahmud Pasha Ridwan Pasha Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha Murad Pasha Hasan Pasha Ja'far Pasha Mehmed Pasha Ahmad Fadli Pasha Haydar Pasha Aydin Pasha Qansuh Pasha Governors of the eyalet in the 19th century: Mustafa Sabri Pasha Mehmed Sirri Pasha Bonaparta Mustafa Pasha Kürt Mehmed Pasha Babanli Ahmed Pasha Musullu Ali Yaver Pasha Babanli Ahmed Pasha Tacirli Ahmed Pasha Halepli Ali Pasha Topal Bursali Mehmed Redif Pasha Sanjaks of the Eyalet in the mid-19th century: Sanjak of Mokha Sanjak of Eharish Sanjak of Massu Yemen Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire Islamic history of Yemen
Timariot was the name given to a Sipahi cavalryman in the Ottoman army. In return for service, each timariot received a parcel of revenue called a timar, a fief, which were recently conquered plots of agricultural land in the countryside. Far less the sultan would grant a civil servant or member of the imperial family a timar. Non-military timar holders were obliged to supply the imperial army with soldiers and provisions; the timariots provided the backbone of the army as a whole. They were obligated to fight as cavalrymen in the Ottoman military; the timariots had to assemble with the army when at war, had to take care of the land entrusted to him in times of peace. When at war, the timariot had to bring his own equipment and in addition a number of armed retainers; the timariot was granted feudatory with the obligation to go mounted to war and to supply soldiers and sailors in numbers proportionate to the revenue of the appanage. The timariot owed personal service for his sword in time of war and for a certain sum of money owed a number of soldiers as a substitute.
The was bound to look after the land. When summoned for campaign the timariot and his cebelu had to present themselves with a cuirass; when a timariot failed to obey the summon he was deprived of his timar for two years. Timariots were expected to bring cebelus or men-at-arms as well as their own equipment on campaign, the number of cebelu being determined by revenue; the number of the sultan in the Timariot army fluctuated between 90,000 men. Timariots were themselves organized by sanjak-beys; the sanjak-beys were subordinate to the beylerbeyi and the sultan himself. This semi-feudal arrangement allowed for the Ottomans to organize large armies at once, thus making an imperial army from what was still a medieval economy; this system of using agricultural revenue to pay troops was influenced by a similar Byzantine practice and other near-Eastern states prior to the Ottoman Empire. During peace, timariots were expected to manage the lands; each timariot did not own the land, granted. All agricultural lands in the Empire that were considered state property could be granted as timars.
Timariots could be transferred when the sultan deemed it necessary. However, timariots were expected to manage the peasantry; the kanunname of each sanjak listed the specific amount of taxes and services that the timariot could collect. The central government enforced these laws rigorously, a sipahi could lose his timar for violating regulations; the timar-holders took precautions to keep peasants on their land and were owed certain labor from peasants, such as building a barn. The maximum amount of income from one timar was 9,999 akce per year, but most timariots did not make anywhere close to that. In the 1530s, 40 percent of timariots received less than 3,000 akce in revenue. Higher ranking officers could receive a ziamet or a has, depending on importance; the number of men and equipment the timariotes had to provide was dependent on the size of his land holdings. When the annual income of the holding was above 4.000 akçe the sipahi had to be accompanied by a soldier in a coat of mail, for income above 15.000 akçe by additional soldier for each additional 3.000 akçe.
Above a certain income of the timar the sipahi horse had to be equipped with armor of thin steel. Tents for different purposes e.g. for treasury, saddlery store, etc. had to be provided. This ensured that all equipment and troops for campaigns was determined in advance and Ottoman commanders knew the exact number of their forces for mobilization; when the Ottomans conquered new territory, it was common practice to grant timars to the local aristocracy of conquered lands. The Ottomans eased the burden of conquest; the first group of timars in the Balkans had a strong Christian majority, but the Christian sipahis disappeared due to dispossession or conversion to Islam. Timar-status could be inherited, but the pieces of land were not inheritable to avoid the creation of any stable landed nobility. Timars were not hereditary until a decree was passed in 1585; those who vied for timar status were fiercely competitive and the barrier to entry was high. The sipahis were in constant competition for control of the Ottoman military with the janissary class.
Douglas, Harry. "The Ottoman'timar' system and its transformation, 1563-1656". ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. Indiana University; the Cambridge History of Turkey Volume 2: the Ottoman Empire as a World Power 1453-1603. Cambridge University Press. 2012. İnalcık, Halil, ed.. The Ottoman Empire: Conquest and Economy. Cambridge University Press. İnalcık, Halil. An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57456-0. Two volumes