Eshkolot is a secular Israeli settlement in the southern Judaean Mountains of the West Bank. Located around five kilometers from Lahav, it is organized as a community settlement and falls within the jurisdiction of the Har Hebron Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 521; the international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. The village was first established in 1982 as a Nahal settlement and was turned over to civilians in 1991; the name of the city is taken from the well known vineyards in Hebron. Some of its residents own lands and farming wheat, grapes, olives and pomegranates and some few dates while others work in other places, in particular Beersheba. There are two local wineries being built. Eshkolot Negev Information Centre
Judea and Samaria Area
Judea and Samaria Area is the Israeli government term for the administrative division encompassing Israeli-occupied West Bank excluding East Jerusalem. It is for some purposes regarded by Israeli authorities as one of its administrative regions, although the international community considers the West Bank to be a territory held by Israel under military occupation; the Judea and Samaria Area covers a portion of the territory designated by the ancient names Judea and Samaria. Samaria corresponds to part of the ancient Kingdom of Israel known as the Northern Kingdom. Judea corresponds to part of the ancient Kingdom of Judah known as the Southern Kingdom. Following the occupation of the West Bank, ruled by Jordan, by Israel in 1967, the Israeli right began to refer to the territories by their Hebrew names and argued for their integration into Israel on historical, religious and security grounds. In December 1967, the Israeli military government issued an order that stated: "the term'Judea and Samaria region' shall be identical in meaning for all purposes to the term'the West Bank Region'" and had in early 1968 been adopted.
However, the phrase was used until 1977 when Menachem Begin, a proponent of extending Israel's sovereignty to the region, became prime minister. The phrase is still used today by various figures; the name Judea, when used in Judea and Samaria, refers to all of the region south of Jerusalem, including Gush Etzion and Har Hebron. The region of Samaria, on the other hand, refers to the area north of Jerusalem. East Jerusalem has been incorporated into the Jerusalem District and is under Israeli civilian rule, is thus excluded from the administrative structure of the Judea and Samaria Area; the terms "West Bank", or, alternatively, "the Territories", are current in Israeli usage. The Judea and Samaria Area is administered by the Israel Defense Forces Central Command, military law is applied. Administrative decisions are subject to the Command's chief; the incumbent chief of Central Command is Aluf Nitzan Alon. The future status of the region is a key factor in the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, adopted in November 1967, after Israel captured the region from Jordan in the Six-Day War, lists as its first principle "the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war and the need to work for a just and lasting peace in which every State in the area can live in security" and called for the "withdrawal of Israel armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict" in conjunction with the "termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force". The West Bank and Gaza Strip are considered occupied Palestinian territories by the United Nations, the United States, the International Court of Justice, the European Union, by non-governmental organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, B'Tselem.
The Supreme Court of Israel has considered the section of the West Bank which excludes East Jerusalem to be Israeli-occupied territories. On 13 May 2012, a bill to extend Israeli law to the Israeli settlements in the Judea and Samaria Area initiated by Knesset member Miri Regev first approved by the majority of the Ministerial Committee for Legislation was rejected in a second round of votes after prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu had instructed his ministers to vote against the bill. Extending Israeli law to the settlements would mean a de facto annexation of the settlements to Israel. In July 2012, a government-commissioned report from a three-member committee, called Levy Report, based on a number of reasons, that there is no legal basis under international law to refer to Judea and Samaria as "occupied territory". Article 43 of the Fourth Hague Convention of 1907 is the basis of the Levy committee's opinion; the area is further divided into 8 military administrative regions: Menashe, HaBik'a, Efrayim, Maccabim and Yehuda.
1949 Armistice Agreements Israeli Civil Administration List of burial places of biblical figures State of Judea Yesha Council Regulation Law Civil Administration in Judea and Samaria at the COGAT website "The Territories": Part 1, Part 2. Jewish Agency for Israel Judea and Samaria at Curlie
Regional council (Israel)
Regional councils are one of the three types of Israel's local government entities, with the other two being cities and local councils. As of 2019, there were 54 regional councils responsible for governing a number of settlements spread across rural areas. Regional councils include representation of anywhere between 3 and 54 communities spread over a large area within geographical vicinity of each other; each community within a regional council does not exceed 2000 in population and is managed by a local committee. This committee sends representatives to the administering regional council proportionate to their size of membership and according to an index, fixed before each election; those settlements without an administrative council do not send any representatives to the regional council, instead being dealt by it directly. Representatives from those settlements which are represented directly are either chosen directly or through an election; the predominant form of communities represented on regional councils are moshavim.
The following sortable table lists all 53 regional councils by name, the district or area according to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. The list includes the regional councils in the Golan Heights and the West Bank, areas considered occupied territories under international law, although the Israeli government disputes this. City council Local council List of Israeli cities Local Government in Israel; the Knesset Lexicon of Terms. 2009
Livne known as Shani is an Israeli settlement. Located in the southern Judaean Mountains, straddling the Green Line and therefore in Israel and in the West Bank, it is organised as a community settlement and falls under the jurisdiction of Har Hevron Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 540; the international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. Livna was a city & periphery mentioned in the Book of Joshua as being allocated by Joshua and Elazar to the Kohen descendants of biblical Aaron. Modern-day Shani-Livne was established in 1982, It is located on the outskirts of Yatir Forest. With residents moving into permanent housing in 1989; the community was renamed Shani in memory of Shani Shacham, the son of former members killed in the line of duty. Residents working in Beer Sheva, Arad, at the Dead Sea factories, communities of Hebron Regional Council, in the central region; the Yatir region is known among Israelis for its grapes and wine
Carmel, Har Hebron
Carmel is an Israeli settlement in south-east Har Hebron area of the West Bank, close to the Palestinian villages of Umm al-Kheir, who settled there several decades ago after Israel expelled them from the Arad desert, who purchased the land from residents in the Palestinian village of Yatta. According to David Shulman, Carmel lies on lands appropriated from the Bedouin of that village, it falls under the jurisdiction of the Har Hebron Regional Council and associates ideologically with the Amana settlement movement. In 2017 it had a population of 422; the international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. The name Carmel was chosen due to the moshav's close proximity to the location of Biblical Carmel, the home of Nabal. Carmel is mentioned in 1 Samuel 25:2 as the home of Nabal; the new settlement is expanding, according to one commentator,'continuing to usurp the land of its neighbors, who lived at the site decades before the settlers arrived.'
The moshav was founded in 1980, next to the land on which the Hadaleen Bedouin tribe live, as a Nahal military-establishment, was "civilianized" in 1981. Reuta Beth midrash was established in 2001, a hesder yeshiva. According to Nicholas Kristof of The New York Times, Carmel is'a lovely green oasis that looks like an American suburb, it has kids riding bikes and air-conditioned homes. It has a gleaming, electrified poultry barn that it runs as a business.' Beyond its barbed wire fencing, the Bedouins of Umm al-Kheir in shanties are denied connection to the electricity grid, barns for their livestock and toilets, all attempts to build permanent dwellings are demolished. Elad Orian, an Israeli human rights activist, noted that the chickens of Carmel's poultry farm get more electricity and water than the Palestinian Bedouin nearby. Hammerman writes as follows: Right next to the stately country homes - complete with air-conditioning, drip-irrigation gardens and goldfish ponds - a few extended families including old men, old women and infants live in dwellings made of tin and plastic siding, though there are a few cinder-block structures, too.
They tread on barren ground. They have no running water, they are not connected to the power grid that lights up every settlement and outpost in this remote region. They have no access road
Telem, Har Hebron
Telem is a communal Israeli settlement in the West Bank. Located in the southern Judean Hills region, west of Kiryat Arba, it falls under the jurisdiction of Har Hevron Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 391; the international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. The settlement was established on 31 January 1982 as a pioneering Nahal military outpost and demilitarized only a year when turned over for residential purposes in the form of a non-religious cooperative village belonging to the Herut Betar movement. In 1995, with the assistance of the Amana settlement organization, houses were built. In 2004, a group of about twenty religious families joined the village in order to strengthen and build a mixed community. In the centre of the village, a Beit Midrash was established and named the'Netivot Dror Yeshiva' in memory of Dror Weinberg, an Israel Defense Forces army colonel who, as of 2007, was the highest ranking Israeli soldier to be killed during the Second Intifada.
The community still has agriculture including chicken coops. Its original name was Mitzpe Guvrin. Netivot Dror Yeshiva